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Selection of Unnecessary Urine Culture Specimens Using Sysmex UF-5000 Urine Flow Cytometer (Sysmex UF-5000 소변 유세포분석기를 이용한 요배양 불필요 검체의 선별)

  • Song, Duyeal;Lee, Hyun-Ji;Jo, Su Yeon;Lee, Sun Min;Chang, Chulhun L.
    • Annals of Clinical Microbiology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.75-79
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    • 2018
  • Background: Urine culture is one of the most frequently requested tests in microbiology. Automated urine analyzers yield much infection-related information. The Sysmex UF-5000 analyzer (Sysmex, Japan) is a new flow cytometry urine analyzer capable of quantifying urinary particles, including bacteria, WBCs, and yeast-like cells (YLCs) and can provide a Gram stainability flag. In this work, we evaluated how many unnecessary urine cultures could be screened out using the UF-5000. Methods: We compared the culture results of 126 urine samples among 453 requested urine cultures (from sources other than the Urology and Nephrology departments) with urinalysis results. Urine cultures were considered positive if bacterial or YLC growth was ${\geq}10^4CFUs/mL$. Results: We used urinalysis cut-off values of $50/{\mu}L$ and $100/{\mu}L$ for bacteria and YLC, respectively. Forty eight of the 126 (38.1%, or 10.6% of 453 requested) cultures were below these cut-off values and did not contain any culture-positive samples. Conclusion: Bacteria and YLC counts generated using the UF-5000 analyzer could be used to screen out negative cultures and reduce urine culture volume by ~10% without sacrificing detection of positive cultures.

Effects of Oral D-Penicillamine in Treatment of Industrial Lead Poisoning (모 산업장에서 발생한 연중독자에 대한 D-Penicillamine의 치료효과)

  • Kim, Soon-Duck
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.131-137
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    • 1982
  • For the purpose of the curative effects of oral D-penicillamine in lead poisoning, D-penicillamine was orally administered to 7 lead poisoned workers which were employed in glaze product industry dealing with the lead oxide ($Pb_3O_4$). The doses of D-penicillamine was 1,200mg per day which was administered by oral 7days schedules, taking for 5 days and stopping for the following 2days, repeatedly during 3 months period. (All the poisoned workers started working again in that industry after 1 month treatment, and were treated by oral D-penicillamine for 2 months still being exposed to contaminated environment.) In order to evaluate the curative effects of D-penicillamine, 10gm of whole blood and 24 hours urine were collected every 14 days during the curative period for laboratory analysis(hemoglobin, blood lead, urine $\sigma$-aminolevulinic acid, urine coproporphyrin, and urine lead levels) with the observation of the clinical symptoms. The results were as follows; 1. Oral D-penicillamine effected good curative results as that hemoglobin, blood lead, urine $\sigma$-aminolevulinic acid, and urine coproporphyrin levels were decreased below the critical level within 1 month treatment. 2. After re-exposure, oral D-penicillamine effected to some extent as that urine lead level was decreased below the critical level after 3 months treatment with disappearence of the clinical symptoms after 2 months treatment. However, the curative effects of oral D-penicillamine in the lead exposure state is questionable since increasement of blood lead level and remarkable decreasement of urine lead level after 3 months treatment can be observed.

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Relationship between Workers′ Exposure to Airborne Chromium and Blood and Urine Chromium Levels in Plating Process (도금업체 근로자의 공기중 크롬 노출 농도와 요 및 혈중 크롬 농도간의 상관성)

  • 이지태;신용철
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to evaluate chromium in air and chromium concentrations in whole blood and urine of workers at chrome plating factories, and to determine the correlation between environmental and biological chromium levels. This study involved 29 workers as study group and 24 undergraduate students as control group. The geometric means(GM) of airborne hexavalent chromium and total chromium concentrations in the plating factories were 3.4 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ and 10.8 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥, respectively. Hexavalent chromium levels in two of total 29 measurements exceeded the korean occupational exposure limit and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value(ACGIH-TLV) of 50$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥. Only one sample for total chromium exceeded the Korea occupational exposure limits, the ACGIH-TLV, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Recommended Exposure Limits(NIOSH-REL) of 500 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥. The GM of chromium concentrations in blood and urine of workers exposed to chromium were 8.4 $\mu\textrm{g}$/L and 11.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/L. The GM of chromium concentrations in blood and urine of workers exposed to chromium were 8.4 $\mu\textrm{g}$/L and 11.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/L, respectively, whereas the chromium concentrations in blood and urine of the controls were 1.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/L and 3.8 $\mu\textrm{g}$/L, respectively. There were statistically significant differences of blood and urine concentrations between study group and control group (p<0.01). The chromium concentrations in urine were most highly related to hexavalent chromium, concentration in air(r=0.642, p<0.01). Also, there was a relatively high correlation between the hexavalent chromium concentrations in air and chromium concentrations in whole blood(r=0.557, p<0.05). These results indicate that whole-blood chromium with urinary chromium could be an indicator of chromium body burden caused by exposure to chromic acid mist in plating operation.

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The Usefulness of the 24hrs Urine 17-KS.17-OHCS as an Index for the Differentiation of Deficiency Syndrome of the Kidneys in Stroke Patient (뇌졸중 환자의 신허 진단 지표로서 24시간 요중 17-KS, 17-OHCS의 유용성에 대한 검토)

  • 노기환;조기호;문상관;고창남;김영석;배형섭;이경섭
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2001
  • Background and Purpose : Relationship between 17-KS.17-OHCS in 24hrs urine and Deficiency Syndrome of the Kidneys had been examined, but the study about 17-KS.17-OHCS in stroke patients was rare6'. In this study, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of 24hrs urine 17-KS.17-OHCS in stroke patients as an index for the Differentiation of Deficiency Syndrome of the Kidneys. Subjects : 66 stroke patients(male : female =2 9 : 37) were selected, they were admitted in the hospital of oriental medicine, Kyunghee university(from November 1 st, 1998 to May 30th, 2000). Their age was over 65 years. The patients who had renal malfunction, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism were excluded and who took chlorpromazine, spironolactone, digoxin, reserpine, hormonal agent were also excluded. Methods : After we selected the patients, we investigated the Differentiation of Syndrome by use of Diagnostic Paper and examined the level of 17-KS.17-OHCS in 24hrs urine. We compared Deficiency Syndrome with non-Deficiency Syndrome of the Kidneys using of 17-KS.17-OHCS in 24hrs urine. Results : 1. Stroke did not affect 17-KS.17-OHCS excretion in 24hrs urine. 2. In 24hrs urine, 17-KS of male stroke patients and 17-OHCS of female stroke patients were lower in patients diagnosed as a Deficiency Syndrome than non-Deficiency Syndrome of the Kidneys(p<0.05). 3. Among Deficiency Syndrome of Yin, Yang, Yang and Yin of the Kidneys group, there was no differentiation of 17-KS.17-OHCS in 24hrs urine(p>0.05).

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In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Cow Urine and Dung to Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae

  • Basak, A.B.;Lee, Min-Woong;Lee, Tae-Soo
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.51-54
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    • 2002
  • This paper deals with the study on comparative efficacy and in vitro activity of cow urine and cow dung for controlling root rot disease of cucumber caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae Snyder & Hansen following slide germination and mycelial growth inhibition tests. Results showed that both germination of conidia and the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth decreased or suppressed and varied greatly with respect to different hour and days of incubation and kind of bio-matters. In between two bio-matters cow urine was found more effective than that of cow dung in conidial germination. No germination of conidia was recorded after one hour of incubation in any medium whereas in cow urine germination of conidia was not also observed even after 2 hours of incubation. After 7 hours of incubation out of 200 conidia of F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae, 28 in cow urine and 64 in cow dung were germinated while in control a total germinated conidia was 185. In case of percentage inhibition of conidial germination the highest percentage(100%) was recorded in cow urine after 2 hours of incubation followed by 3 hours(96.0%), 4 hours(91.0%) and 6 hours(89.4%). During the test on inhibition of mycelial growth, the highest percentage(62.8%) was recorded in cow urine potato dextrose agar(CUPDA) medium tested after 4 days of incubation, followed by 3 days(60.5%), 5 days(56.5%) and 2 days(55.0%). In this test cow dung potato dextrose agar(CDPDA) had less efficacy in suppression of the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth.

Determination of Inorganic Mercury in Urine and Airborne by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (냉각증기 원자흡수분광법에 의한 뇨 및 공기중의 무기수은 정량에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Doe Suk;Oh, Se Min
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.136-143
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    • 1991
  • Inorganic mercury in urine and airborne was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Detailed sampling methods and analylical results are as follows : 1. 100~200ml of urine for each person was taken in 250 ml borosilicate bottle and $K_2S_2O_8$ (0.1g/100ml urine) was added to prevent bacterial contamination. About 1001 air of workingplace was absorbed in l0ml of absorbing solution. Urine samples and absorbing solution tubes were stored at $4^{\circ}C$. Dillution solution to prepare standard solution used deionized water (D.W) for urine and absorbing solution (A.S) for air. 2. 1n this procedure deteclion limit was 1ng/ml and mercury contents of blank reagent solution was 1~2ng/ml. 3. Calibration range was $0.02{\sim}0.1{\mu}g/ml$ and in this range r.s.d for each calibration curve in D.W and A.S and ${\pm}7.9%$ and ${\pm}3.7%$, respectively. 4. Repeatability (n=5 times, conc. $0.05{\mu}g/ml$) was ${\pm}5.8%$, in D.W. and ${\pm}4.4%$ in A.S, respectively. 5. Recovery for urine adding spiked concentration ($0.05{\mu}g/ml$) was about 90%. 6. Analytical result of samples was $1{\sim}139{\mu}g/l$ in urine and ${\sim}0.127mg/m^3$ in airborne.

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Development of Urine Strip for Detection of Leukocytes in Urine using Peroxidase (과산화효소를 이용한 백혈구 측정용 뇨 검사지 제조에 관한 연구)

  • 송은영;이홍수;김희정;김종완;최인성;변시명;정태화
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.199-209
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    • 1996
  • A new test strip to detect leukocytes using the myeloperoxidase in urine was developed. The reagent strip contains tetramethylbenzine, glucose and glucose oxidase. The detection limit was between 10 cells per 1$\mu$l urine(5 cells/hpf), showing greenish yellow color in the range of 10-25 cells/$\mu$l, green color in the range of 75-250 cells/$\mu$l, greenish blue color in the range of 500 cells/$\mu$l. The result can be obtained within two minute. The performance of the new method was evaluated by comparing the results of microscopic examination and other commercial products. Good correlations were shown between the values obtained by our urine strip and those by other commercial products with 172 urine samples. The results were proven that new methods were useful as primary screening reagents to detect leukocytes in urine.

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Comparison of Intelligent Color Classifier for Urine Analysis (요 분석을 위한 지능형 컬러 분류기 비교)

  • Eom Sang-Hoon;Kim Hyung-Il;Jeon Gye-Rok;Eom Sang-Hee
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.1319-1325
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    • 2006
  • Urine analysis is basic test in clinical medicine using visual examination by expert nurse. Recently, this test is measured by automatic urine analysis system. But, this system has different results by each instrument. So, a new classification algorithm is required for accurate classify and urine color collection. In this paper, a intelligent color classifier of urine analysis system was designed using neural network algorithm. The input parameters are three stimulus(RGB) after preprocessing using normalization. The fuzzy inference and neural network ware constructed for classify class according to 9 urine test items and $3{\sim}7$ classes. The experiment material to be used a standard sample of medicine. The possibility to adapt classifier designed for urine analysis system was verified as classifying measured standard samples and observing classified result. Of many test items, experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with test results of reference system.

1-OH-Pyrene and 3-OH-Phenanthrene in Urine Show Good Relationship with their Parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Muscle in Dairy Cattle

  • Kang, Hwan-Goo;Jeong, Sang-Hee
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.15-18
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    • 2011
  • The toxicities of phenanthrene (PH) and pyrene (PY) are less than benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), but both compounds are found in higher concentrations in the air, feed, and food. Most PAHs are metabolized to hydroxylated compounds by the hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxigenases system. Metabolites are excreted into urine and feces. We determined concentrations of PH, PY and BaP in muscle and hydroxylated metabolites, 3-OH-PH, 1-OH-PY, and 3-OH-BaP, respectively, in urine from dairy cattle (n = 24). We also evaluated the relationship between parent compounds in muscle and their metabolites in urine. Concentrations of PH and PY in muscle ranged from 0.7~4.8 ng/g ($1.8{\pm}1.7$) and 0.4~4.1 ng/g ($1.2{\pm}1.2$), respectively. Concentrations of 3-OH-PH and 1-OH-PY in urine ranged from 0.1~5.9 ng/ml ($2.9{\pm}3.7$) and 0.5~3.6 ng/ml ($1.9{\pm}2.3$), respectively. Correlation coefficient for PY concentration in muscle versus 1-OH-PY in urine was 0.657 and for PH concentration in muscle versus 3-OH-PH in urine was 0.579. Coefficient determination for PY and PH concentrations in muscle was 0.886 and for 1-OH-PY and 3-OH-PH in urine was 0.834. This study suggests that 1-OH-PY and 3-OH-PH could be used as biomarkers for PAHs exposure in dairy cattle.

Assessment of Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Exposure by Urinary Metabolites as a Function of Sampling Time

  • Park, Moon-Seo;Yang, Yun-Jung;Hong, Yeon-Pyo;Kim, Sang-Yon;Lee, Yong-Pil
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.301-308
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: In most DEHP exposure assessment studies, single spot urine sample was used. It could not compare the exposure level among studies. Therefore, we are going to represent the necessity of selection of proper sampling time of spot urine for assessing the environmental DEHP exposure, and the association urinary DEHP metabolites with steroid hormones. Methods: We collected urine and plasma from 25 men. The urine sampling times were at the end of the shift (post-shift) and the next morning before the beginning of the shift (pre-shift). Three metabolites of DEHP {mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [MEHP], mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate [MEHHP], and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate [MEOHP]} in urine were analyzed by HPLC/MS/MS. Plasma luteinzing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, and $17{\beta}$- estradiol were measured at pre-shift using a ELISA kit. A log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary MEHP, MEHHP, and MEOHP concentration were compared between the post- and pre-shift. The Pearson’s correlation was calculated to assess the relationships between log-transformed urinary MEHP concentrations in pre-shift urine and hormone levels. Results: The three urinary metabolite concentrations at post-shift were significantly higher than the concentrations in the pre-shift (p<0.0001). The plasma hormones were not significantly correlated with log-transformed creatinine - adjusted DEHP metabolites. Conclusions: To assess the environmental DEHP exposure, it is necessary to select the urine sampling time according to the study object. There were no correlation between the concentration of urinary DEHP metabolites and serum hormone levels.