• Title, Summary, Keyword: uterine involution

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Ultrasonographic Appearance of Postpartum Uterine Involution in Small Pet Dogs (소형 애완견에서 분만후 자궁수복의 초음파상)

  • 손창호;김혜령;김정훈;정경아;이주환;오기석;박인철;박상국;김성호
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2001
  • This study was undertaken to determine the normal serial ultrasonographic appearance of the postpartum uterine involution in small pet dogs (Yorkshire terrier and Maltese). Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were monitored by ultrasonography in 12 small pet dogs. Serial ultrasonographic examinations were done daily during the first week, 3 days interval from 8 to 30 days, and weekly from 31 to 100 days postpartum. The excretory period of vaginal discharge in 12 normal bitches of uterine involution was finished completely within 3 weeks postpartum. The short axis shape of the uterus was initially often flaccid-appearing. It varied from circular to polygonal. This lasted until 15.75$\pm$3.84 days postpartum, during which time the short axis uterine shape gradually changed to circular. Also, the long axis shape of the uterus was a beaded appearance until 30.89$\pm$4.25 days postpartum. After 30 days, it was appeared as tubular shape between placental and interplacental sites. The ultrasonographic image of the postpartum uterus consisted of four echogenicity distinct layers. Uterine wall was represented as very hyperechoic serosa, hypoechoic myometrium, hyperechoic endometrium and anechoic structures of fluid in the uterine cavity until 7 days postpartum. The individual uterine layers were most prominent during the first week postpartum, and they became progressively less distinct throughout the course of uterine involution. The thickness of myometrium was decreased rapidly in the placental sites from 4.47$\pm$1.42 mm at 1 day to 1.92$\pm$0.26 mm at 16 day, and in the interplacental sites from 3.19$\pm$0.61 mm at 1 day to 1.39$\pm$0.61 mm at 16 day. And it was decreased slowly until 94 day and was been minimum thickness at 94 day. The thickness of endometrium was also decreased like that of myometrium. The uterine diameter in the placental sites was decreased from 22.28$\pm$3.01 mm at 1 day to 16.11$\pm$1.46 mm at 7 day, and in the interplacental sites was decreased from 13.65$\pm$2.34 mm at 1 day to 9.41$\pm$1.59 mm at 7 day postpartum. From 7 day to 93 day, the change of diameter was more and more slow. At 94 days postpartum, the uterine diameter was 5~6 mm both placental and interplacental sites, and the uterine horns were uniform hypoechoic, tubular structures without enlargement. Therefore, complete involution of the uterus occurred at 94 days. It was concluded that normal post partum uterine involution in small pet dogs appeared to be completed 94 days postpartum by gross findings such as vaginal discharges, and by ultrasonographic findings, uterine shape and echogenicity.

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Serial ultrasonographic appearance of postpartum uterine involution in Korea Jin-do dogs (진도개에서 분만후 자궁수복의 연속적 초음파상)

  • Son, Chang-ho;Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Kim, Ki-won;Kang, Hyun-gu;Shin, Chang-rok;Park, In-chul
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.653-664
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    • 1999
  • This study was undertaken to determine the normal appearance of the postpartum uterine involution. Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were monitored with ultrasonography in 11 Korea Jin-do dogs. Serial ultrasonographic examination was done daily during the first week, 3 days interval from 8 to 30 days, and weekly from 31 to 100 days postpartum, respectively. Of 11 postpartum bitches, 10 bitches (90.9%) had normal involution and 1 bitch (9.1%) had subinvolution of the placental sites (SIPS) by gross findings, vaginal discharges, and by ultrasographic findings, uterine shape and echogenicity. The excretory period of vaginal discharges in 10 normal bitches of uterine involution was finished completely at $20.2{\pm}4.6$ days (Mean${\pm}$SD) postpartum, but in 1 SIPS at 50 days postpartum. The short axis shape of the uterus was initially often flaccid-appearing. It varied from circular to crescent shaped to polygonal. This lasted until $16.5{\pm}3.7$ days postpartum, during which time the short axis uterine shape gradually changed to circular. Also, the long axis shape of the uterus was created a beaded appearance of the horns until $29.9{\pm}3.2$ days postpartum. After 30 days, it was appeared as tubular shape without distinguished between placental and interplacental sites. The ultrasonographic image of the postpartum uterus consisted of four echogenicity distinct layers. Uterine wall was represented the very hyperechoic serosa, hypoechoic myometrium, hyper echoic endometrium and anechoic structures of fluid in the uterine cavity until 7 days postpartum. The individual uterine layers were most prominent during the first week postpartum, and they became progressively less distinct throughout the course of uterine involution. Anechoic structures of fluid in the uterine cavity was detected until $25.0{\pm}6.4$ days postpartum, after which time it was not reliably detected. The uterine diameter was decreased not only in the placental sites frorm $24.1{\pm}2.5mm$ at 1 day to $15.4{\pm}1.4mm$ at 7 days postpartum, but also in the interplacental sites $14.9{\pm}1.5mm$ at 1 day, $10.6{\pm}0.8mm$ at 7 days postpartum. There was a general trend of decreasing uterine diameter, which occurred more rapidly at the placental sites. At 31 days pastpartum, these diameter reached almost same size, after that time, they could be not distinguished between placental and interplacental sites. At 87 days postpartum, the uterine diameter was $5.6{\pm}0.6mm$ both placental and interplacental sites, and the uterine horns were uniform hypoechoic, tubular structures without enlargement. Therefore, complete involution of the uterus occurred at that time. It was concluded that normal postpartum uterine involution in Korea Jin-do bitches appeared to be completed around 87 days postpartum by gross findings such as vaginal discharges, and by ultrasonographic findings, uterine shape and echogenicity. Also ultrasonographic characteristics of the postpartum uterine involution were described. Therefore, these result suggest that ultrasonographic assessment is a reliable method for diagnosing the SIPS and uterine dysfunction, such as pyometra in bitch.

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Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Postpartum Uterine Involution Comparison in Small Pet Bitches (소형 애완견의 분만 후 자궁 수복의 연속적 초음파상 비교)

  • Mun, Byeong-Gwon;Park, Chul-Ho;Kim, Jae-Hong;Kim, Hee-Su;Kim, Bang-Sil;Lee, Ju-Hwan;Park, In-Chul;Kim, Jong-Taek;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Son, Chang-Ho;Oh, Ki-Seok
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out the normal serial ultrasonographic appearance of the postpartum uterine involution with small pet bitches. Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were monitored with ultrasonography in small pet bitches (Miniature Schnauzer, Cocker Spaniel and Shih-tzu). In the Miniature Schnauzer bitches, uterine diameter of the placental sites and interplacental sites were decreased from $24.31{\pm}1.65\;mm$ at 1 day to $13.56{\pm}0.76\;mm$at 7 day, and $15.19{\pm}1.28\;mm$ at 1 day to $10.41{\pm}0.76\;mm$ at 7 day postpartum. In the Cocker Spaniel, the placental sites and interplacental sites were decreased from $24.90{\pm}1.62\;mm$ at 1 day to $14.14{\pm}1.21\;mm$at 7 day, and $15.33{\pm}1.47\;mm$ at 1 day to $10.19{\pm}0.83\;mm$ at 7 day postpartum. In the Shih-tzu, the placental sites and interplacental sites were decreased from $23.96{\pm}1.55\;mm$at 1 day to $13.84{\pm}0.94\;mm$ at 7 day, and $14.93{\pm}1.29\;mm$ at 1 day to $9.98{\pm}0.84\;mm$ at 7 day postpartum. And uterine diameter was no statistically significant difference among bitches (p>0.05). At 67 days, the uterine diameter in Miniature Schnauzer bitches were 6~7 mm both placental and interplacental sites, and the uterine horns showed uniform hypoechoic, tubular structures without enlargement. In present study, the involution of the uterus was completed at 67 days after parturition in Miniature Schnauzer, and 65 days in Cocker Spaniel and the Shih-tzu. There were no significant differences of normal postpartum uterine involution between small pet bitches (p>0.05). In conclusion, the postpartum involution of small pet bitches appeared to be completed normally at 65~67 days after parturition and could be identified by gross findings such as vaginal discharges and ultrasonographic findings of uterine shape and echogenicity.

Experimental Production of Canine Pyometra by Inoculation with Escherichia coli into the Uterus (대양균 자궁내 접종에 의한 개의 자궁축농증 발증시험)

  • Kang Byong-kyu;Park In-chul;Park Nam-yong
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.819-827
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    • 1995
  • An attempt to reproduce pyometra by means of experimental uterine infection was conducted with the 10 mongrel hitches of the anestrus, proestrus, metestrus, and postpartum uterine involution stages. Organism used was hemoltic E. coli. origially isolated from uterine pus of a bitch that had the canine pyometra. One ml of broth culture containing $2{\times}10^6$ CFU was inoculated into the uterine horn with the uterine cervix ligated. Aか bitches were ovariohysterectomized at the 7th or 14th day after inoculation and the uterus was provided for macroscopic and microscopic observations. An experimental production of pyometra was successful in 7(70%) of 10 mongrel bitches, and the incidence of pyometra was seen 100% in the stage of anestrus, 100% in the stage of metestrus, 50.0% in the stage of pyomestrus, and 33.359 in the stage of uterine involution. Histologically, these uteri were characterized by the presence of cystic. endomeetrial hyperplasia(CEH) and acute endometritis superimposed on the cystic hyperplasia. And the pyometra with CEH could be seen 66.7% in metestrus 50% in anestrus, 33.3% in involution and in 0% in proestrus stage. Blood progesterone concentrations were showed as a normal range of the each stage of sexual cycle and any relationships between the progesterone concentrations and the incidence of pyometra were not observed.

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Serial Ultrasonographic Appearance of Postpartum Uterine Invoution in Shih-tzu Bitches (Shih-tzu 견에서 분만 후 자궁수복의 연속적 초음파상)

  • Oh Ki-seok;Kim Bang-sil;Jo Yang-tak;Ko Jin-sung;Hwang Sun-shin;Park Chul-ho;Kim Jong-taek;Park In-chul;Kim Young-hong;Son Chang-ho
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2005
  • This study was undertaken to determine the normal serial ultrasonographic appearance of the postpartum uterine involution. Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were monitored by ultrasonography in 10 Shih-tzu bitches. Serial ultrasonographic examination was done daily during the first week, 3 days interval from 8 to 30 days, and weekly from 31 to 100 days postpartum. All 10 postpartum bitches had normal involution by gross finding, vaginal discharges, and by ultrasonographic findings, uterine shape and echogenicity. The uterine diameter in the placental sites was decreased from $23.56{\pm}1.45$ mm at 1 day to $14.08{\pm}1.55$ mm at 7 day, and in the interplacental sites was decreased from $14.64{\pm}1.28$mm at 1day to $9.61{\pm}1.46$mm at 7 day postpartum. At 65 days postpartum the uterine diameter was 5-6 mm both placental and interplacental sites, and the uterine horns were uniform hypoechic, tubular structures without enlargement. Therefore, complete involution of the uterus occured 65 days. It was concluded that normal postpartum uterine involution in Shih-tzu bitches appeared to be completed 65 days postpartum by gross findings such as vaginal discharges, and ultrasonographic findings. And ultrasonographic characteristics of the postpartum uterine involution were described. Therefore, these result suggest that ultrasonographic assessment is a reliable method for diagnosing the subinvolution of placental sites and uterine dysfunction, such as pyometra in the bitch.

Serial Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Postpartum Uterine Involution in Miniature Schnauzer Dogs

  • Yeo, Woon-Chang;Kim, Bang-Sil;Yun, Chang-Jin;Park, Chul-Ho;Kim, Jung-Bae;Moon, Jin-San;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Oh, Ki-Seok;Son, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2007
  • This study was undertaken to determine the normal appearance of the postpartum uterine involution. Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were monitored with ultrasonography in 8 Miniature Schnauzer dogs. Vaginal discharge was observed visually during the 3 weeks of postpartum. A large amount of viscous dark green discharge changed progressively to a small amount of transparent discharge. In the uterine shape, the transverse images were crescent or polygonal at the beginning, but became circular after 16 days. At postpartum day 24, the longitudinal images of placental and interplacental sites were similar to each other The echogenicity of uterine structure was clearly distinguishable among the hyperechoic serous membrane, hypochoic myometrium, hyperechoic endometrium, and anechoic uterine contents during the first week postpartum, but afterward the interluminal boundaries and echogenicity became obscure gradually. In addition, the anechoic substance of the endometrial cavity was not observed after postpartum day 28. In the uterine diameter, the diameter of placental sites decreased markedly from 24 mm at the first day postpartum to 13 mm at day 7, and the diameter of interplacental sites decreased from 15 mm at postpartum day 1 to 10 mm at day 7. At postpartum day 65, the uterus (6.4 mm) changed little and had a uniform homogenous echo, and thus it was confirmed that uterine involution was completed at that time in Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on Uterine Involution and Ovarian Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

  • Lee, K.H.;Lee, Y.T.;Chen, T.C.;Yeh, C.C.;Chen, J.Y.;Liu, L.Y.;Chi, C.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.1247-1254
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    • 2013
  • The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of $1.2{\pm}0.6cm^3$, which was significantly lower than that of the control group, $2.3{\pm}0.8cm^3$ (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of $1.0{\pm}0.0$ in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, $1.5{\pm}0.5$ (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows.

Serial Ultrasonographic Appearance of Postpartum Uterine Involution in Cocker Spaniel Bitches (Cocker Spaniel 개에서 분만 후 자궁수복의 연속적 초음파상)

  • Hwang S. S.;Oh K. S.;Kim B. S.;Jo Y. T.;Park C. H.;Kim J. T.;Park I. C.;Park J. T.;Park S. G.;Son C. H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.271-277
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    • 2005
  • This study was undertaken to determine the normal appearance of the postpartum uterine involution. Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were monitored with ultrasonography in 8 Cocker spaniel bitches. The excretory period of vaginal discharges in 8 normal bitches of uterine involution was finished completely at 23.20$\pm$2.77 days (Mean$\pm$SD) postpartum. The short axis shape of the uterus was varied from polygonal to circular. This lasted until 1600$\pm$2.12 days Postpartum, during which time the short axis uterine shape gradually changed to circular. Also, the long axis shape of the uterus was created a beaded appearance of the horns until 25.60$\pm$2.51 days postpartum. The uterine diameter was decreased not only in the placental sites from 24.20$\pm$2.06mm at 1 day to 13.18$\pm$0.84mm at 7 days postpartum, but also in the interplacental sites 14.26$\pm$2.22mm at 1 day, 9.81$\pm$0.7mm at 7 days postpartum. There was a general trend of decreasing uterine diameter, which occurred more rapidly at the placental sites. In conclusion, normal postpartum uterine involution in Cocker spainel bitches appeared to be completed around 68 days postpartum by gross findings such as vaginal discharges, and by ultrasongraphic findings, uterine shape and echogenicity.

Effect of Lipopolysaccharides Treatment on Uterine Involution in Dairy Cows with Retained Placenta (후산정체 젖소에 있어서 Lipopolysaccharide의 처리가 자궁 회복에 미치는 영향)

  • Baek, K.S.;Park, S.J.;Park, S.B.;Lee, W.S.;Kim, H.S.;Jeong, G.Y.;Ki, K.S.;Suh, G.H.;Jeon, B.S.;Ahn, B.S.;Kim, T.I.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of intra-uterine infusion of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on uterine involution in dairy cows with retained placenta. The LPS isolated from Bacteroides helcogenes and Fusobaoterium varium was infused at the rate of 100 ug (n=11) and 200 ug (n=11) with 30 ml of phosphate buffer saline in each cow at 20 days post-partum. The cows in conrol group (n=11) with retained placenta were infused with 30 ml phosphate buffer saline in each cow at 20 days postpartum. Cross-sectional ultrasonography was performed at days 40 postpartum to examine uterine involution and exudate in the all dairy cows in study. The cows in control group have shown 45.5, 27.3 and 27.3% gravid horn with less than 30 mm (normal), $31{\sim}50mm$ (medium) and more than 51 mm (large) in diameter. Respective average values of gravid horn diameter in cows treated with LPS 200 ug were noticed 72.7, 18.2 and 9.1%. However, the gravid horn diameter in all the cows treated with 100 ug of LPS was less than 30 mm. The 18.2, 63.6 and 54.6% cows in the control, LPS 100 ug and LPS 200 ug, respectively, have shown no exudate in uterine cavity. However, the respective rates of small amount of exudate retention in uterine cavity were 45.5, 0.0, and 9.1%. Approximately 36.4% cows in all 3 treated groups have shown minute quantity of exudate. In conclusion, the LPS intra-uterine infusion promoted postpartum uterine involution in dairy cows with retained placenta.

Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Normal Porcine Postpartum Uterus (분만 모돈에서 자궁의 초음파상 평가)

  • 이재영;강성수;김일화;최석화
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.416-419
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    • 2000
  • Ultrasonographic appearance of the normal involution process of the porcine postpartum uterus was examined. Six, sows were used to determine the normal Ultrasonographic appearance of the involution postpartum uterus. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed daily from days one through eight, then on days 15 and 21 postpartum. Ultrasonographic the mean local uterine wall thickness was 12.00 mm on day one postpartum. By day 15 the mean total uterine wall thickness was about 7.21 mm and on day 21 postpartum the uterus was about 6.12 mm. From one day to five days postpartum, intraluminal contents were isoechoic to the endometrium. From 15 days to 21 days, the luminal 7ont7llts were of mixed echogenicity compared to the endometrillm.

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