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A Study on the Uterus in Korean Medical Literature based on its Meaning and Function (한의학(韓醫學) 문헌(文獻)에 나타난 자궁(子宮)에 대(對)한 고찰(考察) - 자궁(子宮)의 개념(槪念)과 기능(機能)을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Yoon, Eunkyung;Baik, Yousang
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.75-94
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : The uterus plays an important role in the woman's body. In Korean Medical literature, the uterus is mentioned in various contexts according to different perspectives on its meaning and function. An examination of these various contexts is crucial in understanding the meaning of the uterus and to better understand and approach woman's body. Methods : Aside from the most widely used term Jagung(子宮), there were various terms used to refer to the uterus. Based on a list of these terms, the Siku Qianshu collection of medical literatures was investigated. Contents related to the definition, shape, location, function were extracted and examined. Results : Among the findings, first, there were various terms referring to the uterus similar to contemporary understanding. Some of them referred to the uterus as a whole, while others referred to specific parts, one of which is the placenta. Some reflected a broader perspective on the meaning of the uterus. Second, the functions of the uterus could be summarized as gate keeping, and the maintenance of uterine environment that is related to menstruation, pregnancy, and childbirth. Third, based on the examination of the meaning of the uterus and its functions, perspectives on the uterus in Korean Medicine could be summarized into two. Conclusions : One viewed uterus as an organ dedicated to reproduction, similar to today's common understanding. According to this view, uterus is a special organ specific to women, which functions as an incubator for the fetus. The other viewed the uterus as an intangible source of life in the woman's body. As a general source of life to all human beings, it is not a passive organ but functions as an active source in woman's life phenomena. The two perspectives are not in conflict, but rather reflect the broad range of thought on the concept of the uterus in Korean Medicine. In today's biomedical society, the diversity and flexibility of these perspectives could shed light on medical practices that have resulted from extreme views on the woman's body.

Supplemental studies on the adrenotropic receptors of the rat uterus (백서자궁(白鼠子宮)의 Adrenotropic Receptor에 관(關)한 추보(追補))

  • Hong, Ki-Whan;Kim, Kyu-Tae;Lee, Chong-Sa
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 1967
  • Supplemental studies were made on the adrenotropic receptors of the rat uterus, using adrenergic activators such as phenylephrine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol and adrenergic blocking agents such as phenoxybenzamine and inderal. The studies have revealed the following results : 1. Phenylephrine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol inhibited the spontaneous motility of the isolated rat uterus in the following order : Isoproterenol>epinephrine>norepinephrine>phenylephrine. 2. The inhibitory responses of the isolated rat uterus to phenylephrine and epinephrine were abolished by the pretreatment with phenoxybenzamine. 3. The inhibitory responses of the isolated rat uterus to isoproterenol and epinephrine were not affected by phenoxybenzamine. 4. The motility of the isolated rat uterus pretreated with inderal was stimulated by phenylephrine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. 5. The inhibitory responses of the isolated rat uterus to isoproterenol were abolished by the pretreatment with inderal. 6. The motility of the isolated rat uterus pretreated with inderal and phenoxybenzamine was not affected by phenylephrine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. 7. It is, therefore, concluded that the rat uterus has both alpha excitatory and beta inhibitory receptors, with beta inhibitory receptors predominating.

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Experimental Studies on Uterine Catecholamines (Catecholamines에 관(關)하여 -제5편(第五編) : 자궁(子宮) catecholamines에 관한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究)-)

  • Lee, Woo-Choo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.37-60
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    • 1983
  • The uterus receives adrenergic terminals from the mesenteric ganglia and considerably large amount of catecholamines have been shown to be contained in this organ. On the other hand, the activities of epinephrine, norepinephrine or adrenergic nerve on uterine motility is so complicated that many controversial results have been reporter. Recently, a large number of reports concerning the changes of uterine catecholamines content have appeared, but little is known about the role of uterine catecholamines in their activities on uterine motility. The present experiments were undertaken to determine the significance of the intrinsic uterine catecholamines in the physiology of uterus. Female albino rabbits weighing approximately 2 kg were employed in this experiment. uterine strip3 were prepared and suspended in a constant temperature $bath(38^{\circ}C)$ containing 100 ml of Locke's solution aerated with 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide. Spontaneous motility was recorded on a smoked drum with an isotonic lever. The catecholamines concentration of the uterus was determined according to the Procedure described of Shore and Olin (1958). Human uterus obtained from patients was also used to determine the catecholam ines content of myometrium. Followings are summarized results. 1) On the non-pregnant rabbit uterine strips, epinephrine and norepinephrine significantly elevated the tonus and stimulated the spontaneous motility. Pretreatment with dichloroisoproterenol(DCI), an adrenergic beta-receptor blocker, enhanced the stimulatory activity of epinephrine or norepinephrine. On the other hand, pretreatment with dibenamine, an adrenergic alpha-receptor blocker, rendered the uterine muscle to exhibit inhibition after the administration of epinephrine or norepinephrine. Following the treatment with both DCI and dibenamine, epinephrine or norepinephrine produced no appreciable effects on the spontaneous motility of the uterus. These results suggest there exist both alpha and beta-adrenergic receptors in the uterine muscle and the response to epinephrine of the former is predominant over that of latter in the non-pregnant uterus of rabbits. The total catecholamines concentration of the non-pregnant uterus was $351\;m{\mu}g/g$ and the fractional concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were $125\;m{\mu}g/g(35.7%)$ and $226\;m{\mu}g/g$ respectively. It is interesting to note that the catecholamines content of uterus was characterized by a high fractional corcentration of epinephrine relative to norepinephrine. 2) On the pregnant rabbit uterine strips, the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine varied according to the period of pregnancy. The response to epinephrine of adrenergic beta receptor of uterus increased during pregnancy, and the effect of catecholamine was inhibitory in the early pregnancy but became stimulatory as the pregnancy progressed. This stimulating action on the uterine motility was found to occur through the action of norepinephrine. The uterine catecholamines concentration was markedly reduced during pregnancy. The catecholamines concentration was started to decrease in the early pregnancy, reached the lowest level in the mid-pregnancy and then started to increaae again in the late pregnancy when the total catecholamines content became the highest level of all. This increase of catefholamines in late pregnancy was chiefly due to the increase of norepinephrine. These results suggest that the uterine motility may be related to the catecholamines content, especially norepinephrine content in the uterus. 3) Bilateral oophorectomy of rabbits results in a marked shrink of the uterus in size. The spontaneous motility of the uterine segment of these animals was very weak and irregular. Norepinephrine produced inhibitory effect, whereas epinephrine was stimulatory or inhibitory effect on the uterine segment. The total catecholamines tontent in whole uterus was markedly reduced. The injection of estrogen into the oophorectornized rabbit increased the weight of uterus to approximately three times of that of oophorectornized animal. The apontaneous motility and the response to epinephrine and norepinephrine of the uterine segment were greatly enhanced. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine produced a marked stimulatory effects of the uterine motility. The uterine content of catecholamines, particularly epinephrine, was markedly increased. The injection of progesterone into the oophorectornized rabbit increaeed the weight of uterus to approximately 2.5 times of that of eophorectornized animal. The spontaneous motility of the uterine segment was weak and irregular. Epinephrine produced stimulatory effect at high concentrations but norepinephrine always prcdnced inhibitory effect on the uterine segment. The uterine content of catecholamines, particularly of norepinephrine, was markedly reduced. These results suggested that ovarian hormones play an important role not only on the growth and spontaneous norepinephrine of uterus but also on the catecholamines content and responee to epinephrine and norepinephrine of the uterus. 4) The intraperitoneal injection of reserpine(3 mg/kg) into the non-pregnant, pregnant and oophorectornieed rabbits markedly decreased the uterine content of catecholamines, particularly of the norepinephrine. The stimulatory response to epinephrine and. norepinephrine of the uterine segment of these reserpinized ratbits was markedly reduced whereas the inhibitory response to these catecholamines was enhanced. This finding further support the close relationship between the uterine catecholamines content and uterine response to epineptrire and norepinephrine. 5) In the human uterus, the concentration of epinephrine was actrally greater than that of norepinephrine and it was significantly greater during the proliferative phase of the menstrtal cycle. In the human pregnant uterus, the concentrations of toth epinephrine and ncrefinephrine were markedly reduced and showed about 45 percent rednction after 6-8 weeks of ectopic Pregnancy. At full term ana during labor, the concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine at placental sites were less than those found in the non-pregnant group. Of interest was the finding that the norepinephrine concentration of uterus from toxemic patients was two and half times higher than that of lower uterine segment of the nontoxemic pregnant individuals. Also the epinephrine concentraticn was slightly increaeed.

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Regulation of Cyclic AMP-Response Element Binding Protein Zhangfei (CREBZF) Expression by Estrogen in Mouse Uterus

  • Jang, Hoon
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2018
  • CREBZF (cAMP-response element binding protein zhangfei) is a member of ATF/CREB family, and which regulates various cellular functions by suppressing major factors with direct interaction. In this study, we have examined the expression of CREBZF on mouse endometrium during uterus estrous cycles and estrogen (E2) treatment. In uterus, CREBZF mRNA expression was higher than other organs and mRNA and protein of CREBZF was increased in proestrus phase and decreased in estrus phase. The expression of CREBZF in 3-weeks old mouse uterus was reduced by E2 injection in endometrium. In addition, the expression of progesterone receptor, a marker of E2 in ovariectomized mice was found to be strongly expressed in stroma, while CREBZF was only expressed in epithelium. Also, we conformed that E2-suppressed CREBZF was restored by co-injection of ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist. Overall, these results suggest that CREBZF is regulated by estrogen and involved in ER signaling pathway in mouse uterus.

Effects of HapKok (LI-4) , SamUmGyo (SP-6) Acupuncture on Uterine Motility and Cyclooxygenase-2 Manifestation in Rats (합곡(合谷), 삼음교(三陰交) 자침(刺鍼)이 백서(白鼠) 자궁(子宮) 운동(運動) 및 Cyclooxygenase-2 발현(發現)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Byung-Chul;Lee, Ho-Sub;Kim, Kyung-Sik;Lee, Geon-Mok;Na, Chang-Soo;Kim, Jung-Sang;Hwang, Woo-Jun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.187-208
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    • 2000
  • By the activation of ovary hormone, many morphological changes occur in the epithelial cell lines and muscle cells in rat uterus. These two cells in uterus are important to the implantation of embryo, maintaining pregnancy and starting parturition. One important change associated with the morphological change of these two cells in uterus is the change on prostaglandin(PG) metabolism. Its presence and synthesis in endometriurn and myometrium in uterus affects estrous cycle and the start of embryo implantation in uterus. It also performs as an important modulator in parturition. So the abnormally weak expression of PG causes difficulty during labor and over-expression causes pre-term labor. PG biosynthesis starts from either free or liberated arachidonic acids from membrane phospholipid by phospholipase. Such arachidonic acids are converted into PG catalyzed by Cyclooxygenase. Under normal physiological condition, Cyclooxygenase-1(COX-1) having 602 units of amino acids controls the synthesis of PG. It acts as a local hormone regulating vasomodulation of blood flow, flexible muscle movement, increasing the blood permeability and contributing the protective role in preserving integrity of the stomach lining and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced by the inflammation, pregnancy and increased its expression until parturition. Lipid metabolite like PG is located in uterine and expression of COX-2 increased with pregnancy. Increased expression of COX proteins in epithelial cells and myometrial cells are told to increase the muscle contractility in uterus but decreased right after the labor in rat. It is a good sign indicating that COX proteins are deeply related to the start of labor. Currently, Several studies report the use of PG and COX-2 inhibitor as medication for controlled abortion or to prevent pre-term labor but they entail various side-effects. Our study proposed to suggest use of acupuncture as an another mediator to control abortion or pre-term labor without causing unnecessary side-effects by those medicines. Two acupuncture sites, LI-4 & SP-6 were selected due to their known efficacy. From the immunohistochemical staining of COX-2, normal expression of COX-2 protein in nonpregnant SD rat's uterus revealed that COX-2 protein was primarily detected in the lumina epithelial lining and in the epithelial cell lining contacting the stromal cells. High resolution optical microscopic scanning revealed distinguishable staining in the myometrial mucosa. LI-4 acupuncture administered nonpregnant rat's uterus showed strong expression for COX-2 in endometrium contacted with lumina epithelial lining of rat uterus and in myometrial mucosa. Stromal cells showed more staining than untreated nonpregnant rat's uterus and stronger staining in stromal cells contacting myometrial layer compared to untreated nonpregnant rat's uterus. SP-6 acupuncture administered nonpregnant rat's uterus showed weak expression for COX-2 in myometrial layers and stromal cells but no staining was visible in lumina epitheliai and glandular epithelial cells. Few stromal cells and myometrial mucosa were positively stained for COX-2. Pregnant SD rat's uterus was also immunostained for COX-2 expression after 18 days of pregnancy. Unlike to untreated nonpregnant rat's uterus, luminal epithelial cells were not positively stained for COX-2 but stronger staining for COX-2 was revealed in stromal cells. LI-4 acupunctured SD rat's uterus had very strong expression of COX-2 in luminal epithelial lining. Few stromal cells showed stronger positive COX-2 staining and myometrial layers also showed more expression than untreated pregnant rat. SP-6 acupuncture administered pregnant SD rat's uterus showed positive expression of COX-2 in epithelial cells of luminal mucosa layer but weaker than that of LI-4 acupuncture treatment's case. However, strong positive staining was revealed in stromal mucosa and myometrial layers. Virgin SD rat's uterus motility index during LI-4 acupuncture was 66.52 % (Prob〉T = 0.0197) compared to its motility before the acupuncture treatment but the motility index was slighdy elevated up to 79.58 % (Prob〉T = 0.1175) after the acupuncture. During the SP-6 acupuncture treatment for 30 minutes, uterus motility index was 90.52 % (Prob〉T = 0.1832) showing lesser decrement but consequently reached similar motility index decreasal to 79.95 % (Prob〉T = 0.0215) after the acupuncture treatment as LI-4 showed. LI-4 acupuncture tend to be a quick treatment to reducing the uterus motility in a virgin rat but eventually both two acupuncture administration created very similar reduction of uterus motility seeing the index after the both acupunctures. The uterus movement monitored during the LI-4 acupuncture administered for 30 minutes, Pregnant SD rat showed decreased motility down to 77.90 % (Prob〉 T = 0.0076) compared to uterus motility before the acupuncture and it continuously decreased down to 71.81 %(Prob〉T = 0.0214) after the removal of needle. The statistical analysis using paired t-test showed significance difference for both two motility indexs at =0.05. SP-6 acupuncture administered to pregnant SD rat also had similar pattern of decreasing uterus motility index down to 74.70 % (Prob〉T = 0.1730) during the initial 30 minutes acupuncture administration and it was continuously lowered to 71.52 % (Prob〉T = 0.0155) after the acupuncture. The paired t-test resuit for SP-6 suggest prompt response of uterus motility index to the SP-6 acupuncture treatment but consequently reached same level of inducing the motility reduction as LI-4 at =0.05 level.

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Identification and Classification of the Muscarinic Receptors in the Uterus (자궁 무스카린수용체의 확인 및 분류)

  • Lee, Shin-Woong;Lee, Jeung-Soo;Park, Young-Joo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.220-229
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    • 1992
  • The muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of the dog unpregant uterus were characterized using $[^3H]quinuclidinyl$ benzilate(QNB) as a radioligand and the binding of muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists in the uterus was compared to that in the urinary bladder which contains almost exclusively the M2 receptors in order to determine the receptor subtypes in the uterus. $[^3H]QNB$ binding to uterus and bladder was rapid, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the saturation data gave linear plots and the Hill coefficients were close to unit, which indicated that each preparation contained a single population of specific binding sites for $[^3H]QNB$. The KD values(120 pM) for QNB were almost identical in both organs, whereas the $B_{max}$ value of 256 fmol/mg protein in the uterus was significantly different from that of 563 fmol/mg protein in the bladder. Muscarinic agonists and antagonists inhibited in a competitive manner the $[^3H]QNB$ binding to the same extent in both organs. The competition binding studies using antagonists(atropine and pirenzepine) exhibited a single binding site and this site had a low affinity for pirenzepine with the Ki value of about 330 nM. However, high and low affinity binding sites were observed with carbachol, methacholine and oxotremorine. These binding studies with agonists and antagonists did not show any differences in drug affinities between uterus and bladder. These results indicate that the muscarinic receptors in the uterus are M2 receptors which have a low affinity for pirenzepine.

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The Study on the Use of Angelicae Gigantis Radix in Uterus and Gynecology Part of Dongeuibogam (동의보감 胞門과 婦人門 처방 중 당귀 용례에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Hye-In;Yoo, Dong-Youl
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.40-53
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    • 2015
  • Objectives The purpose of this study is to report the gynecologic use of Angelicae Gigantis Radix in uterus and gynecology part of Dongeuibogam. Methods I searched prescriptions containing Angelicae Gigantis Radix in uterus and gynecology part of Dongeuibogam and analyzed the selected prescriptions to research the use of Angelicae Gigantis Radix in uterus and gynecology part of Dongeuibogam. Results Prescriptions containing Angelicae Gigantis Radix are utilized for 10 disease patterns in uterus part. The number of prescriptions containing Angelicae Gigantis Radix is 50 in uterus part. Prescriptions containing Angelicae Gigantis Radix are utilized for 29 disease patterns in gynecology part. The number of Prescriptions containing Angelicae Gigantis Radix is 90 in gynecology part. Angelicae Gigantis Radix was taken as a sovereign, minister drug of prescriptions containing Angelicae Gigantis Radix of uterus and gynecology part. In many prescriptions, Angelicae Gigantis Radix is used in the treatment of amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea in uterus part. Prescriptions containing Angelicae Gigantis Radix are used to treat not only female infertility but also male infertility in gynecology part. The Samul-tang is the most useful prescription which contains Angelicae Gigantis Radix. Conclusions Angelicae Gigantis Radix is an effectual medicinal herb for menstrual disease, vaginal discharge, pregnancy disease, postpartum disease. So I consider that it is necessary to study methods which improve convenience and effect of prescriptions containing Angelicae Gigantis Radix.

Effects of Cognitive Intervention on Myths about Uterus and Anxiety in Women Undergoing a Hysterectomy (인지적 중재가 자궁적출술을 받는 여성의 자궁에 대한 통념(myths)과 불안에 미치는 효과)

  • Oh, Jin-A
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cognitive intervention on myths about the uterus and anxiety in women undergoing a hysterectomy. Method: Subjects were admitted to G hospital in Busan for a hysterectomy. Of the subjects, 37 were in the experimental group and 36 were in the control group. Data was collected from December 1st, 2005 to February 28th, 2006. A hand-out, including knowledge about the uterus and the healing process, was used in the cognitive intervention. The tool for myths about the uterus had 10 questions developed by a researcher from previous research. In addition, the levels of anxiety(STAI) were measured. The data was analyzed by $x^2$-test, t-test, paired t-test, and pearson correlation coefficient with the SPSS 12.0/pc program. Results: After providing cognitive intervention, the level of belief in the myths about the uterus of the experimental group decreased significantly more than the control group. In addition, the level of anxiety of the experimental group decreased significantly more than the control group. There is a significant correlation between the myth about the uterus and anxiety. Conclusion: Cognitive intervention is a useful nursing intervention that decreases anxiety in women undergoing a hysterectomy. It is recommended to further use the appropriate cognitive intervention in nursing practice.

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Anorectal malformation with didelphys uterus: Extremely rare anomaly and successful neoanal sphincter reconstruction with gracilis muscle flap

  • Burusapat, Chairat;Hongkarnjanakul, Natthawoot;Wanichjaroen, Nutthapong;Panitwong, Sakchai;Sangkaewsuntisuk, Jiraporn;Boonya-ussadorn, Chinakrit
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.272-276
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    • 2020
  • Anorectal malformation or imperforate anus is a congenital anomaly of rectum and anus. Mullerian duct anomalies are abnormal development of uterus, cervix, and vagina. Imperforate anus with double uterus is extremely rare and cannot explain by normal embryologic development. Moreover, guideline in treatment is inconclusive. We report an extremely rare case of a young adult female who presented with recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease caused by rectovaginal fistula in congenital imperforate anus and didelphys uterus, and successfully neoanal reconstruction with gracilis muscle flap. Aims for treatment are closed rectovaginal fistula, and anal sphincter reconstruction. To our best knowledge, the imperforate anus with double uterus is extremely rare anomaly. Furthermore, successfully anal sphincter reconstruction with functional gracilis muscle in the imperforate anus with double uterus has never been reported in English literature.

The Action of Panaquilon on the Isolated Rabbit Uterus (Panaquilon의 적출토끼자궁운동에 대한 작용)

  • Song, Suk-Kyu;Park, Chung-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 1969
  • The effect of the panaquilon (partial component of panax ginseng), on the isolated pregnant and nonpregnant uterus strip was observed. The movement of the strip of the rabbit uterus suspended in Locke's solution was refolded by the Magnus method. 1. The tonus of the pregnant uterus was slightly increased and returned the normal movement after a short period (approximately 60 seconds) in concentration of $10^{-6}$ of panaquilon. 2. The tonus and motility of panaquilon was slightly synergistic when pretreated with syntocinon and barium chloride.

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