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A STUDY OF THE MECHANISM OF IMPROVING ACID RESISTANCE OF BOVINE TOOTH ENAMEL AFTER PULSED Nd-YAG LASER IRRADIATION (펄스형 Nd-YAG 레이저 조사에 의한 법랑질 내산성 증가 기전에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Soon;Shon, Heung-Kyu
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.640-658
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of improving acid resistance of Nd-YAG laser irradiated tooth enamel and determine the most effective energy density for improving acid resistance. The bovine tooth enamel were lased with a pulsed Nd-YAG laser. The energy densities of exposed laser beam were varied from 10 to $70\;J/cm^2$. To investigate the degree of improving acid resistance by irradiation, all the samples were submerged to demineralize in 0.5 N $HClO_4$ solution for 1 minute. After 1 minute, 0.05 % $LaCl_3$ was added to the solution for interrupting the demineralization reaction. The amounts of dissolved calcium and phosphate in the solution were measured by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the UV/VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. To examine the mechanism of improving acid resistance, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were taken. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the samples were obtained in the $10^{\circ}{\sim}80^{\circ}2{\theta}$ range with $Cu-K{\alpha}$ radiation using M18HF(Mac Science Co.) with X-ray diffractometer operating at 40 KV and 300 mA. The infra-red spectra of the ground samples in 300 mg KBr pellets 10 mm diameter were obtained in the $4000cm^{-1}\;to\;400cm^{-1}$ range using JASCO 300E spectrophotometer. The scanning electron microscopy was carried out using JSM6400(JEOL Co.) with $500{\sim}2000$ times magnification. The results were as follow 1. The concentration of calcium dissolved from laser irradiated enamel with $50J/cm^2$ was significantly lesser than that of unlased control group (p<0.05) 2. From the result of the X-ray diffraction analysis, $\beta$-TCP, which increases acid solubility, was identified in lased enamel but the diffraction peaks of (002) and (004) became sharp with increasing energy density of laser irradiation. This means that the crystals in lased samples were grown through the c-axis and subsequently, the acid solubility of enamel decreased. 3. The a-axis parameter was slightly increased by laser irradiation, whereas the c-axis parameter was almost constant except for a little decrease at $50J/cm^2$. 4. In the infra-red spectra of lased enamels, phosphate bands ($600{\sim}500cm^{-1}$), B-carbonate bands (870, $1415{\sim}1455cm^{-1}$), and A-carbonate band ($1545cm^{-1}$) were observed. The amounts of phosphate bands and the B-carbonate bands were reduced, on the other hand, the amount of the A-carbonate band was increased by increase the energy density. 5. The SEM experiments reveal that the surface melting and recrystallization were appeared at $30J/cm^2$ and the cracks were observed at $70J/cm^2$. From above results, It may be suggested that the most effective energy density for improving acid resistance of tooth enamel with the irradiation of Nd-YAG laser was $50J/cm^2$. The mechanism of improving acid resistance were reduction of permeability due to surface melting and recrystallization of lased enamel and reduction of acid solubility of enamel due to decrease of carbonate content and growth of crystal.

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Studies on Partition and Extraction Equilibria of Metal-Dithiocarbamate Complexes(II). Metal Complexes of Ammonium Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (Dithiocarbamate 금속착물의 분배 및 추출평형(제2보). Ammonium Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate의 금속착물)

  • Lee, Jong-Sun;Choi, Jong-Moon;Choi, Hee-Seon;Kim, Young-Sang
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.321-334
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    • 1995
  • Basic studies for the effective extraction of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate(APDC) complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) into a solvent have been performed. The maximum distribution ratio was appeared (log D=1.3543) at pH 2.0 and the partition coefficient was 2.489 in the extraction of $4{\times}10^{-5}M$ APDC itself into chloroform. From the UV/visible spectra of metal-chelates in aqueous and organic solutions, the pH to form stable 1:2 metal-ligand complexes were Co(II):5.0, Ni(II):8.0 and Cu(II):8.0, respectively and only 1 minute was enough to be partitioned into the chloroform. Besides, the partition and extraction equilibria of the complexes were investigated by back-extracting $10.0{\mu}g/ml$ metal-chelates from the solvent into an aqueous solution beacuse of their slight solubilities in the aqueous solution. The distribution coefficients and extractabilities were as follows : at pH 6.5~8.5 of the aqueous solution, log D=2.834 : E(%)=99.9% for $Co(PDC)_2$, at pH 11, log D=5.699 E%=100 for $Ni( PDC)_2$, and at pH 6.0, log D=2.025 : E(%)=99.1% for $Cu(PDC)_2$. And the extraction and formation constants were log $K_{ex}=9.671$ : log ${\beta}_2=6.938$ for $Co(PDC)_2$, log $K_{ex}=9.646$ : log ${\beta}_2=7.071$ for $Ni( PDC)_2$, and log $K_{ex}=9.074$ : log ${\beta}_2=7.049$ for $Cu(PDC)_2$, respectively. From these results, an optimum extraction procedure can be constructed for the separative concentration of trace metallic ions, and the quantitative determination of them in advanced materials and environmental samples will be expected without any influence of sample matrixes.

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Spectroscopic Studies on U(VI) Complex with 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic acid as a Model Ligand of Humic Acid (분광학을 이용한 흄산의 모델 리간드인 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic acid와 우라늄(VI)의 착물형성 반응에 관한 연구)

  • Cha, Wan-Sik;Cho, Hye-Ryun;Jung, Euo-Chang
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.207-217
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    • 2011
  • In this study the complex formation reactions between uranium(VI) and 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) as a model ligand of humic acid were investigated by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The analysis of the spectrophotometric data, i.e., absorbance changes at the characteristic charge-transfer bands of the U(VI)-DHB complex, indicates that both 1:1 and 1:2 (U(VI):DHB) complexes occur as a result of dual equilibria and their distribution varies in a pH-dependent manner. The stepwise stability constants determined (log $K_1$ and log $K_2$) are $12.4{\pm}0.1$ and $11.4{\pm}0.1$. Further, the TRLFS study shows that DHB plays a role as a fluorescence quencher of U(VI) species. The presence of both a dynamic and static quenching process was identified for all U(VI) species examined, i.e., ${UO_2}^{2+}$, $(UO_2)_2{(OH)_2}^{2+}$, and $(UO_2)_3{(OH)_5}^+$. The fluorescence intensity and lifetimes of each species were measured from the time-resolved spectra at various ligand concentrations, and then analyzed based on Stern-Volmer equations. The static quenching constants (log $K_s$) obtained are $4.2{\pm}0.1$, $4.3{\pm}0.1$, and $4.34{\pm}0.08$ for ${UO_2}^{2+}$, $(UO_2)_2{(OH)_2}^{2+}$, and $(UO_2)_3{(OH)_5}^+$, respectively. The results of Stern-Volmer analysis suggest that both mono- and bi-dentate U(VI)-DHB complexes serve as groundstate complexes inducing static quenching.

Development of Rapid Analytical Method of Forbidden Medicines in Dietary Supplements Using LC-ESI-Tandem MS (LC-ESI-tandem MS를 이용한 기능성표방식품 중 부정유해물질 신속검사체계 개발)

  • Kim, Hee-Yun;Jang, Young-Mi;Joo, Hyun-Jin;Jung, Young-Hyun;Lee, Myoung-Sook;Park, Jong-Seok;Lee, Kwang-Ho;Lee, Hwa-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.372-379
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    • 2007
  • A high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (HPLC-ESI) tandem MS was developed for the rapid and simultaneous determination of forbidden medicines in dietary supplements. Thirteen medicinal components such as PDE-5 inhibitors and their analogues, and the newly identified dimethylsildenafil and xanthoanthrafil, were included in this study. After tentative standardization of molecular ions in both polarities using thirteen references on the mass spectrometer, with ESI-continuous infusion via the syringe pump method, the relative intensity of the ions present in the resulting spectra was quantitatively compared. From the results, the ion mode was selected depending on each reference's characteristics. A HPLC method coupled with the ESI mode was developed considering the matrix effect and interference depending on the type of sample. The validation test of the developed method was followed by carrying out precision, accuracy, recovery, sensitivity and linearity, etc. The method showed sufficiently high sensitivity, reproducibility, and specificity, and produced 4 times faster results when compared with the existing HPLC/UV method for the determination of forbidden compounds in dietary supplements.

Biochemical Characteristics for the Cofactor Free Mutant of Yeast Homocysteine Catalyzing Enzyme, Cystathionine ${\beta}$-Synthase (조효소를 함유하지 않는 효모의 Homocysteine 분해효소, Cystathionine ${\beta}$-Synthase의 생화학적 특성)

  • Jhee, Kwang-Hwan;Cho, Hyun-Nam;Yang, Seun-Ah;Lee, In-Seun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.196-202
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    • 2007
  • Mutations in the cystathionine ${\beta}$-synthase (CBS) gene cause homocystinuria, the most frequent inherited disorder in sulfur metabolism. CBS is the unique enzyme using both heme and pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) for activity. Among the reported 140 mutations, one of the most common disease-causing alterations in human CBS is G307S mutation. To investigate the pathogenic mechanism of G307S by spectroscopic methods, we engineered the full length and the truncated G247S mutation of yeast CBS that is corresponding mutation to human G307S. Yeast CBS does not contain heme and thus gives a merit to study the spectroscopic properties. The UV-visible spectra of the purified full length and the truncated G247S yeast CBSs showed the total absence of PLP in the protein. The absence of PLP in G247S mutation was also confirmed by the PLP-cyanide adduct formation experiment, which was conducted by the incubation of the purified enzyme with KCN. The adducts were detected using a circular dichroism (CD) and a spectrofluorimeter. Radio isotope activity assay of full length and truncated G247S proteins also gave no activity. Our yeast G247S mutation data suggested that G307S might make the distortion of the active site so that cofactor PLP and substrate can not fit inside the active site. Our yeast CBS study addressed the reason why the G307S mutation in human CBS makes the enzyme inactive that consequently leads to severe clinical phenotype.

Melanogenesis Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities of Phellinus baumii Methanol Extract (장수진흙버섯 메탄올 추출물의 멜라닌 생성 저해작용)

  • Lee, J.S.;Shin, D.B.;Lee, S.M.;Kim, S.H.;Lee, T.S.;Jung, D.C.
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.104-111
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    • 2013
  • Phellinus baumii is a medicinal mushroom used in Asian countries for a long period of time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the skin whitening activities of methanol extracts from fruiting bodies of P. baumii. To evaluate the antioxidant activities of the extract, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and chelating activity on ferrous ions were studied. For assay of skin whitening activities, tyrosinase and DOPA inhibitory activities, and tyrosinase and melanin synthesis inhibitory activities of B16/F10 melanoma cells treated with the methanol extract were investigated. The total polyphenol content of P. baumii methanol extract was 4.19. DPPH scavenging ability of P. baumii methanol extract was 88.26% in $25{\mu}g/mL$ concentration. We tested tyrosinase inhibitory activity and melanin contents in melanoma cells. The tyrosinase activity was inhibited to 65.17% at the concentration of $125{\mu}g/mL$ and melanin synthesis was inhibited to 57.61% at the concentration of $25{\mu}g/mL$. Overall, the experimental results showed that P. baumii methanol extract had inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis by dose dependent manner in B16/F10 melanoma cells. Strong ultra-violet absorption spectra in the range of 270~370 nm indicated that ethanol extract of P. baumii could protect the skin from UV. Therefore, P. baumii methanol extract might be used for development of skin whitening, anti-UV and skin care agents.

Antioxidant and skin whitening effects of Inonotus obliquus methanol extract (차가버섯 메탄올 추출물의 항산화 및 미백효과)

  • Guk, Min-Hee;Kim, Dong-Ha;Lee, Chan;Jeong, Eun-Seon;Choi, Eun-Jae;Lee, Jae-Seong;Lee, Tae-Soo
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2013
  • This study was initiated to investigate the skin whitening activities of methanol extracts from fruiting bodies of I. obliquus. The total polyphenols and flavonoids contents of I. obliquus methanol extracts were 31.85 mg/g and 28.33 mg/g, respectively. The methanol extract of the mushroom treated on B16/F10 melanoma and NIH3T3 cell lines did not show cytotoxic activity. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and chelating activity on ferrous ions of I. obliquus methanol extract were lower than those of positive control, tocopherol and BHT. The tyrosinase and L-DOPA inhibitory activities of the extract were lower than those of positive control, kojic acid and ascorbic acid. The tyrosinase and melanin synthesis inhibitory activities of the melanoma cells treated with the extract were comparable with positive control, arbutin. The experimental results suggested that methanol extract of I. obliquus contained inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in the B16/F10 melanoma cells by dose dependent manner. High ultra-violet absorption spectra in the range of 280-350 nm showed that I. obliquus extract could protect skin from UV radiation damage. Therefore, fruiting bodies of I. obliquus can be used for developing skin whitening, anti-UV and skin care agents.

A Study on Fractionation and Characterization of Water-Soluble Natural Fe-Chelates From Garbage Compost and Activated Sewage Sludge (활성오니(活性汚泥) 및 진개퇴비중(塵芥堆肥中) 수용성(水溶性) 철(鐵) 킬레이트의 분리(分離)와 특성(特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Nae-Joung;Lindsay, W.L.
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.194-202
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    • 1975
  • This study was conducted to study the properties of the water-soluble natural chelating agents from garbage compost and activated sewage sludge responsible for Fe chelation, which is closely associated with the effectiveness in correcting iron chlorosis in plant. The water-soluble fraction of these materials was fractionated by menas of Sephadex gel filtration and the fractions of Fe chehates were traced by radioactive $^{59}Fe$. The fractions were examined by ultraviolet and infrared. spectroscopy and stability constants for Fe. The water-soluble fraction from garbage compost was separated by Sephadex G-25 into approximately four fractions. Most of the added $^{59}Fe$ was associated with fraction I, which appeared at the void volume. Further fractionation by Sephadex G-50 indicated that the molecular weight of water-soluble chelating agents is in the approximate range of 5000 to 10,000. The water-soluble fraction from activated sewage sludge gave six fractions by Sephadex G-25. Most of the added $^{59}Fe$ was found in the fraction I,II, and III, The molecular weights of most chelating agents associated with $^{59}Fe$ appeared to be less than 5,000 and those of fraction I that appeared at the void volume was in the range of 5,000 to 1,000. Discrepancy between radio activity count and UV absorption indicated the heterogeneity of the fractions obtained by Sephadex gel filtration. Ultraviolet absorption spectra of all fractions separated by Sephadex G-25 and containing chelating agents showed no differences. Fraction IV and V of sewage extract showed absorption maxima and shifting similar to nucleic acid components suggesting the presence of decomposition products of nucleic acid. Similarity fraction VI contained phenolic type amino acid groups. Fraction I of compost extract contained most of the added $^{59}Fe$ and showed weak but extra definite absorption in the 1230, and $1270cm^{-1}$ region, suggesting that extra oxygen groups in polyphenolic structure were probably involved in Fe chelation. In sewage extract, fraction I,II, and III in which most of the $^{59}Fe$ was found, showed strong definite polypeptide absorption in the region of $1540cm^{-1}$ due to NH deformation and C-N stretching of amide groups in the peptidebond. These extra functional groups in fraction I, II, and III appeared to be associated with Fe chelation. The other fractions, not associated with $^{59}Fe$, still have carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, suggesting that these functional groups in these water extracts may not independently form the Fe chelates. Precipitation of ferric hydroxide precluded measuring the stability constants for Fe-chelates. However, the formation constants for Zn chelates as log K values for compost extract and sewage extract at pH 4.0 from which the strength of chelation with Fe could be presumed, were 8.23, and 9.75, respectively, indicating strong complexation with metals. The chelating capacity of compost extract containing 6.5 g organic matter per liter was 0.82 mM, and that of sewage extract containing 5.3 g per liter was 0. 64 mM.

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Synthesis and Properties of Molybdenum and Tungsten Oxo-Nitrosyl Complexes of Methylthioamidoxime (산소-니트로실 착물의 연구(제3보): 티오메틸아미드옥심의 몰리브덴과 텅스텐 산소-니트로실 착물의 합성과 특성)

  • Roh, Soo Gyun;Oh, Sang Oh
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.28-36
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    • 1996
  • The pentanuclear complexes have been obtained by the reactions of molybdenum(VI) and tungsten(VI) polynuclear complexes with molybdenum(O) and tungsten(O) dinitrosyl mononuclear complexes, and methylthioamidoxime. The prepared complexes (n-Bu4N)2[Mo4O12Mo(NO)2{CH3SCH2C(NH2)NHO}2{CH3SCH2C(NH)NO}2](1), (n-Bu4N)2[W4O12Mo(NO)2{CH3SCH2C(NH2)NHO}2{CH3SCH2C(NH)NO}2](2), (n-Bu4N)2[Mo4O12W (NO)2{CH3SCH2C(NH2)NHO}2{CH3SCH2C(NH)NO}2] (3) have been characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, UV-visible and 1H NMR spectra. The complexes are elucidated the cis-{M(NO)2}2+(M = Mo, W) unit and a slight delocalization by spectroscopy. The structure of (n-Bu4N)2[W4O12Mo(NO) 2{CH3SCH2C(NH2)NHO}2{CH3SCH2C(NH)NO}2] was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Crystal data are follows: Monoclinic, $P21}a$, a = 22.14(2) $\AA$, b = 14.93(1) $\AA$, c = 23.20(1) $\AA$, $\beta$ = 111.08(6) $\AA$, V = 7155(9) $\AA$, Z = 4, final R = 0.072 for 6191(I > $3\sigma(I)).$ The structure of complex forms two dinuclear [W2O5{CH3SCH2C(NH2)NHO}{CH3SCH2C(NH)NO}] and a central {Mo(NO)2} 2+ core. The geometric structure of the {Mo(NO)2} 2+unit is the formally cistype and C2v symmetry.

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Synthesis of Heptadentate Nitrogen-Oxygen Ligands (N4O3) with Substituting Groups and Determination of Stability Constants of Their Transition Metal(II) Complexes (치환기를 가진 일곱 자리 질소-산소(N4O3)계 리간드 합성과 전이금속(II) 이온 착물의 안정도상수 결정)

  • Kim, Sun-Deuk;Lee, Do-Hyub;Seol, Jong-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.54 no.5
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    • pp.541-550
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    • 2010
  • A new $N_4O_3$ heptadentate ligand, N,N'-Bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,3-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-2-propanol(H-BAP 4HCl)was synthesized. The hydrochloric acid salts of Br-BAP 4HCl, Cl-BAP 4HCl, $CH_3O$-BAP 4HCl and $CH_3$-BAP 4HCl containing Br-, Cl-, H-, $CH_3O-$ and $CH_{3^-}$ groups at the para-site of the phenol group of the H-BAP were synthesized. The structures of the ligands were confirmed by C. H. N. atomic analysis and $^1H$ NMR, $^{13}C$ NMR, UV-visible and mass spectra. The elemental stepwise protonation constants(${logK_n}^H$) of the synthesized $N_4O_3$ ligands showed six steps of the proton dissociation. The orders of the overall dissociation constants($log{\beta}_p$) of the ligands were Br-BAP < Cl-BAP < H-BAP < $CH_3O$-BAP < $CH_3$-BAP. The orders agreed well with that of Hammett substituent constants($\sigma_p$). The calculated stability constants($logK_{ML}$) between the ligands and transition metal ions agreed well with the order of the overall proton dissociation constants of the ligands but they showed a reverse order in Hammestt substituent constants($\sigma_p$). The order of the stability constants between the transition metal ions with the ligands were Co(II) < Ni(II) < Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cd(II) > Pb(II).