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Immunization schedule Recommended by Korean Pediatric Society, 2008 (2008년 대한소아과학회 예방접종 스케줄)

  • Lee, Hoan Jong
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2008
  • Immunizations are among the most cost-effective and widely used public health interventions. This is a report a revision of recommendation of immunization for children by Korean Pediatric Society. Immunization. Vaccines were divided into 4 groups. 1) Vaccines that are recommended to all infants and children (BCG, hepatitis B vaccine, DTaP, Td, Polio vaccine, Japanese encephalitis vaccine, MMR, varicella vaccine, influenza vaccine [6-23 months of age], H. influenzae type b vaccine), 2) those that can be administered to all infants and children, but decision of administration is made by parents (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, influenza vaccine [healthy children ${\geq}24$ months of age], rotavirus vaccine, human papilloma virus vaccine), 3) those that should be given to high risk group (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [high risk patients ${\geq}24$ months of age], influenza vaccine [high risk patients ${\geq}24$ months of age], typhoid vaccine), and 4) those administered for control of outbreaks or prevention of emerging infectious diseases. Immunization schedule recommended by Korean Pediatric Society in 2008 is presented.

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Development of a Quadrivalent Combined DTaP-HepB Vaccine with a Low Toxicity and a Stable HBsAg Immunogenicity

  • Bae, Cheon-Soon;Park, Kwung-Nam;Ahn, Sang-Jeom;Kim, Jong-Su;Hur, Byung-Ki
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.787-792
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    • 2002
  • When developing a combined DTaP-HepB vaccine, toxicity and HBsAg immunogenicity are both important considerations. Thus, for a combined DTaP-HepB vaccine with a low toxicity, the effect of the DTaP content and $Al(OH)_3$, gel concentration on the vaccine toxicity was investigated. Within the range studied, the higher the concentrations, the higher the vaccine toxicity. The importance of the tetanus toxoid content in the combined DTaP-HepB vaccine was also revealed. A higher concentration of the tetanus toxoid was found to have a negative effect on the stability of the HBsAg immunogenicity in the combined vaccine. Accordingly, considering the factors affecting toxicity and HBsAg immunogenicity, a novel DTaP-HepB vaccine (30 Lf/ml of diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf/ml of tetanus toxoid, 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$ PN/ml of acellular pertussis, 24 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml of HBsAg, and 500 $\mu\textrm{g}$ Al/ml of $Al(OH)_3$ gel) was developed. It has a low toxicity and a stable HBsAg immunogenicity and also satisfies the potency criteria of K-FDA for a combined DTaP vaccine.

The Evolution and Value of Diphtheria Vaccine (디프테리아 백신의 진화와 물리화학적, 분자생물학적, 면역학적 지식의 진보에 따른 새로운 백신의 개발에 관한 고찰연구)

  • Bae, Kyung-Dong
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.491-504
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    • 2011
  • This review article provides an overview of the evolution of diphtheria vaccine, its value and its future. Diphtheria is an infectious illness caused by diphtheria toxin produced by pathogenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is characterized by a sore throat with membrane formation due to local tissue necrosis, which can lead to fatal airway obstruction; neural and cardiac damage are other common complications. Diphtheria vaccine was first brought to market in the 1920s, following the discovery that diphtheria toxin can be detoxified using formalin. However, conventional formalin-inactivated toxoid vaccines have some fundamental limitations. Innovative technologies and approaches with the potential to overcome these limitations are discussed in this paper. These include genetic inactivation of diphtheria toxoid, innovative vaccine delivery systems, new adjuvants (both TLR-independent and TLR-dependent adjuvants), and heat- and freeze-stable agents, as well as novel platforms for producing improved conventional vaccine, DNA vaccine, transcutaneous (microneedle-mediated) vaccine, oral vaccine and edible vaccine expressed in transgenic plants. These innovations target improvements in vaccine quality (efficacy, safety, stability and consistency), ease of use and/or thermal stability. Their successful development and use should help to increase global diphtheria vaccine coverage.

Development of Vaccine Delivery System and Challenges (백신 전달기술 개발 동향과 과제)

  • Jung, Hyung-Il;Kim, Jung-Dong;Kim, Mi-Roo;Dangol, Manita
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.497-506
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    • 2010
  • Vaccine is a protective clinical measure capable of persuading immune system against infectious agents. Vaccine can be categorized as live attenuated and inactivated. Live attenuated vaccines activate immunity similar to natural infection by replicating living organisms whereas inactivated vaccines are either whole cell vaccines, eliciting immune response by killed organisms,or subunit vaccines, stimulating immunity by non-replicating sub cellular parts. The components of vaccine play a critical role in deciding the immune response mediated by the vaccine. The innate immune responds against the antigen component. Adjuvants represent an importantcomponent of vaccine for enhancing the immunogenicity of the antigens. Subunit vaccines with isolated fractions of killed and recombinant antigens are mostly co-administered with adjuvants. The delivery system of the vaccine is another essential component to ensurethat vaccine is delivered to the right target with right dosage form. Furthermore, vaccine delivery system ensures that the desired immune response is achieved by manipulating the optimal interaction of vaccine and adjuvantwith the immune cell. The aforementioned components along with routes of administration of vaccine are the key elements of a successful vaccination procedure. Vaccines can be administered either orally or by parenteral routes. Many groups had made remarkable efforts for the development of new vaccine and delivery system. The emergence of new vaccine delivery system may lead to pursue the immunization goals with better clinical practices.

Importance of the Degree of Antigen Polymerization by Detoxification in Modulating the Immunogenicity of Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

  • Bae Cheon-Soon;Hong Sung-Sang;Ahn Sang-Jeom;Jang Yang-Suk;Hur Byung-Ki
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.230-235
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    • 2005
  • For the acellular pertussis vaccine with a high immunogenicity, the concentration, composition and characteristics of acellular pertussis antigens are the crucial points to be considered. Nevertheless, it has not been proved yet whether or not the polymerization degree, one of the characteristics of formalin-detoxified acellular pertussis antigens, has an influence on vaccine potency. Thus, in the present study, the correlations among detoxification conditions of acellular pertussis bulks, their polymerization degrees and their immunogenicities were examined. In addition, the relative importance of pertussis toxoid in vaccine immunogenicity was also investigated. Results show that a lower lysine concentration during detoxification induces highly-polymerized antigens, the immunogenicity has a great dependency on the polymerization degree of antigens, and also pertussis toxoid has a relatively stronger influence on the immunogenicity than other antigens. Accordingly, in the aspect of the potency of detoxified acellular pertussis vaccine, it can be demonstrated that the polymerization of antigens and its degree are the major factors affecting the immunogenicity along with a relatively high content of pertussis toxoid

Large-Scale Production of Rotavirus VLP as Vaccine Candidate Using Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS)

  • Park, Jin-Yong;Kim, Hun;Hwang, Hi-Ku;Lee, Su-Jeen;Kim, Hyun-Sung;Hur, Byung-Ki;Ryu, Yeon-Woo;An, Chang-Nam;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2004
  • Rotavirus virus-like particle (VLP) composed of VP2, VP6, and VP7 was expressed in the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS). Sf9 cell, a host of the baculovirus, was cultured from a 0.5-1 spinner flask to the 50-1 bioreactor system. Sf9 cell was maintained at cell density between 3.0E+05 and 3.0E+06 cells/ml and grew up to 1.12E+07 cells/ml in the bioreactor. Growth kinetics was compared under different culture systems and showed similar growth kinetics with 20.1-25.2 h of doubling time. Early exponentially growing cell culture was infected with three recombinant baculoviruses expressing VP2, VP6, and VP7 protein at 1.0, 2.0, and 0.2 moi, respectively. The expression of rotavirus proteins was confirmed by Western blot analysis and its three-layered virus-like structure was observed under an electron microscope. Rotavirus VLP was semipurified and immunized in ICR mice intramuscularly. Rotavirus-specific serum antibody was detected from 2 weeks after the immunization and lasted at least 21 weeks of the post-immunization, indicating its possible use as a vaccine candidate.

Measurement of Free Polysaccharide in Tetanus Toxoid-Conjugate Vaccine Using Antibody/Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation

  • Yoo, Tae-Hyeon;Kim, Hyun-Sung;Park, Sung-Sik;Bang, Eun-Young;Oh, Yong-K.;Kim, Li-Seop;Kim, Hun;Hur, Byung-Ki;Ryu, Yeon-Woo;Kim, Jong-Su
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.469-472
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    • 2003
  • A method that effectively precipitates capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b (polyribosylribitol phosphate, PRP) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT), PRP TT in a liquid vaccine has been developed to measure free PRP present in TT-conjugate vaccine. The method involves adding anti-TT antibody and ammonium sulfate to precipitate PRP-TT conjugate and measuring free PRP in tile supernatant. This new method provides a complete precipitation of the total PRP-TT, and provides an accurate and reproducible measurements of free PRP. The accuracy of the assay was confirmed by spiking known amounts of unconjugated PRP to PRP-TT conjugate, and the new method was found to have no effect on free PRP while precipitating PRP-TT. The published acid precipitation method did not produce reproducible results due to incomplete precipitation of PRP-TT, especially when the vaccine is formulated in a salt-buffered solution.

Comparison of Factors Associated with Intention to Receive Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Between Male and Female Undergraduate Students (남녀 대학생의 인유두종 바이러스 백신접종의도 영향요인 비교)

  • Kim, Hae-Won
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.415-425
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was done to identify and compare factors associated with intention to receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine between male and female undergraduate students. Methods: In the fall of 2010, 479 students responded to self-administered questionnaires about their intention to receive HPV vaccine, HPV knowledges, HPV related involvements and optimistic bias, subject's characteristics including opinion about HPV vaccine. Mann-Whitney U test, uni-variate and multi-variate logistic regression were used for data analysis with SPSS/WIN. Results: Intention to receive vaccine were 22.0% of men and 25.0% of women. There were significantly different in HPV knowledge (Z=-2.74, p=.006), optimistic bias (Z=-4.60, p<.001), vaccine is necessary for women (Z=-4,30, p<.001), vaccine is necessary for men (Z=-4.37, p<.001), vaccine is necessary if only symptom exist (Z=-4.52, p<.001), but there were not different in intention to receive vaccine, involvement between men and women. Concern about vaccine safety (OR=3.19, 95% CI 1.63~6.23) was determinant of intention to receive HPV vaccine for men. Conclusion: This study showed gender differences in HPV knowledge, HPV related optimistic bias and opinion about HPV vaccine, which would be assessed and well managed in tailored HPV education for enhancing HPV vaccine acceptance.

Production of Hantaan Virus from Human Immortalized Retina Cell and Its Immunogenicity

  • Bae, Cheon-Soon;Choi, Jun-Youl;An, Chang-Nam;Kim, Jong-Su;Hur, Byung-Ki
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.882-889
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    • 2002
  • Hantaan vims production, using human immortalized retina cell (PER. C6), was investigated to develop an inactivated virus vaccine. To infect Hantaan virus into PER. C6, two infection methods (medium-to-cell and cell-to-cell) were tried, and IFA results showed that the cell-to-cell infection method was very useful for producing Hantaan virus-infected PER, C6. Hantaan virus production was significantly affected by the growth rate of PER. C6 and the content of FBS in medium. Higher specific growth rate of infected PER. C6 and lower FBS content induced higher production of Hantaan virus. The inactivated human cell-culture vaccines with various EIA titers were prepared, their antibody responses were compared with those of inactivated suckling mouse brain vaccines ($Hantavax^처리불가$). and the result showed their immunogenicities were slightly higher than those of inactivated suckling mouse vaccines. Therefore, this study shows the possibility of the development of Hantaan virus vaccine from a human cell culture.

Update in varicella vaccination (수두백신의 최신지견)

  • Oh, Sung Hee
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2006
  • Varicella, which is mostly a benign disease, but also can cause considerable health burden in the community, can be prevented by immunization with live attenuated varicella vaccine. Higher uptake of varicella vaccine by universal immunization in North America has apparently been associated with decline in the number of reported cases of varicella, varicella-related hospitalizations, and the number of deaths caused by complications of varicella. On the contrary, there has been some reluctance in endorsing varicella vaccine for universal immunization in most of European countries. Concerns include unanticipated outbreaks of varicella among vaccine recipients, risk of varicella among unvaccinated adults, risk of herpes zoster among vaccinees as well as unvaccinees. Recently developed measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella combination vaccine and herpes zoster vaccine that may be licensed in the upcoming years may be the solution for varicella vaccine to be utilized in a greater scale. In Korea several varicella vaccine products have been utilized since late 1980. The adoption of varicella vaccine for universal immunization since 2005 along with the changing view in varicella prevention strategy mandates more studies for immunogenecity and efficacy of varicella vaccines as well as more surveillance to delineate the changes in epidemiology of varicella in Korea.