• Title, Summary, Keyword: valuable fertilizer

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The Possible Utilization of Animal Excrements (가축분뇨 자원화를 위한 이용실태 분석)

  • 유덕기
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.1-28
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    • 2002
  • Regarding the dangers to soil, water and air, which come from current agricultural application measures for nitrogen, a sectoral approach for a non-polluting liquid manure utilization cannot be used any longer. Slurry was not any longer considered as a tiresome waste produced of animal husbandry, but as a valuable fertilizer. The goal of the largest possible utilization of slurry on the farm was and still is in the foreground, An Integrated system approach has to be found. leading to a drastic improvement of nutrient utilization and hence to a considerably reduced nutrient use. This can only be expected, if the organic manure can be applicated at times, when losses through leaching and volatilization can be minimized. The necessary investments for such concepts can clearly be reduced through cooperation.

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Valuable Organic Liquid Fertilizer Manufacturing through $TAO^{TM}$ Process for Swine Manure Treatment

  • Lee, Myung-Gyu;Cha, Gi-Cheol
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2003
  • $TAO^{TM}$ System is an auto-heated thermophilic aerated digestion process using a proprietary microbe called as a Phototropic Bacteria (PTB). High metabolic activity results in heat generation, which enables to produce a pathogen-free and digested liquid fertilizer at short retention times. TAO$^{TM}$ system has been developed to reduce a manure volume and convert into the liquid fertilizer using swine manure since 1992. About 100 units have been installed and operated in Korean swine farms so far. TAO$^{TM}$ system consists of a reactor vessel and ejector-type aeration pumps and foam removers. The swine slurry manure enters into vessel with PTB and is mixed and aerated. The process is operated at detention times from 2 to 4 days and temperature of 55 to $65^{\circ}C$. Foams are occurred and broken down by foam removers to evaporate water contents. Generally, at least 30% of water content is evaporated, 99% of volatile fatty acids caused an odor are removed and pathogen destruction is excellent with fecal coliform, rotavirus and salmonella below detection limits. The effluent from TAO$^{TM}$ system, called as the "TAO EFFLUX", is screened and has superb properties as a fertilizer. Normally N-P-K contents of screened TAO Efflux are 4.7 g/L, 0.375 g/L and 2.8 g/L respectively. The fertilizer effect of TAO EFFLUX compared to chemical fertilizer has been demonstrated and studied with various crops such as rice, potato, cabbage, pumpkin, green pepper, parsley, cucumber and apple. Generally it has better fertilizer effects and excellent soil fertility improvement effects. Moreover, the TAO EFFLUX is concentrated through membrane technology without fouling problems for a cost saving of long distance transportation and a commercialization (crop nutrient commodity) to a gardening market, for example.

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Survival of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken and Pig Manure Compost

  • Jung, Kyu-Seok;Heu, Sung-Gi;Roh, Eun-Jung;Kim, Min-Ha;Gil, Hyun-Ji;Choi, Na-Young;Lee, Dong-Hwan;Lim, Jeong-A;Ryu, Jae-Gee;Kim, Kye-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.469-473
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    • 2013
  • Livestock manure is a valuable source of nutrients and organic matter for plant. Thus, livestock manure compost is commonly used fertilizer in organic vegetable and fruit production in many countries. However, contaminated or inadequate manure compost can give negative effect to soil microorganisms. This study was conducted to investigate the survival difference of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in chicken and pig manure compost under the selected environmental conditions. Commercially available manure compost (pig, chicken) was inoculated with S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Manure compost was incubated at $25^{\circ}C$ and consistent moisture content. Samples had been collected during 200 days depending on the given conditions. S. enterica survived for 130 days in pig manure compost and over 200 days in chicken manure compost, respectively. L. monocytogenes persisted for 120 days in pig manure compost and over 200 days in chicken manure compost, respectively. It is noted that the number of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes gradually decreased over time. The results indicate that S. enterica survived longer than L. monocytogenes in manure compost at $25^{\circ}C$. S. enterica and L. monocytogenes survived longer in chicken manure compost than in pig manure compost. Increased knowledge of pathogen behavior in agricultural environments is a valuable part of future work on improving risk evaluations and, in a longer perspective, in providing data for guidelines regarding safe handling of pathogen-contaminated manure compost and soil.

Evaluation of Fertilizer Value of Animal Cadavers for Agricultural Recycling (폐가축사체의 농업적 재활용을 위한 비료 가치 평가)

  • Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kang, Se-Won;Choi, Ik-Won;Sung, Hwan-Hoo;Hur, Tai-Young;Yoo, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Joon;Heo, Jong-Soo;Kang, Seog-Jin;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.788-793
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    • 2011
  • To evaluate fertilizer value of animal cadavers for agricultural recycling, fertilizer components of animal cadavers by pig and poultry were investigated using rendering and alkali (KOH) treatment methods. Total nitrogen concentrations in meat waste by pig and poultry using rendering treatment method were 7.80% and 9.30%, respectively. Total nitrogen concentration in meat waste of pig by KOH treatment method was lower than that by rendering treatment method. Organic matter concentrations in meat waste of pig and poultry ranged 87.8~97.4%. Total phosphorus concentrations in bone waste of pig using rendering and KOH treatment methods ranged 5.59~11.18%. Animal cadavers contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients essential to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that animal cadavers can supply some of the nutrient requirements of crops and is a valuable fertilizer as well.

Inactivation of Escherichia coli in Surface Water of Saturated Soil with the Pig Manure-based Liquid Fertilizers by Ultraviolet Radiation (자외선에 의한 가축분뇨 액비 시용 논 표면수 중 대장균 사멸율 변화)

  • Kim, Min-Kyeong;Jung, Goo-Bok;Hong, Seung-Chang;Kang, Seong-Soo;Kwon, Soon-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.368-370
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    • 2011
  • Liquid manure fertilizer drived from pig slurry is a valuable source of nutrients for crop production. However, there is no study for environmental assessment regarding microbial quality to apply liquid manure fertilizer. Therefore, this study aimed at quantifying the level of environmental impact on fecal coliform (Escherichia coli or E. coli ) survival in saturated soil such as paddy field. Surface water samples were collected up to 168 and 11 hours under natural sunlight and artificial ultraviolet radiation, respectively. The inactivation rate of E. coli under natural sunlight increased gradually after 48 hours. However, the inactivation rate of E. coli under artificial ultraviolet radiation increased linearly over time. Our findings suggested that the ultraviolet radiation is the limited factor on E. coli survival in surface water of saturated soil. This result will provide useful and practical guideline to applicators of agricultural soil in deciding appropriate handling and time frames for preventing pollution of water quality for sustainable agriculture.

Use of Terminal Restriction Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Evaluate Uncultivable Microbial Community Structure of Soil

  • Chauhan, Puneet Singh;Shagol, Charlotte C.;Yim, Woo-Jong;Tipayno, Sherlyn C.;Kim, Chang-Gi;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.127-145
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    • 2011
  • Various environmental ecosystems are valuable sources for microbial ecology studies, and their analyses using recently developed molecular ecological approaches have drawn significant attention within the scientific community. Changes in the microbial community structures due to various anthropogenic activities can be evaluated by various culture-independent methods e.g. ARISA, DGGE, SSCP, T-RFLP, clone library, pyrosequencing, etc. Direct amplification of total community DNA and amplification of most conserved region (16S rRNA) are common initial steps, followed by either fingerprinting or sequencing analysis. Fingerprinting methods are relatively quicker than sequencing analysis in evaluating the changes in the microbial community. Being an efficient, sensitive and time- and cost effective method, T-RFLP is regularly used by many researchers to access the microbial diversity. Among various fingerprinting methods T-RFLP became an important tool in studying the microbial community structure because of its sensitivity and reproducibility. In this present review, we will discuss the important developments in T-RFLP methodology to distinguish the total microbial diversity and community composition in the various ecosystems.

A Study on Grain Yield Response and Limitations of CERES-Barley Model According to Soil Types

  • Sang, Wan-Gyu;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Shin, Pyeong;Cho, Hyeoun-Suk;Seo, Myung-Chul;Lee, Geon-Hwi
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.509-519
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    • 2017
  • Crop simulation models are valuable tools for estimating crop yield, environmental factors and management practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil types on barley productivity using CERES (Crop Environment REsource Synthesis)-barley, cropping system model. So the behavior of the model under various soil types and climatic conditions was evaluated. The results of the sensitivity analysis in temperature, $CO_2$, and precipitation showed that soil types had a direct impact on the simulated yield of CERES-barley model. We found that barley yield in clay soils would be more sensitive to precipitation and $CO_2$ in comparison with temperature. And the model showed limited accuracy in simulating water and nitrogen stress index for soil types. In general, the barley grown on clay soils were less sensitive to water stress than those grown on sandy soils. Especially it was found that the CERES model underestimated the effect of water stress in high precipitation which led to overprediction of crop yield in clay soils. In order to solve these problems and successfully forecast grain yield, further studies on the modification of the water stress response of crops should be considered prior to use of the CERES-barley model for yield forecasting.

Changes in Physical, Chemical, and Biological Traits During Composting of Spent Coffee Grounds (커피찌꺼기 퇴비화 과정의 물리, 화학 및 생물학적 변화)

  • Shin, Ji-Hwan;Park, Seung-Hye;Kim, A-Leum;Son, Yi-hun;Joo, Se-hwan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.178-187
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND: Spent coffee grounds are the most valuable resource for agriculture and industry. However, it is almost thrown untreated into landfills or incineration. Composting is an efficient process for converting spent coffee to fertilizer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Composting was conducted in the compost pile (40 ㎥) equipped with a forced aeration system. Physical and chemical properties containing temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and moisture were measured through the composting period. Moreover, biological changes were examined for the composting phase using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found 7-14 phyla comprising 250-716 species from a variety phase of compost. During the composting period, Firmicutes were dominated, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. CONCLUSION: The result indicated that the use of spent coffee improved the quality of organic fertilizer and changed the microbial communities, unique to the thermal composting stage, which could enhance the composting process. These findings suggest that spent coffee composted material can provide a significant amount of nutrients, thereby supporting plant growth.

Applications of Nutrient-Controlling and Growth-Regulating Chemicals to Enhance Yield of Once-Over Harvest Red Pepper (Capsicum annuun L.)

  • Ahn, Byung-Koo;Kim, Hyeong-Goog;Kim, Myung-Jun;Lee, Jin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.575-580
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    • 2011
  • The cultivation of once-over harvest pepper cultivars might be very valuable to Korean farmers who still depend on traditional hand-harvesting method. Thus, we conducted this experiment to obtain important information for enhancing the productivity of once-over harvest red pepper fruits by supplying several nutrient-controlling and growth-regulating chemicals, such as $KH_2PO_4$, $SiO_2$ and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon). Adequate fertilization was provided in each treatment plots. In this study, two once-over harvest pepper cultivars, Saengryeg No. 211 and 213 (SR 211 and SR 213), and one regular piecemeal harvest pepper cultivar, Kangryegdaetong (KRDT), were cultivated to evaluate the productivity of pepper fruit as affected by above chemicals. The distribution of macro- and micro-nutrients in pepper fruits among the cultivars were different in term of N, B, Cu, and Fe concentrations. In particular, the concentration of B in SR 213 was about 2 times higher than that in SR 211 and KRDT. However, overall red pepper productivity of SR 211 was markedly higher ($2.91{\sim}3.38Mg\;ha^{-1}$) than that ($1.68{\sim}2.37Mg\;ha^{-1}$) of SR 213. Also, the productivity of matured red pepper was significantly influenced by the treatments of $KH_{2}PO_{4}$, $SiO_2$ and ethephon. The yield indices for matured red pepper fruits were the highest with the treatment of $KH_2PO_4$ or $SiO_2$ with ethephon, which were 113~116% for SR 211 and 147~150% for SR 213. Thus, the applications of $KH_2PO_4$ or $SiO_2$ with ethephon would be suggested to enhance the productivity of matured red pepper fruit.

Effects of Co-digestate application on the Soil Properties, Leachate and Growth Responses of Paddy Rice (통합혐기소화액의 시용이 벼 생육 및 논토양 환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Seung-Gil;Shin, Joung-Du;Kwon, Soon-Ik;Park, Woo-Kyun;Lee, Deog-Bae;Kim, Jeong-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2010
  • Livestock manures have a potential to be a valuable resource with an efficient treatment. In Korea, 42 million tons of livestock manure were generated in 2008, and 84 % of them were used for compost and liquid fertilizer production. Recently recycling of livestock manure for biogas production through anaerobic digestion is increasing, but its utilization in agriculture is still uncertified. In this study, there was applied co-digestate to the paddy for rice cultivation based on N supplement. Co-digestate was fertilizer fermented with pig slurry and food waste combined with the ratio of 70:30(v:v) in its volumetric basis. For assessing the safety of co-digestate, it was monitored the contents of co-digestate for seasonal variation, resulted in no potential harm to the soil and plant by heavy metals. The results showed that soil applied with co-digestate was increased in exchangeable potassium, copper and zinc mainly due to the high rate of pig slurry in co-digestate applied. Considering high salt content due to the combination with food waste, strict quality assurances are needed for safe application to arable land though it has valuable fertilizer nutrient. Leachate after treatment showed that the concentration of nitrate nitrogen washed out within two weeks. Considering the salt accumulation results in soil, it is highly recommended that the application rate of co-digestate should not exceed the crop fertilization rate based on N supplement. With these results, it was concluded that co-digestate could be used as an alternative fertilizer for chemical fertilizer. More study is needed for the long-term effects of co-digestate application on the soil and water environment.