• 제목, 요약, 키워드: valuable fertilizer

검색결과 38건 처리시간 0.029초

가축분뇨 자원화를 위한 이용실태 분석 (The Possible Utilization of Animal Excrements)

  • 유덕기
    • 한국유기농업학회지
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.1-28
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    • 2002
  • Regarding the dangers to soil, water and air, which come from current agricultural application measures for nitrogen, a sectoral approach for a non-polluting liquid manure utilization cannot be used any longer. Slurry was not any longer considered as a tiresome waste produced of animal husbandry, but as a valuable fertilizer. The goal of the largest possible utilization of slurry on the farm was and still is in the foreground, An Integrated system approach has to be found. leading to a drastic improvement of nutrient utilization and hence to a considerably reduced nutrient use. This can only be expected, if the organic manure can be applicated at times, when losses through leaching and volatilization can be minimized. The necessary investments for such concepts can clearly be reduced through cooperation.

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Valuable Organic Liquid Fertilizer Manufacturing through $TAO^{TM}$ Process for Swine Manure Treatment

  • Lee, Myung-Gyu;Cha, Gi-Cheol
    • 한국축산시설환경학회지
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2003
  • $TAO^{TM}$ System is an auto-heated thermophilic aerated digestion process using a proprietary microbe called as a Phototropic Bacteria (PTB). High metabolic activity results in heat generation, which enables to produce a pathogen-free and digested liquid fertilizer at short retention times. TAO$^{TM}$ system has been developed to reduce a manure volume and convert into the liquid fertilizer using swine manure since 1992. About 100 units have been installed and operated in Korean swine farms so far. TAO$^{TM}$ system consists of a reactor vessel and ejector-type aeration pumps and foam removers. The swine slurry manure enters into vessel with PTB and is mixed and aerated. The process is operated at detention times from 2 to 4 days and temperature of 55 to $65^{\circ}C$. Foams are occurred and broken down by foam removers to evaporate water contents. Generally, at least 30% of water content is evaporated, 99% of volatile fatty acids caused an odor are removed and pathogen destruction is excellent with fecal coliform, rotavirus and salmonella below detection limits. The effluent from TAO$^{TM}$ system, called as the "TAO EFFLUX", is screened and has superb properties as a fertilizer. Normally N-P-K contents of screened TAO Efflux are 4.7 g/L, 0.375 g/L and 2.8 g/L respectively. The fertilizer effect of TAO EFFLUX compared to chemical fertilizer has been demonstrated and studied with various crops such as rice, potato, cabbage, pumpkin, green pepper, parsley, cucumber and apple. Generally it has better fertilizer effects and excellent soil fertility improvement effects. Moreover, the TAO EFFLUX is concentrated through membrane technology without fouling problems for a cost saving of long distance transportation and a commercialization (crop nutrient commodity) to a gardening market, for example.

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Survival of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken and Pig Manure Compost

  • Jung, Kyu-Seok;Heu, Sung-Gi;Roh, Eun-Jung;Kim, Min-Ha;Gil, Hyun-Ji;Choi, Na-Young;Lee, Dong-Hwan;Lim, Jeong-A;Ryu, Jae-Gee;Kim, Kye-Hoon
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.469-473
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    • 2013
  • Livestock manure is a valuable source of nutrients and organic matter for plant. Thus, livestock manure compost is commonly used fertilizer in organic vegetable and fruit production in many countries. However, contaminated or inadequate manure compost can give negative effect to soil microorganisms. This study was conducted to investigate the survival difference of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in chicken and pig manure compost under the selected environmental conditions. Commercially available manure compost (pig, chicken) was inoculated with S. enterica and L. monocytogenes. Manure compost was incubated at $25^{\circ}C$ and consistent moisture content. Samples had been collected during 200 days depending on the given conditions. S. enterica survived for 130 days in pig manure compost and over 200 days in chicken manure compost, respectively. L. monocytogenes persisted for 120 days in pig manure compost and over 200 days in chicken manure compost, respectively. It is noted that the number of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes gradually decreased over time. The results indicate that S. enterica survived longer than L. monocytogenes in manure compost at $25^{\circ}C$. S. enterica and L. monocytogenes survived longer in chicken manure compost than in pig manure compost. Increased knowledge of pathogen behavior in agricultural environments is a valuable part of future work on improving risk evaluations and, in a longer perspective, in providing data for guidelines regarding safe handling of pathogen-contaminated manure compost and soil.

폐가축사체의 농업적 재활용을 위한 비료 가치 평가 (Evaluation of Fertilizer Value of Animal Cadavers for Agricultural Recycling)

  • 서동철;강세원;최익원;성환후;허태영;유지영;이영준;허종수;강석진;조주식
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.788-793
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    • 2011
  • To evaluate fertilizer value of animal cadavers for agricultural recycling, fertilizer components of animal cadavers by pig and poultry were investigated using rendering and alkali (KOH) treatment methods. Total nitrogen concentrations in meat waste by pig and poultry using rendering treatment method were 7.80% and 9.30%, respectively. Total nitrogen concentration in meat waste of pig by KOH treatment method was lower than that by rendering treatment method. Organic matter concentrations in meat waste of pig and poultry ranged 87.8~97.4%. Total phosphorus concentrations in bone waste of pig using rendering and KOH treatment methods ranged 5.59~11.18%. Animal cadavers contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients essential to plant growth. The results of this study suggest that animal cadavers can supply some of the nutrient requirements of crops and is a valuable fertilizer as well.

자외선에 의한 가축분뇨 액비 시용 논 표면수 중 대장균 사멸율 변화 (Inactivation of Escherichia coli in Surface Water of Saturated Soil with the Pig Manure-based Liquid Fertilizers by Ultraviolet Radiation)

  • 김민경;정구복;홍성창;강성수;권순익
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.368-370
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    • 2011
  • 가축분뇨 액비인 SCB 액비를 논토양 조건의 포트에 시용하였을 때 자외선에 의해 분변성 대장균의 사멸효과가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 본 연구결과로 볼 때 가축 분뇨의 퇴 액비화시 유해 미생물 제거에 광의 이용 가능성을 확인할 수 있었다. 그러나, 여러 종류의 가축분뇨 퇴 액비를 직접 농경지에 시용하였을 때 외부 환경의 건전성 유지와 환경 위해성을 관리하기 위해서는 향후 농경지 시용에 대한 현장 실험이 보완되어야 할 것이다.

Use of Terminal Restriction Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Evaluate Uncultivable Microbial Community Structure of Soil

  • Chauhan, Puneet Singh;Shagol, Charlotte C.;Yim, Woo-Jong;Tipayno, Sherlyn C.;Kim, Chang-Gi;Sa, Tong-Min
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.127-145
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    • 2011
  • Various environmental ecosystems are valuable sources for microbial ecology studies, and their analyses using recently developed molecular ecological approaches have drawn significant attention within the scientific community. Changes in the microbial community structures due to various anthropogenic activities can be evaluated by various culture-independent methods e.g. ARISA, DGGE, SSCP, T-RFLP, clone library, pyrosequencing, etc. Direct amplification of total community DNA and amplification of most conserved region (16S rRNA) are common initial steps, followed by either fingerprinting or sequencing analysis. Fingerprinting methods are relatively quicker than sequencing analysis in evaluating the changes in the microbial community. Being an efficient, sensitive and time- and cost effective method, T-RFLP is regularly used by many researchers to access the microbial diversity. Among various fingerprinting methods T-RFLP became an important tool in studying the microbial community structure because of its sensitivity and reproducibility. In this present review, we will discuss the important developments in T-RFLP methodology to distinguish the total microbial diversity and community composition in the various ecosystems.

A Study on Grain Yield Response and Limitations of CERES-Barley Model According to Soil Types

  • Sang, Wan-Gyu;Kim, Jun-Hwan;Shin, Pyeong;Cho, Hyeoun-Suk;Seo, Myung-Chul;Lee, Geon-Hwi
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.509-519
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    • 2017
  • Crop simulation models are valuable tools for estimating crop yield, environmental factors and management practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil types on barley productivity using CERES (Crop Environment REsource Synthesis)-barley, cropping system model. So the behavior of the model under various soil types and climatic conditions was evaluated. The results of the sensitivity analysis in temperature, $CO_2$, and precipitation showed that soil types had a direct impact on the simulated yield of CERES-barley model. We found that barley yield in clay soils would be more sensitive to precipitation and $CO_2$ in comparison with temperature. And the model showed limited accuracy in simulating water and nitrogen stress index for soil types. In general, the barley grown on clay soils were less sensitive to water stress than those grown on sandy soils. Especially it was found that the CERES model underestimated the effect of water stress in high precipitation which led to overprediction of crop yield in clay soils. In order to solve these problems and successfully forecast grain yield, further studies on the modification of the water stress response of crops should be considered prior to use of the CERES-barley model for yield forecasting.

커피찌꺼기 퇴비화 과정의 물리, 화학 및 생물학적 변화 (Changes in Physical, Chemical, and Biological Traits During Composting of Spent Coffee Grounds)

  • 신지환;박승혜;김아름;손이헌;주세환
    • 한국환경농학회지
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.178-187
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND: Spent coffee grounds are the most valuable resource for agriculture and industry. However, it is almost thrown untreated into landfills or incineration. Composting is an efficient process for converting spent coffee to fertilizer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Composting was conducted in the compost pile (40 ㎥) equipped with a forced aeration system. Physical and chemical properties containing temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and moisture were measured through the composting period. Moreover, biological changes were examined for the composting phase using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found 7-14 phyla comprising 250-716 species from a variety phase of compost. During the composting period, Firmicutes were dominated, followed by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. CONCLUSION: The result indicated that the use of spent coffee improved the quality of organic fertilizer and changed the microbial communities, unique to the thermal composting stage, which could enhance the composting process. These findings suggest that spent coffee composted material can provide a significant amount of nutrients, thereby supporting plant growth.

Applications of Nutrient-Controlling and Growth-Regulating Chemicals to Enhance Yield of Once-Over Harvest Red Pepper (Capsicum annuun L.)

  • Ahn, Byung-Koo;Kim, Hyeong-Goog;Kim, Myung-Jun;Lee, Jin-Ho
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.575-580
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    • 2011
  • The cultivation of once-over harvest pepper cultivars might be very valuable to Korean farmers who still depend on traditional hand-harvesting method. Thus, we conducted this experiment to obtain important information for enhancing the productivity of once-over harvest red pepper fruits by supplying several nutrient-controlling and growth-regulating chemicals, such as $KH_2PO_4$, $SiO_2$ and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon). Adequate fertilization was provided in each treatment plots. In this study, two once-over harvest pepper cultivars, Saengryeg No. 211 and 213 (SR 211 and SR 213), and one regular piecemeal harvest pepper cultivar, Kangryegdaetong (KRDT), were cultivated to evaluate the productivity of pepper fruit as affected by above chemicals. The distribution of macro- and micro-nutrients in pepper fruits among the cultivars were different in term of N, B, Cu, and Fe concentrations. In particular, the concentration of B in SR 213 was about 2 times higher than that in SR 211 and KRDT. However, overall red pepper productivity of SR 211 was markedly higher ($2.91{\sim}3.38Mg\;ha^{-1}$) than that ($1.68{\sim}2.37Mg\;ha^{-1}$) of SR 213. Also, the productivity of matured red pepper was significantly influenced by the treatments of $KH_{2}PO_{4}$, $SiO_2$ and ethephon. The yield indices for matured red pepper fruits were the highest with the treatment of $KH_2PO_4$ or $SiO_2$ with ethephon, which were 113~116% for SR 211 and 147~150% for SR 213. Thus, the applications of $KH_2PO_4$ or $SiO_2$ with ethephon would be suggested to enhance the productivity of matured red pepper fruit.

통합혐기소화액의 시용이 벼 생육 및 논토양 환경에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Co-digestate application on the Soil Properties, Leachate and Growth Responses of Paddy Rice)

  • 홍승길;신중두;권순익;박우균;이덕배;김정규
    • 유기물자원화
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.31-37
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    • 2010
  • 가축분뇨는 적절하게 처리되기만 하면 가치 있는 자원이 될 수 있다. 년간 42백만톤에 달하는 가축분뇨의 84%가 퇴비와 액비 생산에 이용되고 있으며 최근에는 혐기소화를 통한 바이오가스 생산에 대한 관심이 고조되고 있으나, 혐기소화액의 농업적인 활용은 아직 인증되지 않은 실정이다. 본 연구에서는 가축분뇨와 음식물류폐기물을 혼합하여 소화시킨 통합혐기소화액을 이용하여 벼 재배시 생육과 논토양 환경에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 하였다. 통합혐기소화액은 돈분과 음식물류 폐기물을 70:30(v/v)으로 혼합하여 HRT(Hydro-logic retention time) 14일의 고온혐기소화공정을 거쳤으며, 안전성을 평가하기 위해 모니터링을 수행하였다. 질소전량 기준으로 통합혐기소화액을 와그너 포트에 시용하고 침출수를 채취하여 양분의 용출과 생육을 조사하였다. 통합혐기소화액을 시용한 처리구에서는 토양중 치환성 칼륨, 구리, 아연 등이 증가하였으며, 통합혐기소화액 처리후 침출수 중의 질산태 질소 농도는 처리 농도가 증가할수록 높았으며 모든 처리구에서 2주 만에 침출되어 빠져나가는 것으로 나타났다. 생육반응에 있어서 분얼수는 처리간에 차이가 없었으며, 초장은 통합혐기소화액을 추천시비량 질소 기준으로 2배 시용한 처리구에서 가장 높았으나, 벼의 생육을 고려하면 오히려 도복의 위험이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 토양중 염류 집적을 고려하여 추천시비량 질소 기준에 맞게 시용하는 것이 바람직하며, 통합혐기소화액이 화학비료 대체제로서의 가치가 있는 것으로 판단되었다. 향후 장기적인 면에서 통합 혐기소화액의 논토양 환경에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구가 더 필요할 것으로 사료된다.