• Title, Summary, Keyword: valuable fertilizer

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Effect of Organic Fertilizer Ratios on the Growth of Spiraea × bumalda 'Gold Mound' in the Container Green Wall Systems with Rainwater Utilization (빗물활용 벽면녹화 용기 내 유기질비료 배합비에 따른 노랑조팝나무의 생육 반응)

  • Ju, Jin-Hee;Kim, Hya-Ran;Yoon, Yong-Han
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.11
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    • pp.1417-1423
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    • 2011
  • For evaluating the effect of various organic fertilizer ratios on the Spiraea${\times}$bumalda 'Gold Mound' growth, a container green wall system experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Konkuk university. The experimental planting grounds were prepared with different organic fertilizer ratios ($A_1L_0$, $A_8L_1$, $A_4L_1$ $A_2L_1$ and $A_1L_1$) and with drought tolerance and an ornamental value Spiraea${\times}$bumalda 'Gold Mound' was planted. The change in soil moisture contents, plant height, number of branches, number of dead leafs, number of leaf, number of shoots, length of node, length of leaf, width of leaf, root-collar caliper, chlorophyll contents and survival rate were investigated from April to Jun 2010. 1. The result of soil moisture contents was analyzed with weight unit in the container green wall system during the dry summer season. The soil moisture contents were significantly enhanced in the container green wall system in increasing order as the amount of fertilizer level increased $A_1L_1$ > $A_2L_1$ > $A_4L_1$ > $A_8L_1$ > $A_1L_0$. 2. Compared to the control treatment (amended soil with 100% + organic fertilizer 0%) application, the highest plant growth was observed in the treatment of $A_2L_1$(amended soil with 67% + organic fertilizer 13%) application. However, the differences between the organic fertilizer ratio treatments of $A_1L_1$, $A_4L_1$, $A_8L_1$, and the $A_1L_0$ organic fertilizer application were mostly not significant. 3. The survival rate increased with the increasing application of organic fertilizer, but in the control treatment (amended soil with 100% + organic fertilizer 0%) application all the plants died. Experimental results from the presented study clearly demonstrated that the organic fertilizer improved the survival rate more than the Spiraea${\times}$bumalda 'Gold Mound' growth at different levels of organic fertilizers. This strain can be utilized as a plant growth application in living wall systems during the dry summer season. Therefore, Spiraea${\times}$bumalda 'Gold Mound' is expected to be a highly valuable shrub for the green wall system if it should be considered in integration with stormwater retention or as a soil conditioner for increasing soil water contents in planting ground.

Effects of Phosphogypsum on the Growth of Oriental Melon and Soil Properties (시설재배 참외의 생육과 토양 특성에 미치는 인산석고의 효과)

  • Chung, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.334-339
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    • 2005
  • Although phosphogypsum can have profound effects on both the physical and chemical properties of certain soils with supplying the essential elements, no widespread use of by-product phosphogypsum will be made unless such uses pose no threat to the public health and soil contaminations. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phosphogypsum on the growth of oriental melon and soil properties in plastic film house. Phosphogypsum was treated at the rate of $70kg\;CaO\;10a^{-1}$ and the effects were compared with the treatment of Ca-Mg carbonate. In the treatment of phosphogypsum, early growth of oriental melon was significantly increased comparing to the growth in the Ca-Mg carbonate treatment. Total fruit yield was not different between the treatments of phosphogypsum and Ca-Mg carbonate, but marketable fruit yield was higher in the phosphogypsum treatment. Although Ca and S contents in oriental melon were increased in the phosphogypsum treatment, contents of toxic heavy metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb were not different between the two treatments. Also, soil pH and contents of extractable toxic metals in the soil were not significantly different between the two treatments after the experiment. These results suggest that phosphogypsum can be a valuable substitute for lime materials in high pH soils of plastic film house.

Separation of soil Organic Debris using Sucrose-ZnCl2 Density Gradient Centrifugation

  • Jung, Seok-Ho;Chung, Doug-Young;Han, Gwang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2012
  • The active fraction of soil organic matter, which includes organic debris and light organic fraction, plays a major role in nutrient cycling. In addition, particulate organic matter is a valuable index of labile soil organic matter and can reflect differences in various soil behaviors. Since soil organic matter bound to soil mineral particles has its density lower than soil minerals, we partitioned soil organic matter into debris ($<1.5g\;cm^{-3}$), light fraction ($1.5-2.0g\;cm^{-3}$), and heavy fraction ($>2.0g\;cm^{-3}$), based on high density $ZnCl_{2-}$ sucrose solutions. Generally, partitioned organic bands were clearly separated, demonstrating that the $ZnCl_{2-}$ sucrose solutions are useful for such a density gradient centrifugation. The available gradient ranges from 1.2 to $2.0g\;cm^{-3}$. Although there was not a statistically meaningful difference in organic debris and organomineral fractions among the examined soils, there was a general trend that a higher content of organic debris resulted in a higher proportion of light organomineral fraction. In addition, high clay content was associated with increased fraction of light organomineals. Partitioning of soil organic carbon revealed that carbon content is reduced in the heavy fraction than in the light fraction, reflecting that the light fraction contains more fresh and abundant carbon than the passive resistant fraction. It was also found that carbon contents in the overall organic matter, debris, light fraction, and heavy fractions may differ considerably in response to different farming practices.

Biogenic Volatile Compounds for Plant Disease Diagnosis and Health Improvement

  • Sharifi, Rouhallah;Ryu, Choong-Min
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.459-469
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    • 2018
  • Plants and microorganisms (microbes) use information from chemicals such as volatile compounds to understand their environments. Proficiency in sensing and responding to these infochemicals increases an organism's ecological competence and ability to survive in competitive environments, particularly with regard to plant-pathogen interactions. Plants and microbes acquired the ability to sense and respond to biogenic volatiles during their evolutionary history. However, these signals can only be interpreted by humans through the use of state-of the-art technologies. Newly-developed tools allow microbe-induced plant volatiles to be detected in a rapid, precise, and non-invasive manner to diagnose plant diseases. Beside disease diagnosis, volatile compounds may also be valuable in improving crop productivity in sustainable agriculture. Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) have potential for use as a novel plant growth stimulant or as improver of fertilizer efficiency. BVCs can also elicit plant innate immunity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Research is needed to expand our knowledge of BVCs and to produce BVC-based formulations that can be used practically in the field. Formulation possibilities include encapsulation and sol-gel matrices, which can be used in attract and kill formulations, chemigation, and seed priming. Exploitation of biogenic volatiles will facilitate the development of smart integrated plant management systems for disease control and productivity improvement.

Biogas Production and Utilization Technologies from Organic waste (유기성폐기물을 이용한 바이오가스 생산 및 활용기술)

  • Heo, Nam-Hyo;Lee, Seung-Heon;Kim, Byeong-Ki
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.202-205
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    • 2008
  • Anaerobic digestion(AD) is the most promising method of treating and recycling of different organic wastes, such as OFMSW, household wastes, animal manure, agro-industrial wastes, industrial organic wastes and sewage sludge. During AD, i.e. degradation in the absence of oxygen, organic material is decomposed by anaerobes forming degestates such as an excellent fertilizer and biogas, a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane. AD has been one of the leading technologies that can make a large contribution to producing renewable energy and to reducing $CO_2$ and other GHG emission, it is becoming a key method for both waste treatment and recovery of a renewable fuel and other valuable co-products. A classification of the basic AD technologies for the production of biogas can be made according to the dry matter of biowaste and digestion temperature, which divide the AD process in wet and dry, mesophilic and thermophilic. The biogas produced from AD plant can be utilized as an alternative energy source, for lighting and cooking in case of small-scale, for CHP and vehicle fuel or fuel in industrials in case of large-scale. This paper provides an overview of the status of biogas production and utilization technologies.

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Recovery of High Purity Calcium Nitrate from Blast Furnace Slag (고로수재슬래그로부터 고순도 질산칼슘 회수에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo Jeong Kun;Lee Man Seung;Kim Kyung Soo;Choi Seung Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2004
  • Concepts and experimental results for the unique utilization process which we could obtain the high purity calcium nitrate from blast furnace slag in the steel industry are described. Firstly we reacted the blast slag with nitric acid and separatively removed the insoluble silica by filtration. We adjust the pH of filtrate to 6∼8 with calcined lime, and then precipiated out the metal components like Fe, Al, Mg in the forms of hydroxides. Consequently concentration of the mother liquor and crystallization processes make us obtain the high purity (>98 wt%) calcium nitrate tetrahydrates, which is expected the valuable fertilizers.

Biogas Production and Utilization Technologies from Organic Waste (유기성폐기물을 이용한 바이오가스 생산 및 활용기술)

  • Heo, Nam-Hyo;Lee, Seung-Heon;Kim, Byeong-Ki
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2008
  • Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most promising method of treating and recycling of different organic wastes, such as OFMSW, household wastes, animal manure, agro-industrial wastes, industrial organic wastes and sewage sludge. During AD, i.e. degradation in the absence of oxygen, organic material is decomposed by anaerobes forming degestates such as an excellent fertilizer and biogas, a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane. AD has been one of the leading technologies that can make a large contribution to producing renewable energy and to reducing $CO_2$ and other GHG emission, it is becoming a key method for both waste treatment and recovery of a renewable fuel and other valuable co-products. A classification of the basic AD technologies for the production of biogas can be made according to the dry matter of biowaste and digestion temperature, which divide the AD process in wet and dry, mesophilic and thermophilic. The biogas produced from AD plant can be utilized as an alternative energy source, for lighting and cooking in case of small-scale, for CHP and vehicle fuel or fuel in industrials in case of large-scale. This paper provides an overview of the status of biogas production and utilization technologies.

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Methodology of Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) for Environmental Impact Assessment of Winter Rapeseed in Double-cropping System with Rice (겨울 유채의 환경성 평가를 위한 전과정평가(LCA) 방법론)

  • Nam, Jae-Jak;Ok, Yong-Sik;Choi, Bong-Su;Lim, Song-Tak;Jung, Yong-Su;Jang, Young-Seok;Yang, Jae-E.
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.205-210
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    • 2008
  • Life cycle assessment(LCA) is acknowledged as a valuable tool to quantify the environment impact of agricultural practice as well as final product(biodiesel) considering whole life cycle of the target product. As a preliminary research of LCA study for rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) biodiesel, the methodological issues which have to be regarded with high priority were dealt with. No life cycle inventory(LCI) based on local data are currently available for LCA of rapeseed cultivation, crushing, and conversion to rapeseed methyl ester(RME) in Korea. In this paper, the life cycle of rapeseed and methodological factors which have to be measured for building LCI of each process are provided and discussed, which are including seed, fertilizer, energy use in rapeseed cultivation environment; and crushing, RME conversion, and transportation in biodiesel production.

Emergy Evaluation of Resource Values for Rice Paddy Production in South Korea (에머지 분석을 통한 논벼 생산의 자원적 가치 평가)

  • Lee, Jimin;Kim, Taegon;Suh, Kyo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze emergy flows of rice for evaluating the value of rice production and sustainability. Emergy analysis evaluates the sustainability of systems or processes considering all the inputs to make a product or a sevice. In this study, we analyzed the emergy flows and indices of rice productionand compared the regional emergy values using statisticcal analysis: input materials, hours per unit area(10a), and production costs. As the results, we found that the rates of external investment (EIR= 18.87) and environmental loading (ELR=21.7) are significantly high during the rice cultivation. However, emergy yield ratio(EYR) shows that rice is a valuable resource because EYR is 5.12 and environmental Sustainability IndexSI value is as low as 0.24 and it shows rice has low sustainability. This study also shows that Chungcheongnam-do has the highest SI value for rice production due to low environmental loading and abundant natural energy during rice cultivation. These results of rice emergy flows and sustainability assessments could provide a way of sustainable rice cultivation with decrease of environmental loading from fertilizer.

Evaluation of Fertilizer Value of Biochars Using Water Plants (수생식물을 이용하여 제조한 biochar의 비료학적 가치 평가)

  • Han, Jong-Hak;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kang, Se-Won;Choi, Ik-Won;Jeon, Weon-Tai;Kang, Ui-Gum;Kang, Seok-Jin;Heo, Jong-Soo;Kim, Sang-Don;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.794-800
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    • 2011
  • To develop biochar for soil conditioner using water plants, characteristics of nutrients release of biochars were investigated under different water plants, manufacturing times and manufacturing temperatures. Under different water plants for manufacturing biochar, the concentrations of T-N and $P_2O_5$ in the water with biochars were higher in the order of CRXDM > ZIZLA > PHRCO > TYHOR > MISSA. The concentrations of $K_2O$ in the water were in the order of TYHOR ${\fallingdotseq}$ CRXDM > ZIZLA > PHRCO > MISSA. Under different manufacturing times for biochar, the concentrations of T-N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ in the water with biochars were higher in the order of 2 hr > 30 min ${\fallingdotseq}$ 1 hr. The concentrations of T-N, $P_2O_5$ and $K_2O$ in the water with biochars were on the order of $350^{\circ}C$ > $500^{\circ}C$ > $600^{\circ}C$ under different manufacturing temperatures. Total amounts of T-N and $K_2O$ releases in the water with biochars were higher in the order of CRXDM > ZIZLA > PHRCO > TYHOR > MISSA. Using biochars by water plants, total amounts of $P_2O_5$ releases in the water with biochars were on the order of CRXDM > ZIZLA > MISSA >PHRCO > TYHOR. The results of this study suggest that biochars by water plants can supply some of the nutrient requirements of crops and can be a valuable fertilizer.