• Title, Summary, Keyword: valuable fertilizer

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Effects of Continual Pre-plant Application of Pig Slurry on Soil Mineral Nutrients and Yield of Chinese Cabbage (액비의 밑거름 연용이 배추의 수량 및 토양 양분 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Tae-Jun;Lee, In-Bog;Kang, Seok-Beom;Park, Jin-Myeon;Hong, Soon-Dal
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 2009
  • Land application of animal manure, such as pig slurry(PS), has been considered as valuable organic source to supply necessary nutrients for crop growth. On the other hand, little information is available on the effect of consecutive application of PS on agricultural soils. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence on change in soil chemical properties and yield of Chinese cabbage in soils amended with slurry composting and bio-filtration pig slurry (SCB) for four consecutive crop cultivations (2007-2008). Among total application rates required, a basal fertilizer (35%) was applied with SCB or chemical fertilizer (CF). The CF was applied as a side dressing was applied in all treatments. There was no significant effect of SCB and CF on Chinese cabbage yield during four cropping seasons. In addition, soluble sugar, vitamin C contents and yields of Chinese cabbage between SCB and CF did not show statistically significant difference. During the experiment, soil chemical properties between SCB and CF treatment showed similar pattern, however, the contents of exchangeable sodium (Na) in soil has been increased (P<0.05) since the second cropping season because of higher Na contents in SCB. Therefore, the use of SCB as a substitute of CF is available for growth and yield of chinese cabbage while its long-term application might leads to an accumulation of Na in soil.

Infiltration Rates of Liquid Pig Manure with Various Dilution Ratios in Three Different Soil (돈분액비 토양침투율과 토양내 분포 특성)

  • Shim, Ho-Young;Lee, Kyo-Suk;Lee, Dong-Sung;Jeon, Dae-Sung;Park, Mi-Suk;Shin, Ji-Su;Lee, Yun-Koung;Goo, Ji-Won;Kim, Soo-Bin;Song, Seong-Geun;Chung, Doug-Young
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.164-168
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    • 2014
  • BACKGROUND: Increase in application of liquid pig manure(LPM) in agriculture as nutritional source has become a social issue due to its influence on water quality. Also, proper application methods have not been developed with respect to indigenous properties of LPM and soil physical properties. Therefore, we conducted this experiment to observe the infiltration characteristics and distribution of dissolved organic compounds of LPM in soils having different soil textures. METHODS AND RESULTS: To do this experiment, we collected three different soils and LPM. We analyzed the physical and chemical properties of both soils and LPM to determine the dilution ratios of LPM. The LPM diluted to 4 different ratios with distilled water was applied to the top of soil column. Infiltration rates were observed by time and depth until the amount of effluent collected from the bottom of the soil columns were stabilized while maintaining the hydraulic head 3 cm above the soil column. The results showed that infiltration rates increased with increasing dilution ratios in the order of sandy, loamy sand, and sandy loam. The time required to reach steady state was increased with decreasing sand contents clay. CONCLUSION: The size and amount of the dissolved organic compounds in LPM that can determine the efficiency as fertilizer and environmental problems as nonpoint pollution source in water quality have not been investigated with respect to behavior and transport of them in soil. Therefore, it requires further research how we can properly apply LPM as valuable fertilizer substitute for inorganic fertilizers.

Production of Fluorosilicic Acid from Phosphoric Acid Slurry of a Fertilizer Manufacturing Plant (비료공장의 인산 슬러리로부터 규불산 제조)

  • Kim, Se-Won;Moon, Woo-Kyun;Park, Hung-Suck
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.926-933
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    • 2012
  • Phosphoric acid used for the production of phosphate fertilizers is synthesized by the reaction of phosphate rock and sulfuric acid. As the reaction is exothermic, yield of phosphoric acid is poor at elevated temperature. Therefore, enhancement in its yield requires the process temperature be maintained by releasing the vapor ($80^{\circ}C$) containing HF and SiF4 through a vacuum cooler. However, these valuable resources; Fand Si, which can be utilized for the manufacture of refrigerant and polysilicon, respectively, are being wasted in the treatment process. We performed lab-scale experiments to estimate the amount of recoverable H2SiF6, a by-product of phosphoric acid manufacturing process. The experimental results showed a decrease of fluorine concentration by 0.12wt% in the liquid phase. Preliminary estimation showed a possible recovery of 5,509 ton/yr of fluorine considering the scale of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. Furthermore, field-scale experiment showed that H2SiF6 could be enriched in liquid phase from 0.35wt% to 7.33wt% and the vapor flow-rate from vacuum cooler was estimated at $51,000m^3/hr$. Anew, the efficiency of fluorine recovery in the pilot-scale experiment was found to be 76.74% and the production of H2SiF6 was estimated at 5,340 ton/yr.

STRATEGIES TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL MANURE: PRINCIPLES AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT - A REVIEW -

  • Paik, I.K.;Blair, Robert;Jacob, Jacqueline
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.615-635
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    • 1996
  • The animal industry must be environmentally sound to ensure its long-term sustainable growth. Livestock wastes mostly manure, can be a valuable resource as well as a potential hazard to environment. The first option of manure management is developing an 'environmentally sound' feeding program and feeds so there are less excreted nutrients that need to be managed. Once the manure is produced it can be best utilized as a fertilizer of a soil conditioner. In many countries the amount of manure that can be spread on land depends on the nutrient requirements of the crop being grown. The laws specify maximum application rates and not animal stocking rates. Farmer who reduce the N and P component of manure can release pressure on the environment without having to reduce the number of animals. There are alternative system for housing and manure treatment which generate manure that are easier to handle and have less pollutants or more economic value. Treated animal waste may also be used as a feedstuff or fuel source. Most of the options of waste management result in increased costs to implement. It is necessary to assess the economics in order to find an acceptable compromise between the increased costs and the benefit to the environment. Animal welfare is also becoming more and more of an issue and it will lead to systems where animals are kept in less confined environment. The new system will have a great impact in the waste management system in the future.

Determination and Effects of N and Si Fertilization Levels on Grain, Quality and Pests of Rice after Winter Green-house Water-melon Cropping

  • Cho Young-Son;Jeon Weon-Tae;Bae Soon-Do;Park Chang-Young;Park Ki-Do;Kang Ui-Gum;Muthukumarasamy Ramachandran
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.274-281
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    • 2006
  • In Korea, rice cultivars have been changing to 'quality' rice rather than high yielding cultivars. However, more than 10% of paddy field has been changed to greenhouse in winter season for cropping of water-melon, oriental-melon, straw berry and et cetra. This experiment has been made to identify the usefulness of critical N and Si fertilization(SF) level to obtain high grain quality rice with reduced insect pest damage by N and SF combination. Before the experiment, watermelon-rice cropping system was maintained for three seasons by farmer from 1998 to 2001. The experiment of N and Si (silicate) fertilization levels was evaluated with Hwayoung-byeo (Oryza sativa L., medium-maturing variety) in 2002 and 2003 in Uiryeong, Korea. Nitrogen fertilization (NF) levels were three and five in 2002 and 2003, respectively, and three SF levels were compared for getting the valuable N/SF level in both years. TOYO-value was positively affected by Si application in N100% plot but it was negatively related with NF level. Normal grain percentage was positively related with TOYO-value and it was highest in 0N plot and Si plots in N100%. Other appearance qualities like powdered, damaged, and cracked grain, were decreased with increasing N fertilization level. SF improved appearance quality in N100% plots but no effects in other treatments. Leaf sheath related diseases were significantly decreased by SF but it was negatively related with NF. In conclusion, SF could be improve grain quality at the same yield levels of conventional fertilization and it also could be reduce the diseases damages of rice plant in all N treatments. NF treatment reduced grain quality and improved grain yield at N50% level, however NF above N50% could not get any kind of benefits. So, compared with conventional fertilizer, reduced NF level is recommended for high grain quality with reduced insect pest damage.

Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in Cow Manure Composting

  • Wang, Tingting;Cheng, Lijun;Zhang, Wenhao;Xu, Xiuhong;Meng, Qingxin;Sun, Xuewei;Liu, Huajing;Li, Hongtao;Sun, Yu
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1288-1299
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    • 2017
  • Composting is widely used to transform waste into valuable agricultural organic fertilizer. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their role in composting remains poorly understood. In the present study, the community structure, diversity, and abundance of anammox bacteria were analyzed using cloning and sequencing methods by targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the hydrazine oxidase gene (hzo) in samples isolated from compost produced from cow manure and rice straw. A total of 25 operational taxonomic units were classified based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and 14 operational taxonomic units were classified based on hzo gene clone libraries. The phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and deduced HZO protein sequences from the corresponding encoding genes indicated that the majority of the obtained clones were related to the known anammox bacteria Candidatus "Brocadia," Candidatus "Kuenenia," and Candidatus "Scalindua." The abundances of anammox bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR, and between $2.13{\times}10^5$ and $1.15{\times}10^6$ 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of compost were found. This study provides the first demonstration of the existence of anammox bacteria with limited diversity in cow manure composting.

A Study on Characteristics of Sediment from Pig Manure Slurry in Liquid Fertiluzer Storage Tank (돈분뇨 슬러리 액비저장조내 침전물 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Hun;Jeong, Kwang-Hwa;Kim, Jung-Gon;Khan, Modabber ahmerd;Kwag, Jung-Hun;Han, Deug-Woo
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2014
  • Liquid fertilization of pig manure slurry is very useful treatment method to recycle organic waste matter as a valuable fertilizer. The solids precipitate and accumulated at the bottom of liquid fertilization tank. The content of nitrogen and phosphate are higher in sediment than pig manure slurry. The pH of sediment was 7.53. S-COD/T-COD ratio of pig manure slurry and sediment were 0.477, 0.29, respectively. The moisture content of sediment of pig manure slurry and sediment were 80.45~83.82%, 97%, respectively. The content of organic matter of sediment was 8.79~10.56%. The content of nitrogen and phosphate of sediment and pig manure slurry were 9,000~11,100 mg/L, 9,100~11,100 mg/L, respectively. The particle size of pig manure slurry was distributed from 2 mm to 0.125 mm. On the other hand. the particle size of sediment was under 0.125 mm.

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Yield and Effective Components of Chrysanthemum boreale M. (질소시비가 산국의 수량과 유효성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyung-Dong;Yang, Min-Suk;Lee, Young-Bok;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.38-46
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    • 2002
  • Chrysanthemum boreale M. (hereafter, C. boreale M.), a perennial flower, has been historically used as a natural medicine in Korea. With increasing concerns for health-improving foods, the demand for C. boreale M. has become higher than ever. Howevr, the amount of wild C. boreale M. collected from mountainous areas is not enough to cover all demands. The cultivation system and fertilization strategy are required to meet increasing demand on C. boreale M. with a good quality. We investigated the effects of nitrogen application on plant growth and effective components of C. boreale M. to suggest optimum rate of nitrogen fertilization. C. boreale M. was cultivated in a pot scale (1/2000a scale), and nitrogen applied with rate of 0(N0), 50(N50), 100(N100), 150(N150), 200(N200), and $250(N250)kg\;ha^{-1}$. Phosphate and potassium were applied at the same level ($P_2O_5-K_2O=80-80kg\;ha^{-1}$) in all treatments. Maximum yield achieved in 246 and $226kg\;ha^{-1}$ N treatment on the whole plant and the flower part, a valuable part as a herbal medicine, respectively. Proline was the most abundant amino acid in the flower of C boreal M. and the contents of amino acids increased with increasing nitrogen application rate in flower. Nitrogen recovery efficiency was high more than 41% in all nitrogen treatments and increased to 61.8% in nitrogen N100 treatment. From the nitrogen content, the high nitrogen uptake, the low residue of mineral N and the reasonably good apparent fertilizer recovery, it can be inferred that C. boreale M. made efficient use of the available nitrogen. In flower, contents of Cumambrin A. which is a sesquiterpene compound and has the effect of blood-pressure reduction, decreased with increasing nitrogen application. However, the amount of Cumambrin A in flower increased as nitrogen rate increased, because of increasing flower yield. Conclusively, nitrogen fertilization could increase yields and enhance quality. The optimum nitrogen application rate might be on the range of $225{\sim}250kg\;ha^{-1}$ in a mountainous soil.

Evaluation of Possibility of Water Plant Wastes in Composting for Agricultural Recycling (수생식물 고사체의 농업적 재활용을 위한 퇴비화 가능성 평가)

  • Choi, Ik-Won;Seo, Dong-Cheol;Kang, Se-Won;Seo, Young-Jin;Lee, Sang-Gyu;Kang, Seog-Jin;Lim, Byung-Jin;Lee, Jun-Bae;Heo, Jong-Soo;Cho, Ju-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.248-252
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    • 2012
  • To evaluate the possibility of water plant wastes in composting for agricultural recycling, Phragmites communis (PHRCO), Typha orientalis (TYHOR) and Zizania latifolia (ZIZLA) were used as a compost materials. In composting basin, cumulative oxygen consumptions of the compost used by water plant wastes were rapidly increased at the early stage and slightly decreased in around 15 days. Cumulative oxygen consumptions under different water plant wastes were higher in the order of TYHOR > ZIZLA > PHRCO. Temperature changes during composting process were rapidly increased at the early stage and then slowly decreased to $30{\sim}40^{\circ}C$. The maximum temperatures were higher in the order of ZIZLA ($72.2^{\circ}C$ at 11 days after starting composting) > TYHOR ($70.2^{\circ}C$ at 10 days after starting composting) > PHRCO ($66.5^{\circ}C$ at 7 days after starting composting). Oxygen consumptions at maximum temperature were higher in the order of TYHOR ($12,485mg\;O_2\;kg^{-1}$) > ZIZLA ($12,400mg\;O_2\;kg^{-1}$) > PHRCO ($9,340mg\;O_2\;kg^{-1}$). Organic matter contents, moisture contents and OM/N rates in the compost ranged 39.5~44.8%, 29.6~35.6% and 27.9~32.9, respectively. Considering that water plant waste can supply some of the nutrient requirements of crops and is a valuable fertilizer.

Effects of KCl and Lime Application on Root Uptake of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{85}Sr\;and\;^{137}Cs$ Deposited during Growth of Major Crop Plants (염화칼리와 석회의 동시살포가 주요 작물의 생육중에 침적한 $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{85}Sr\;and\;^{137}Cs$의 뿌리흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Yong-Ho;Jo, Jae-Seong;Lee, Myung-Ho;Choi, Geun-Sik;Lee, Jeong-Ho
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.245-253
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    • 1995
  • The effects of a simultaneous application of KCl and lime on the root uptake of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{85}Sr\;and\;^{137}Cs$ by rice, soybean, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated through 2 years' greenhouse experiments. At their early growth stages, a mixed solution of the radionuclides was applied to the water or soil surfaces of the culture boxes filled with an acidic loamy-sandy soil for the upper 20cm and $83g/m^2$ of fertilizer KCl and $200g/m^2$ of slake lime were applied to the surfaces. Distribution of radioactivities among plant parts and change in uptake pattern with plant species were not, on the whole, significantly affected by the application. It reduced effectively soil-to-plant transfer factors of $^{85}Sr\;and\;^{137}Cs$ for rice, of all for Chinese cabbage and of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;and\;^{137}Cs$ for radish without their growth inhibition. In rice, $^{85}Sr$ showed the highest decrease $({\sim}60%)$ while, in Chinese cabbage and radish, $^{54}Mn$ did $({\sim}80%)$. The exprimental results can become valuable reference data to establish countermeasures against a radioactive contamination of farm-land during plant growth.

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