• Title, Summary, Keyword: valuable fertilizer

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Thermophilic Anaerobic Biodegradability of Agro-industrial Biomass (농축산바이오매스 고온 혐기성 생분해도 평가)

  • Heo, Namhyo;Kang, Ho;Lee, Seungheon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.101-101
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    • 2010
  • Anaerobic digestion(AD) is the most promising method for treating and recycling of different organic wastes, such as organic fraction of municipal solid waste, household wastes, animal manure, agro-industrial wastes, industrial organic wastes and sewage sludge. During AD, i.e. organic materials are decomposed by anaerobic forming bacteria and fina1ly converted to excellent fertilizer and biogas which is a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane. AD has been one of the leading technologies that can make a large contribution to produce renewable energy and to reduce $CO_2$ and other green-house gas(GHG) emission, it is becoming a key method for both waste treatment and recovery of a renewable fuel and other valuable co-products. Currently some 80% of the world's overall energy supply of about 400 EJ per year in derived from fossil fuels. Nevertheless roughly 10~15% of this demand is covered by biomass resources, making biomass by far the most important renewable energy source used to date. The representative biofuels produced from the biomass are bioethanol, biodiesel and biogas, and currently biogas plays a smaller than other biofuels but steadily growing role. Traditionally anaerobic digestion applied for different biowaste e.g. sewage sludge, manure, other organic wastes treatment and stabilization, biogas has become a well established energy resource. However, the biowaste are fairly limited in respect to the production and utilization as renewable source, but the plant biomass, the so called "energy crops" are used for more biogas production in EU countries and the investigation on the biomethane potential of different crops and plant materials have been carried out. In Korea, with steadily increasing oil prices and improved environmental regulations, since 2005 anaerobic digestion was again stimulated, especially on the biogasification of different biowastes and agro-industrial biomass including "energy crops". This study have been carried out to investigate anaerobic biodegradability by the biochemical methane potential(BMP) test of animal manures, different forage crops i.e. "energy crops", plant and industrial organic wastes in the condition of thermophilic temperature, The biodegradability of animal manure were 63.2% and 58.2% with $315m^3CH_4/tonVS$ of cattle slurry and $370m^3CH_4/tonVS$ of pig slurry in ultimate methane yields. Those of winter forage crops were the range 75% to 87% with ultimate methane yield of $378m^3CH_4/tonVS$ to $450m^3CH_4/tonVS$ and those of summer forage crops were the range 81% to 85% with ultimate methane yield of $392m^3CH_4/tonVS$ to $415m^3CH_4/tonVS$. The forge crops as "energy crops" could be used as good renewable energy source to increase methane production and to improve biodegradability in co-digestion with animal manure or only energy crop digestion.

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Bacterial Community Dynamics during Composting of Food Wastes (음식물 쓰레기 퇴비화 과정에 따른 세균군집 구조의 변화)

  • Shin, Ji-Hye;Lee, Jin-Woo;Nam, Ji-Hyun;Park, Se-Yong;Lee, Dong-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 2009
  • Composting is a biological process converting solid organic waste into valuable materials such as fertilizer. The change of bacterial populations in a composting reactor of food waste was investigated for 2 months. Based on shifts in temperature profile, the composting process could be divided into the first phase ($2^{\circ}C\sim55^{\circ}C$), the second phase ($55^{\circ}C\sim97^{\circ}C$), and the third phase ($50^{\circ}C\sim89^{\circ}C$). The number of total bacteria was $1.66\times10^{11}$ cell/g, $0.29\times10^{11}$ cell/g, and $0.28\times10^{11}$ cell/g in the first, second, and third stages, respectively. The proportions of thermophiles increased from 33% to 89% in the second stage. T-RFLP analysis and nucleotide sequencing of 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that the change of bacterial community structure was coupled with shifts in composting stages. The structure of bacterial community in the ultra-thermophilic second stage reflected that of seeding starter. The major decomposers driving the ultra-thermophilic composting were identified as phylotypes related to Bacillus and Pseudomonas.

Development of the Revegetation Technology for the Ecological Restoration of the Steep Rock-exposed Slopes by PEC Methods (PEC공법을 활용한 급경사 암비탈면의 생태복원녹화 기술개발에 관한 기초적 연구)

  • Kim, Nam-Chun;Jung, Ji-Jun;Lee, Byung-Jun;Kim, Sung-Ho;Kim, Yeon-Mee;Bae, Sun-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.98-109
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to develop revegetation methods for the restoration of the steep slopes by recycling of bark compost and mushroom media. In general, bark compost and mushroom media can be used as soil media for the restoration works, because they can increase infiltration of rainfall and give enough porous to breathe and elongate for the root growth as well as environmental value. This experiment was carried out to know the effect of soil media composed by different ratio of mushroom media for the restoration of steep rock-exposed slopes, and to certificate how soil media(PEC) will be effective to germinate and grow for native plants. The main results of the study are summarized as follows; 1. In percent coverage, the soil media PEC1 is more valuable than PEC2. The seed mixtures recommended by Government of Transportation and Construction can be used at PEC1 and PEC2, but it will be more useful if the total amount of seed are reduced and seed mixtures are altered in a direction of native plants. 2. The soil media is under 20 mm tested by Yamanaka Hardiness Tester which is available for the seed germination and growth. 3. The surface cracks are not occurred in PEC1 and PEC2, but more than 30 cracks per 1 square meter are occurred at soil media which is constructed by normal soil-seed-fertilizer hydro-seeding methods. 4. The soil moisture contents are over 20 percent level during 15 day. Such moisture content in soil media will be effective for the plant growth. By using Terra-Control, PEC can maintain enough soil moisture. 5. The eroded soils from $60^{\circ}$ slopes by artificial rainfall with the intensity of 20 mm/hr in one day after seeding are estimated under 1%. By the results of erosion test, it comes to the conclusion that soil media of PEC can be adapted at steep rock exposed slopes.

The Study on Evaluating Value for Developing Traditional Agriculture Technology (고농서에 나타난 전통농업기술의 개발가치 평가)

  • Rhee, Sang Young;Kim, Mi Heui;Choi, Jai Ung
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.243-269
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    • 2014
  • Traditional agriculture technology is absolutely valuable not only to preserve biological diversity but construct an eco-friendly agricultural system. As the awareness of food safety has been growing, traditional technologies in the past agriculture literatures have obtained more attention sine chemical or synthesized fertilizer and agricultural pesticide were not used in these traditional agriculture ways. This study aims to evaluate development values on six kinds of agriculture literatures published before initial 1970s using Delphi technique and Correspondence analysis. The domains of assesment are include livestock sanitation, breeding management, feeding program and an extra part which 261 traditional agriculture technologies were first extracted from. From these technologies, livestock experts deducted 228 items and selected items more than 3.0 from all three areas including usefulness, scientific characteristic and economical efficiency utilizing Delphi technique.: 35 items from usefulness, 31 items from scientific characteristic, and 18 items from economical efficiency. The 23 technology items were finalized after adding five modern feasibility items recommended by experts to 18 items gaining more than 3.0 in at least three areas. The agriculture technologies were categorized into four areas where were analyzed using Correspondence analysis. The results revealed that 'sustainable farming technology', 'scientific character verification', ' modernized technology development', and 'intellectual property right' were placed closely one another except 'economy efficiency'. The result implicated that scientific verification and economy efficiency should be considered in order to sustain traditional agriculture technology into a modernized way and to protect intellectual property right of these technologies.

A Study on the Geometrical Features of Soil Doundaries and Mapping Units for Consolidation Works of Arable Land (농경지(農耕地)의 기반조성(基盤造成)을 위한 작도단위(作圖單位) 및 배계(培界)의 기하학적(幾何學的) 형태(形態)에 관한 조사(調査))

  • Yoon, Eul-Soo;Jung, Yeun-Tae;Kim, Jung-Kon;Son, Il-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.6-11
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    • 1989
  • This investigation was conducted to get basic informations on land consolidation works and soil management for arable land. The characteristics of geometrical features of mapping units in the detailed soil maps of Korea were measured from 70 soil series (565 soil phases) by using a picture analysis system. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The mean values of the mapping units in extent, periphery, diameter of long axis and short axis, roundness and number of acute angles were 22.0ha, 2.267m, 911m, 0.104, and 3.5, respectively. It was suggested that "Simplicity Index of Mapping Unit", $=\frac{Extent\;in\;ara}{Length\;of\;boundary\;periphery\;in\;meter}{\times}\frac{1}{number\;of\;acute\;angle}$ be valuable to judge the complexity degrees of mapping units. 2. The size of mapping unit among physiographyic position was shown in order of Alluvial plains > Fluviomarine plains > Terraces > Hills > Fans > Mt. foot slopes > Valleys, and the simplicity index of mapping units also showed similar order of the extent. 3. The size and the simplicity index of the soils developed on plains with silty textured imperfectly drained were higher than the soils developed on sloped land with loamy textured. As the slopes getting steeper or relatively better in soil drainage, the size and the simplicity index became smaller. 4. The relationship between the simplicity index and the size of the farm unit divides by the land consolidation works was positively correlated. And it was concluded that the parcelling of the farm unit divides by the planning of land consolidation should be based on the soil boundaries of the detailed soil maps for mechanized or collaborated farming.

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Application of Non-photochemical Quenching on Screening of Osmotic Tolerance in Soybean Plants (콩의 삼투 저항성 검정에 있어서 Non-photochemical quenching의 적용)

  • Park, Sei-Joon;Kim, Hyun-Hee;Ko, Tae-Seok;Shim, Myong-Yong;Yoo, Sung-Yung;Park, So-Hyun;Kim, Tae-Gyeong;Eom, Ki-Cheol;Hong, Sun-Hee;Kim, Tae-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.390-399
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    • 2010
  • Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values for utilizing them to detect osmotic tolerance in plants were examined with two different soybean cultivars, an osmotic tolerant soybean (Shinpaldalkong 2) and a control soybean (Taekwangkong). Two different stresses were applied to the cultivars as the restricted irrigations of 200 and 50 ml water $pot^{-1}\;d^{-1}$ for 5 days for a control and a drought stress, respectively, and a sodium chloride solution of 200 mmol for 6 days for a salt stress. The intact leaves of the two cultivars after treatment were used to measure chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, maximum efficiencies of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm), efficiencies of photosystem II photochemistry (${\Phi}_{PSII}$), $CO_2$ assimilation rate ($P_N$), and NPQ. Leaf water potentials of the two cultivars decreased from - 0.2 to - 0.8MPa by a drought treatment and from - 0.7 to - 1.7MPa by a salt treatment. Leaf water content of Shinpaldalkong 2 after a salt treatment was less decreased than that of Taekwangkong. $F_v/F_m$ values of both cultivars were not changed, while ${\Phi}_{PSII}$ and $P_N$ were decreased proportionally to leaf water potential decrease. The response of NPQ was occurred in Shinpaldalkong 2 under the drought and salt stresses. With Taekwangkong cultivar, only drought stress referred NPQ response. The cultivar differences on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were found in the relationships between ${\Phi}_{PSII}$ and $P_N$, and between NPQ and ${\Phi}_{PSII}$. Although the positive relationships between ${\Phi}_{PSII}$ and $P_N$ were established on all treatments of both cultivars, the decreasing rate of ${\Phi}_{PSII}$ to $P_N$ was smaller in Shinpaldalkong 2 than Taekwangkong. The NPQ was increased according to the decrease of ${\Phi}_{PSII}$ by osmotic treatments in Shinpaldalkong 2. The complementary relationships between NPQ and ${\Phi}_{PSII}$ were well maintained at all treatments in Shinpaldalkong 2, while these relationships were lost at a salt treatment in Taekwangkong. Taken together, the results suggest that analysis of complementary relationships between ${\Phi}_{PSII}$ and NPQ could be more valuable and applicable for determining osmotic tolerance than single analysis of each parameter such as $F_v/F_m$, ${\Phi}_{PSII}$ and NPQ.

Effect of Tillage System and Livestock Manures on the Silage corn Production and NO3-N Concentration in Leaching Water (경운방법과 가축분뇨 시용이 옥수수의 생산성 및 질소의 용탈에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Min-Woong;Jo, Nam-Chul;Kim, Jong-Geun;Lim, Young-Chul;Choi, Ki-Choon;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Lee, Ki-Won;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.211-216
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    • 2009
  • Approximately 43 million tons of livestock manure (LM) are produced each year on Korean farms. LM can be utilized as a valuable resource and/or it can contaminate water by runoff and leaching through the soil, when LM has been thoughtlessly applied to the land and directly discharged into the water. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of no-till system and LM application on dry matter (DM) yield of silage corn and $NO_3$-N concentration in leaching water of lysimeter installed in the experimental field. The treatments were replicated three times in split plot design. Main plots consisted of tillage systems, such as conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT). Sub plots consisted of the type of LM, such as chemical fertilizer (CF), composted cattle manure (CCM) and composted swine manure (CSM). The control plots were fertilized as commercial chemical fertilizer. DM yields of corn increased significantly in order to CF > CCM > CSM (p<0.05). DM yield of corn in CT increased as comparing with that of corn in NT. Plant height, ear height and stem diameter also increased in order to CF > CCM > CSM. In addition, the root weight in CT was increased as comparing with that of corn in NT. However, there was no interaction effects of between type of LM and tillage system. $NO_3$-N concentration in leaching water of LM application was less than 10 ppm, but $NO_3$-N concentration in CF exceeded 10 ppm which is safety level of drinking water during summer time (rainfall season).

Spatial Characteristics of Pollutant Concentrations in the Streams of Shihwa Lake (시화호 유입하천의 수질오염물질 농도에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Jeong-Ik;Han, Ihn-Sup;Kim, Kyung-Tae;Ra, Kong-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.289-299
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    • 2011
  • We studied the characteristics of pollutant concentrations in 9 streams that flow into Shihwa Lake in order to provide the scientific data for effective implementation of total pollution loads management system (TPLMS) of the Lake. Suspended solid (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved nutrients ($NO_2$, $NO_3$, $NH_4$, $PO_4$ and $SiO_2$), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in stream water from industrial complexes, urban and agricultural regions were determined. Pollutant concentrations in December were higher than that in other sampling periods. COD concentration from industrial complex region with average of 12.6 mg/L was 2 times higher those from urban region (6.6 mg/L) and agricultural region (5.9 mg/L). TP concentration from industrial region also showed higher concentration than other regions. TN concentration in stream water was 5.89 mg/L for industrial region, 3.02 mg/L for urban region and 5.27 mg/L for agricultural region, respectively, suggesting inflow of TN due to fertilizer usage in agricultural field. Relative percentage of nitrogen compounds in TN follows the sequence: $NH_4$ (35.1%) > $NO_2$ (20.0%) > DON (22.8%) > PON (8.9%) > $NO_2$ (3.2%). Concentrations of dissolved nutrients, TP and TN in stream water were 3.2~37.2 times higher than that in Shihwa Lake seawater, therefore large amount of pollutants may be directly entered into Shihwa Lake without any treatment. For Gunja stream of industrial region, pollutants at midstream showed relatively higher concentration compared to upstream and downstream. It is necessary to manage the illegal discharging of sewage and waste water. Our results provide valuable informations on the estimation and reduction of total pollutant loads in the process of establishing adequately strategic and implemental plan of Shihwa Lake TPLMS.