• Title, Summary, Keyword: vinegars

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Chemical Characterization of Commercial Vinegars (식초의 종류별 화학성분의 특징)

  • Yoon, Hee-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1440-1446
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    • 1999
  • Fourty-two commercial vinegars were analyzed for their non-volatile organic acids, free sugars. amino acids, and volatile compounds. A study was made to characterize commercial vinegars chemically into three kinds of vinegars such as spirit, cider, and brown rice vinegars. Sixteen chemical components were significantly effective for the chemical characterization of commercial vinegars by stepwise discriminant analysis. Those were malic, succinic and lactic acids from the non-volatile organic acids; fructose and glucose from the free sugars; lysine, serine, leucine, valine and alanine from the amino acids; 1-hexanol, acetaldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylpropanoic acid, isopropyl butanoate and ethanol from the volatile compounds. Six components including malic acid, lysine, succinic acid, glucose, lactic acid and 1-hexanol were the most significant contributors to the differentiation of commercial vinegars into spirit, cider, and brown rice vinegars. In particular, cider vinegars could be characterized to be abundant in amounts of malic acid and 1-hexanol, whereas brown rice vinegars in amounts of lysine and lactic acid compared to spirit vinegars.

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Quality Comparison of Potato Vinegars Produced by Various Acetobacter Bacteria (초산균에 따른 감자식초의 품질 비교)

  • 서지형;정용진;김주남;우철주;윤성란;김대현
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.60-65
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    • 2001
  • To investigate the effect of Acetobacter on qualities of potato vinegars, potato vinegars were produced through acetic acid fermentation using 3 Acetobacters such as Acetobacter sp. PA97, Acetobacter sp. PA96 and Acetobacter pasterianus JK 99. There were little difference in pH(2.90∼3.09) and total acidities(5.30∼5.60%) of 3 potato vinegars. However potato vinegar(II) fermented by Acetobacter sp. PA96 showed a little difference in color values with other potato vinegars. Except acetic acid in each potato vinegars, the contents of citric acid, oxalic acid, succinic acid were high in potato vinegar(I), malic acid in potato vinegar(II) and lactic acid in potato vinegar(III). The contents of glutamic acid alanine, histidine and proline were high in all potato vinegars. The major volatile components in 3 potato vinegars were acetic acid, isoamyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-butanoic acid and phenethyl alcohol. Also composition ratio of volatile components was a little difference among 3 potato vinegars.

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Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Fruit Vinegars with Different Fermentation Methods (시판 과일식초의 발효방법에 따른 이화학적 특성 비교)

  • Kim, Kyung-Oh;Kim, Seong-Mi;Kim, Su-Mi;Kim, Dong-Young;Jo, Deokjo;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.736-742
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    • 2013
  • The physiochemical properties of commercial fruit vinegars were compared according to fermentation methods. Type A vinegars were synthesized through acetic acid fermentation while Type B vinegars were produced using both alcohol and acetic acid fermentation serially. There were differences from using these fermentation methods; Type A vinegars had a lower pH and slightly higher total acidity than Type B vinegars. The content of total sugar and reducing sugar were relatively higher in Type B vinegars, which showed a higher content of the free sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose). The intensity of brown color and Hunter's a and b values were also high in Type B vinegars. In contrast, the content of organic acids was higher in Type A vinegars, which were mainly composed of acetic, tartaric, malic, and succinic acid. We were also able to estimate the fruit juice content of vinegars through its content of organic acids. Type B vinegars contained a higher total phenolics and flavonoids content than Type A vinegars, and showed a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity.

Antimutagenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Potato Vinegar (감자식초의 항돌연변이원성 및 세포독성 효과)

  • 함승시;김미남;정용진;이득식
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to examine the antimutagenic and cytotoxic effects of potato vinegar and commercial vinegars(cider, brown rice, persimmon vinegars) on Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and cancer cell lines using Ames test and cytotoxicity assay, respectively. In Ames test, all vinegars did notexhibit any mutagenicity , but showed substantial inhibitory effects against N- methyl - N -nitro - N- nitrosog -uanidine(MNNG) , 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide(4NQO), 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indol(Trp-P-1)and benzo( $\alpha$ )pyrene(B( $\alpha$ )P). The number of revertants per plate decreased significantly when these vinegars(80 ug/plate) were added to the assay system using TA100 strain. Especially, potato vinegar(80 ug/plate) showed high inhibition rate of 69.9% against mutagenicity of B( $\alpha$ )P on TA100 strain. In the cytotoxicity assay, these vinegars also showed prominent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. Potato vinegar(10 ug/well) showed the strongest cytotoxic effect against HT1080 (fibrosacoma cell) andK562 ( myelogenous leukemia) at the same concentration when compared with other vinegars.

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Physicochemical Properties of Markdting and Intensive Persimmon Vinegars (시판 및 속성 감식초의 이화학적 특성)

  • 정용진;서권일;김광수
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.355-363
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    • 1996
  • Physicochemical properties of marketing and intensive persimmon vinegar were investigated, the results are as following; Total acidity in D, H, S, J, sweet persimmon(SP) and persimmon vinegar were 4.20, 3.03, 2.58, 3.30, 5.92 and 5.81%, respectively, and the value of intensive persimmon(IP) vinegars wre higher than that of others. SP sample was lower than any other vinegar as compared to L value in colors, no sample was lower than H and S vinegar inturbidity and browning. Brix of IP samples were lower than that of other vinegars, there was a little fructose in the all samples. Among the organic acids, galacturonic acid content except acetic acid was the highest, and ascorbic and malic acid were detected a little, Calium content was the highest of minerals in persimmon vinegars, phosphorus was detected a little. Alcohols of 5~6 types were analyzed in each samples, free amino acids of 17~24 dypes were analyzed, D and IP vinegars have more acohols and amino acids, and their contents were higher than the others. Volatile components of 6~9 types were analyzed in each samples, these have more ethanols except acetic acids than other volatile components, and the contents of IP samples were higher than that of marketing persimmon vinegars.

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Comparison of Traditional and Commercial Vinegars Based on Metabolite Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

  • Jang, Yu Kyung;Lee, Mee Youn;Kim, Hyang Yeon;Lee, Sarah;Yeo, Soo Hwan;Baek, Seong Yeol;Lee, Choong Hwan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.217-226
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    • 2015
  • Metabolite profiles of seven commercial vinegars and two traditional vinegars were performed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analysis. During alcohol fermentation, yeast, nuruk, and koji were used as sugars for nutrients and as fermentation substrates. Commercial and traditional vinegars were significantly separated in the principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis. Six sugars and sugar alcohols, three organic acids, and two other components were selected as different metabolites. Target analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry were used to detect several metabolites having antioxidant activity, such as cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, and quercetin, which were mainly detected in Rural Korean Black raspberry vinegar (RKB). These metabolites contributed to the highest antioxidant activity measured in RKB among the nine vinegars. This study revealed that MS-based metabolite profiling was useful in helping to understand the metabolite differences between commercial and traditional vinegars and to evaluate the association between active compounds of vinegar and antioxidant activity.

The Quality Comparison of Apple Vinegar by Two Stages Fermentation with Commercial Apple Vinegar (2단계 발효에 의한 사과식초와 시판 사과식초이 품질비교)

  • 정용진;서지형;이기동;박난영;최태호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.353-358
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    • 1999
  • We produced the apple vinegar with only apple fruits, no adding sugar and others through two stages fermentation(alcohol fermentation and acetic acid fermentation). At the first stage, apple wine contained 5% alcohol was produced at the 5th day. And through the second stage, acetic acid fer mentation, apple vinegars of which total acidity is 5.88% were produced. In comparision with com mercial vinegars for physicochemical quality, it was the lowest in total acidity. But contents of oxalic, tartaric, malic, citric, succinic acid in it were higher than other vinegars. Especially the content of malic acid in it was higher 5 times than other vinegars. Malic acid was known that it was abundant in apple fruits. Also the contents of free amino acids were distinctly high such as 21.97mg% in two stages fermented apple vingars. Potassium content in it was higher 4 times than other vinegars. So it was supposed that two stages fermented vinegar had much higher quality than commercial vinegars.

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Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Commercial Vinegars with High Acidity (시판 고산도 식초의 이화학적 품질 및 항산화 특성)

  • Jo, Deokjo;Park, Eun-Joo;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.1204-1210
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    • 2013
  • Various commercial vinegars of high-strength acidity (10% or more of total acidity) were investigated to compare their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The total acidity of double-strength vinegars was relatively lower than triple-strength vinegars. Irrespective of the acidity, sugar and reducing sugar content ranged from $7.00{\sim}10.80^{\circ}Bx$ and 1.32~3,885.90 mg%, respectively. Free sugars were mainly composed of fructose and glucose, and were relatively high in double-strength vinegars. The content of acetic acid (a principal organic acid in vinegars) increased with acidity, but oxalic acid was not identified in commercial high-strength acidity vinegars. Double-strength vinegars using malt extracts were the highest in free amino acid content, showing 24 kinds of amino acids. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids was highest in apple vinegars of double-strength acidity, which affected the scavenging ability of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Overall, the quality of high-strength acidity vinegars was affected by its content and production methods, and double-strength acidity vinegar using apples showed the best antioxidant activities.

Physicochemical Properties of and Volatile Components in Commercial Fruit Vinegars (시판 과실식초의 이화학적 품질 및 향기성분 비교)

  • Kim, Gui-Ran;Yoon, Sung-Ran;Lee, Ji-Hyun;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Yoon, Kyung-Young;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.616-624
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    • 2010
  • We compared the physicochemical properties of, and volatile components in various commercial fruit vinegars (made from apples, grapes, and persimmons). Total acidity was highest in grape vinegars. Significant between-sample differences were evident in total and reducing sugar contents. Brownness, turbidity, and overall color difference (the ${\Delta}E$ value) were highest in persimmon vinegars. Free sugars were composed mainly of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose. Major organic acids were present in the (descending abundance) order acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and succinic acid, among-samples difference were negligible. Nine-essential free amino acids were detected in nine types of grape and persimmon vinegars, and in six varieties of apple vinegar. Among 17 types of volatile compounds identified in apple vinegars, 12 in grape vinegars, and 33 in persimmon vinegars, the main volatile components were acetic acid, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, isovaleric acid, isoamyl alcohol, propanoic acid and phenethyl acetate. Volatile chemicals in commercial fruit vinegars were effectively analyzed using a SAW e-nose.

Quality Comparison of Static-culture and Commercial Brown Rice Vinegars (정치배양 및 시판 현미식초의 품질특성 비교)

  • Woo, Seung-Mi;Jo, Yong-Jun;Lee, Su-Won;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Jeong, Yong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.301-307
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    • 2012
  • The quality of brown rice vinegar that was produced via static culture (A) was compared with the quality of three types of domestic commercial brown rice vinegar (B, C, and D) and of three types of Japanese brown rice vinegar (E, F, and G). The results showed titratable acidity levels of 6.39%, 4.52-6.32%, and 4.51-4.89% in the static-cultured brown rice vinegar, the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars, and the Japanese brown rice vinegars, respectively. The pH levels were 3.28, 2.58-2.97, and 3.03-3.27 in the static-culture brown rice vinegar, the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars, and the Japanese brown rice vinegars, respectively, which show similar values of the static-culture brown rice vinegar and the Japanese brown rice vinegars. The total nitrogen (TN) values of the static-culture brown rice vinegar, the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars, and the Japanese brown rice vinegars were 0.24, 0.03-0.16, and 0.12-0.17, respectively, with the highest value for the static-culture brown rice vinegar, substantial differences among the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars, and similar contents among the Japanese brown rice vinegars. For free sugar, glucose was either detected only in a small quantity or not detected at all in the static-culture brown rice vinegar and the Japanese brown rice vinegars, which showed perfect fermentation. The glucose and maltose contents were higher in the domestic commercial brown rice vinegars. The organic acid content of the static-culture brown rice vinegar was similar to that of the Japanese brown rice vinegars. Therefore, the total acidity content, TN value, sensory property, and quality of the static-culture brown rice vinegar (A) were superior to those of the domestic and Japanese brown rice vinegars.