• Title, Summary, Keyword: volatile compounds

Search Result 2,060, Processing Time 0.04 seconds

Compilation of volatile flavor compounds in Cheonggukjang and Doenjang (청국장과 된장의 휘발성 향기성분 데이터베이스)

  • Baek, Hyung Hee
    • Food Science and Industry
    • /
    • v.50 no.4
    • /
    • pp.24-49
    • /
    • 2017
  • Volatile flavor compounds of cheonggukjang and doenjang, which are the most representative Korean soybean fermented foods, were compiled throughout literature review. Total of 225 and 404 volatile flavor compounds were found in cheonggukjang and doenjang, respectively. The most characteristic volatile flavor compounds in cheonggukjang are thought to be pyrazine compounds. In addition, acids, such as 2-methyl propanoic acid, butanoic acid, 2-methyl butanoic acid, and 3-methyl butanoic acid, contribute to aroma characteristics of cheonggukjang. On the other hand, ester compounds are the most predominant volatile flavor compounds in doenjang. Ninety six ester compounds were detected in doenjang while 22 ester compounds were identified in cheonggukjang. Pyrazine compounds and acids also play an important role in the flavor of doenjang. Compilation of volatile flavor compounds from cheonggukjang and doenjang will provide basic information to food industry to understand and improve aroma characteristics of cheonggukjang and doenjang.

Changes in Volatile Sulfur Compounds of Garlic under Various Cooking Conditions (조리조건에 따른 마늘의 휘발성 함황화합물의 변화)

  • 배현주;전희정
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.365-371
    • /
    • 2002
  • This study was performed to find the changes in volatile sulfur compounds of garlic under various cooking conditions. The volatile sulfur compounds of garlic were identified with GC and GC/MS. The results of the study were summarized as follows : Chopped garlic boiled for 30min and 60min had more volatile sulfur compounds than that of fresh garlic, while 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin decreased by boiling. Whole garlic boiled for 30min and 60min had less volatile sulfur compounds than that of fresh garlic, while allyl methyl trisulfide diallyl trisulfide increased by boiling. Analyzing the change of volatile sulfur compounds under cooking methods, the order that showed more volatile sulfur compounds was as follows : grilling > frying > steaming > boiling > microwave oven cooking > pressure cooking.

Alteration of Inflammatory Cytokines by Volatile Organic Compounds in T Lymphocytes

  • Lee, Ji-Sook;Kim, In-Sik
    • Biomedical Science Letters
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.39-45
    • /
    • 2011
  • In the present study, we investigated whether volatile organic compounds induce inflammatory response in human T lymphocytes by evaluating the alteration of inflammatory cytokines. Volatile organic compounds such as formaldehyde, o-xylene, benzene, and hydroquinone have no cytotoxic effects on Jurkat T cells at a high concentration of 50 ${\mu}M$ for 48 h. IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-${\gamma}$ were increased after the treatment with volatile organic compounds, although alteration of cytokines is different among volatile organic compounds. LPS as a positive control increased the secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-${\gamma}$. MCP-1 and CCL17 (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, TARC) were weakly increased after the treatment with volatile organic compounds but the amount of the increased cytokine was below 20 pg/ml. These results suggest that the measurement of cytokine in Jurkat T cells may be used as a useful method for evaluating the toxicity of volatile organic compounds in immune response.

Relevance between Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC) Exposure Level and Environmental Diseases Within Residential Environments (주거환경 내의 Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) 노출수준과 환경성질환과의 관련성)

  • Lee, Dong-Hyun;Chung, Jin-Do
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.37 no.3
    • /
    • pp.193-200
    • /
    • 2011
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the level of exposure to volatile organic compounds for different kinds of households in apartments or houses and analyze the relation between atopy-related symptoms and concentration of volatile organic compounds in order to improve indoor air quality and start to build a process to prevent environmental diseases. Method: From July 2010 to November 2010, TVOC concentration levels were measured and analyzed in 402 general households and 236 weak households, totalling 638 households. Residents were asked to fill out a survey on environmental disease. All resources were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 program. Result: In comparing the differences in concentration levels of volatile organic compounds for different types of households, including existing apartments and houses, the type of housing did not affect the concentration level of volatile organic compounds, but the relevance with skin trouble, diagnosed atopy, and atopy systems all had statistical similarities. Moreover, above-limit volatile organic compounds showed statistical relevance with amount of ventilation, time of construction, skin trouble, diagnosed atopy and atopy symptoms. Conclusion: The study concludes that as the time of construction recedes further into the past and as the amount of ventilation is higher, the exposure level to volatile organic compounds was lower and the group that were suffering from atopy symptoms had higher exposure to volatile organic compounds.

Changes in Volatile Sulfur Compounds of Garlic under Short-term Storage Conditions (단기간 저장조건을 달리한 마늘의 휘발성 함황화합물의 변화)

  • 배현주;전희정
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.17-23
    • /
    • 2003
  • This study was performed to find the changes in volatile sulfur compounds of garlic under various storage conditions. The volatile sulfur compounds of garlic were identified with GC and GC/MS. Analysis on the detected volatile sulfur compound of garlic which is known to have medical effect was performed while storing for two days at room temperature and for 1, 3 and 7 days at 4$^{\circ}C$ and -18$^{\circ}C$, respectively. The results of the study were summarized as follows : Total amount of 7 volatile sulfur compounds was the highest in the sample stored at room temperature for one hour. During the storage of 1, 3 and 7 days at -18$^{\circ}C$, chopped garlic contained more of volatile sulfur compounds than under any other storage conditions and the amounts of 7 volatile sulfur compounds increased gradually during the storage of chopped garlic.

Volatile Compounds of Orange Wines Produced with and without Peel Contact

  • Fan, Gang;Yao, Xiaolin;Xu, Yongxia;Li, Huanhuan;Fu, Hongfei;Wang, Kexing;Pan, Siyi
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.18 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1322-1329
    • /
    • 2009
  • The present study focused on the effects of peel contact on the volatile compounds of orange wines. The volatile compounds were analyzed by sensory and instrumental analyses. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used for extraction of volatile compounds. A total of 19 and 27 volatile compounds were identified in without and with peel contact wines respectively. Esters were quantitatively the dominant group of volatile compounds in without peel contact wines, while terpenes were the most abundant compounds in peel contact wines. Totally 11 and 14 new formed compounds were found in without and with peel contact wines, mainly were esters, alcohols, and acids. According to sensory analysis, the peel contact wine showed a more citrus-like and fruity aroma than the wines without peel contact.

Evaluation of Volatile Compounds Isolated from Pork Loin (Longissimus dorsi) as Affected by Fiber Type of Solid-phase Microextraction (SPME), Preheating and Storage Time

  • Park, Sung-Yong;Yoon, Young-Mo;Schilling, M. Wes;Chin, Koo-Bok
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.29 no.5
    • /
    • pp.579-589
    • /
    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of heating, fiber type used in solid-phase microextraction (SPME, two phase vs three phase) and storage time on the volatile compounds of porcine M. longissimus dorsi (LD). Volatile compounds were measured using a gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with a quadrupole mass analyzer. Among the volatile compounds identified, aldehydes (49.33%), alcohols (24.63%) and ketones (9.85%) were higher in pre-heated loins ($100^{\circ}C$/30 min), whereas, alcohols (34.33%), hydrocarbons (22.84%) and ketones (16.88%) were higher in non-heated loins. Heating of loins induced the formation of various volatile compounds such as aldehydes (hexanal) and alcohols. The total contents of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and carboxylic acids were higher in two phase fibers, whereas those of esters tended to be higher in three-phase fibers (p<0.05). Most volatile compounds increased (p<0.05) with increased storage time. Thus, the analysis of volatile compounds were affected by the fiber type, while heating and refrigerated storage of pork M. longissimus dorsi increased the volatile compounds derived from lipid oxidation and amino acid catabolism, respectively.

Volatile Compounds in Oyster Hydrolysate Produced by Commercial Protease

  • Cha, Yong-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.420-426
    • /
    • 1995
  • Volatile compounds in raw oyster and oyster hydrolysate produced with protease were compared by vacuum simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sixty-two volatile compounds were detected in both samples. Of these, 57 were positively identified, composed mainly of aldehydes(12), ketones(9), alcohols(14), nitrogen-containing compounds(9), acids(6), terpenes(4), and miscellneous compounds(8). Levels of acids decreased after hydrolysis, whereas several other compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, and nitrogen containing compounds increased. Pyrazines, found in high abundance, were only detected in oyster hydrolysate.

  • PDF

The Effect of Roasting Temperature on the Formation of Volatile Compounds in Chinese-Style Pork Jerky

  • Chen, W.S.;Liu, D.C.;Chen, M.T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.3
    • /
    • pp.427-431
    • /
    • 2002
  • The purpose of this work was to study the effect of roasting temperature on the production of volatile compounds in Chinese-style pork jerky. The pork jerky was roasted by far-infrared grill at $150^{\circ}C$ or $200^{\circ}C$ for 5 min. The analysis of volatile compounds using a Likens-Nickerson apparatus coupled to a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer enabled us to identify 21 volatile compounds. The results showed that the volatile compounds coming from pork jerky can be divided into two groups in accordance with their possible origins. The first group of volatile compounds derived from oxidation of lipid included hexanal, ethylbenzene, nonanal, benzaldehyde, 2,4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol, octadecanal, and 9-octadecenal. The second group of volatile compounds generated from degradation of natural spices included 1,8-cinene, 4-terpineol, ${\alpha}$-terpineol, e-anethole, methyl-eugenol, panisaldehyde, elemol, eugenol, methyl-isoeugenol and myristicin. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between 2 different roasted temperatures at levels for all volatile compounds.

Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Elsholtzia splendens by Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME에 의한 꽃향유의 휘발성 향기성분 분석)

  • 정미숙;이미순
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.79-82
    • /
    • 2003
  • Volatile compounds in Elsholtzia splendens were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME). Two kinds of SPME fiber, carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were used to determine the selectivity of the fibers to the different flavor compounds present in the Elsholtzia splendens. Identification of volatile compounds was based on the linear retention indices (RI) and the comparison of their mass spectra with those of on-computer library. Thirty compounds were identified in the volatile compounds extracted by CAR/PDMS fiber, including 1 aldehyde, 5 alcohols, 3 hydrocarbons, 17 terpene hydrocarbons, 3 ketones and 1 miscellaneous. And 5 alcohols, 3 hydrocarbons, 18 terpene hydrocarbons, 3 ketones and 2 miscellaneouses were identified in PDMS fiber. These results suggested that the selectivity of PDMS fiber was similar to that of CAR/PDMS fiber in Elsholtzia splendens. The major volatile compounds were naginataketone and elsholtziaketone in Elsholtzia splendens.