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Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality in a Department of Radiation Oncology Located Underground (지하에 위치한 방사선종양학과에서의 실내공기 질 평가)

  • Kim, Won-Taek;Shin, Yong-Chul;Kang, Dong-Mug;Ki, Yong-Kan;Kim, Dong-Won;Kwon, Byung-Hyun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.243-252
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Indoor air quality (IAQ) in the radiation treatment center which is generally located underground is important to the health of hospital workers and patients treated over a long period of time. this study was conducted to measure and analyze the factors related to IAQ and subjective symptoms of sick building syndrome, and to establish the causes influencing IAQ and find a solution to the problems. Methods and Materials : Self administrated questionnaire was conducted to check the workers' symptoms and understanding of the work environment. Based on a preliminary investigation, the factors related to IAQ such as temperature, humidity, fine particulate. carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), and radon gas were selected and measured for a certain period of time in specific sites where hospital workers stay long in a day. And we also evaluated the surrounding environment and the efficiency of the ventilating system simultaneously, and measured the same factors at the first floor (outdoor) to compare with outdoor all quality, All collected data were assessed by the recommended standard for IAQ of the domestic and international environmental organizations. Results: Hospital workers were discontented with foul odors, humidity and particulate. They complained symptoms related to musculo-skeletal system, neurologic system, and mucosal-irritatation. Most of the factors were not greater than the recommended standard, but the level of TVOC was third or fourth times as much as the measuring level of some offices in the United States. The frequency and the amount of the ventilating system were adequate, however, the problem arising in the position of outdoor-air inlets and indoor-air outlets involved a risk of the indraft of contaminated air. A careful attention was a requirement in handling and keeping chemical substances including a developing solution which has a risk of TVOC emissions, and repositioning the ventilating system was needed to solve the contaminated-air circulation immediately Conclusion We verified that some IAQ-related factors and inadequate ventilating system could cause subjective symptoms in hospital workers. The evaluation of IAQ was surely needed to improve the underground working environments for hospital workers and patients. On the basis of these data, from now on, we should actively engage in designs of the department of radiation oncology or improvement in environments of the existing facilities.

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON ORAL BACTERIA (구강 내 세균에 대한 Essential oil의 항균효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sun-Young;Kim, Jae-Gon;Baik, Byeong-Ju;Yang, Yeon-Mi;Lee, Kyung-Yeol;Lee, Yong-Hoon;Kim, Mi-A
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2009
  • Essential oils are mixture of volatile, lipophilic compounds originating from plants. Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibacterial, antifungal, spasmolytic and antiplasmodial activities and insect-repellent property. In this study, five essential oils, namely R, LG, FR, O, and NM, extracted from various aromatic plants were used to test their antimicrobial activity against the oral microorganisms. The effects of essential oils were investigated against eight important bacteria, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis), Streptococcus anginosus (S. anginosus), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Essential oils, except NM, effectively inhibited the growth of tested oral pathogenic microorganisms dose-dependently. However, the essential oils didn't show a significant inhibitory effect against E. coli and S. epidermidis. Consequently, these results represented that essential oil-mediated anti-microbial activity was prominent against the oral pathogenic bacteria. For example, minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) of R, LG, FR oil against A. actinomycetemcomitans was very low as 0.078 mg/mL. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R, LG, FR, O oil against S. mutans was low as 0.156 mg/mL in vitro.

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Development and Application of Okara-based Adhesives for Plywood Panels (두부비지를 이용한 합판용 접착제의 개발 및 적용)

  • Oh, Sei-Chang;Ahn, Sye-Hee;Choi, In-Gyu;Jeong, Han-Seob;Yoon, Young-Ho;Yang, In
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.30-38
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    • 2008
  • Petroleum-based resin adhesives have extensively been used for the production of wood panels. However, with the increase of manufacturing cost and the environmental issue, such as the emission of volatile organic compounds, of the adhesive resins, it is necessary to be developed new adhesive systems. In this study, the potential of okara, which is a residue wasted from the production of tofu, for the development of bio-based adhesives was investigated. At first, the physical and chemical properties of okara were examined. After okara was hydrolyzed in acidic and/or alkaline solutions, okara-based adhesive resins were formulated with the mixtures of the okara hydrolyzates and phenol formaldehyde (PF) prepolymer. The adhesive resins were used for the fabrication of plywood panels, and then the adhesive strength and formaldehyde emission of the plywood panels were measured to examine the applicability of the resin adhesives for the production of plywood panels. The solids content and pH of the okara used in this study were around 20% and weak acidic state, respectively. In the analysis of its chemical composition, the content of carbohydrate was the highest, and followed by protein. The shear strengths of plywood fabricated with okara-based resin adhesives exceeded a minimum requirement of KS standard for ordinary plywood, but its wood failure did not reach the minimum requirement. In addition, the formaldehyde emissions of all plywood panels were higher than that of E1 specified in the KS standard. Based on these results, okara has the potential to be used as a raw material of environmentally friendly adhesive resin systems for the production of wood panels, but further researches - biological hydrolysis of okara and various formulations of PF prepolymer - are required to improve the adhesive strength and formaldehyde emission of okara-based resin adhesives.

The Qualities of Liquor Distilled from Ipguk (koji) or Nuruk under Reduced or Atmospheric Pressure (입국과 누룩으로 제조한 술의 감압과 상압증류 특성)

  • Lee, Dae Hyoung;Lee, Yong Sun;Cho, Chang Hui;Park, In Tae;Kim, Hui-Dong;Kim, Jae-Ho;Ahn, Byung Hak
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to analyze the general ingredients and volatile compounds of ipguk (koji) and nuruk soju distilled under reduced pressure (RP) or atmospheric pressure (AP) conditions. After the secondary brewing process, soju made using ipguk had a final fermentation alcohol content of $18.0{\pm}0.6%$, whereas soju made using nuruk reached $14.3{\pm}1.7%$. The level of succinic acid was the highest in ipguk soju ($7,685.33{\pm}34.97$ ppm), but nuruk soju also showed a high level of succinic acid ($5,945.79{\pm}76.30$ ppm) after its final fermentation. In an analysis of fusel alcohol content, the level of n-propanol in ipguk soju (389.10-397.27 ppm) was similar under different RP (50 cm Hg and 60 cm Hg) and AP conditions ($80^{\circ}C$ and $90^{\circ}C$). Under RP and AP conditions, the isoamyl alcohol/isobutanol (A/B) ratio was similar, ranging from 1.32-1.35. In ipguk soju distilled under RP conditions of 50 cm Hg and 60 cm Hg, the amount of the toxic component, acetaldehyde, was 8.59 and 9.27 ppm, respectively. Under AP conditions, the amount of acetaldehyde in ipguk soju distilled at 80 and $90^{\circ}C$ was 9.80 and 10.63 ppm, respectively, indicating that the amount of acetaldehyde did not differ depending on the distilling method used. These results suggest that the liquor distilled from the mash produced using ipguk under RP conditions may be of a higher quality.

Development of Mobile Vortex Wet Scrubber and Evaluation of Gas Removal Efficiency (기체상 유해화학물질 제거를 위한 이동형 와류식 세정장치 개발 및 가스 제거효율 분석)

  • Kwak, Ji Hyun;Hwang, Seung-Ryul;Lee, Yeon-Hee;Kim, Jae-Young;Song, Ki Bong;Kim, Kyun;Kang, Jae Eun;Lee, Sang Jae;Jeon, Junho;Lee, Jin Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.134-138
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: In recent years, several researchers have focused on odour control methods to remove the harmful chemicals from chemical accidents and incidents. The present work deals with the system development of the hazardous. METHODS AND RESULTS: For on-site removal of hazardous gaseous materials from chemical accidents, mobile vortex wet scrubber was designed with water vortex process to absorb the gas into the water. The efficiency of the mobile vortex wet scrubber was evaluated using water spray and 25% ammonia solution. The inlet air velocity (gas flow rate) was according to the damper angle installed within the hood and with increase of gas flow rate, consequently the absorption efficiency was markedly decreased. In particular, when 25% ammonia solution was exposed to the hood inlet for 30 min, the water pH within the scrubber was changed from 7 to 12. Interestingly, although the removal efficiency of ammonia gas exhibited approximately 80% for 5 min, its efficiency in 10 min showed the greatest decrease with 18%. Therefore, our results suggest that the ammonia gas may be absorbed with the driving force of scrubbing water in water vortex process of this scrubber. CONCLUSION: When chemical accidents are occurred, the designed compact scrubber may be utilized as effective tool regarding removal of ammonia gas and other volatile organic compounds in the scene of an accident.

Antioxidant Activity and Main Volatile Flavor Components of Mulberry Wine Fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-8 (토종발효미생물을 이용한 오디 발효주의 항산화 활성 및 향기성분 분석)

  • Chae, Kyu Seo;Jung, Ji Hye;Yoon, Hae Hoon;Son, Rak Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.1017-1024
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to develop mulberry wines fermented with traditional microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae B-8). S. cerevisiae B-8 is a traditional fermentation microorganism isolated from domestically grown Rubus occidentalis. Each S. cerevisiae B-8 and Fermivin was inoculated into mulberry up to $1{\times}10^9$ CFU/kg, followed by incubation at $25^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. Mulberry fermented with S. cerevisiae B-8 (MBB) had a high alcohol content (16.47%), and the fermentation rate of MBB was faster than that of mulberry fermented with Fermivin (MBF). The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of MBB were higher than those of MBF. DPPH radical scavenging activity of MBB was as high as that of MBF. ABTS radical scavenging activity of MBF was higher than those of MBB and mulberry juice (MBJ). In addition, reducing power of MBB was much higher than other samples. Flavor constituents of the two fermented wines were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Twenty-three compounds from the sample were separated and identified as fifteen esters, six alcohols, an aldehyde, and an acetate. Particularly, tetradecanoic acid, ethyl ester of orris and violet flavor were ten times more abundant in MBB than in MBF. Several ester components were two times more abundant in MBB than in MBF. In conclusion, current findings indicate that MBB might have better antioxidant activities with flavor, which contributes to improved wine production with high quality and function.

Analysis of volatile compounds and metals in essential oil and solvent extracts of Amomi Fructus (사인으로부터 추출한 정유와 용매 추출물의 휘발성 물질 및 금속성분 분석)

  • Lee, Sam-Keun;Eum, Chul Hun;Son, Chang-Gue
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.436-445
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    • 2015
  • Amomi Fructus with anti-oxidative activity was chosen and essential oil was obtained by SDE (simultaneous distillation extraction), and 39 constituents were determined by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Major components were camphor, borneol acetate, borneol, D-limonene and camphene. Three solvent extracts such as hexanes, diethyl ether and methylene chloride from Amomi Fructus were obtained. These were analyzed by GC-MS and 4 more constituents were identified in addition to 39 components discovered in essential oil. Five major components such as camphor, borneol acetate, borneol, D-limonene and camphene were also detected, however the relative peak percents of those components were different from those of constituents in essential oil. To estimate the kind and the amount of materials evaporated at certain temperature and conditions from essential oil and solvent extracts, dynamic headspace apparatus was used and materials evaporated and trapped at certain conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. Recovery yield of SDE method from Amomi Fructus was measured by using camphor and standard calibration solution of camphor methanol solution and, the yield was 82.0%. Content of Hg was measured by mercury analyzer and contents of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn in Amomi Fructus, essential oils and solvent extracts were determined by ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer). Pb, Cd and Hg were measured in the concentration of 0.72 mg/kg, <0.10 mg/kg and 0.0023 mg/kg, respectively and these were below permission level of purity test. Contents of Mn, Cu and Zn in Amomi Fructus were 213 mg/kg, 8.29 mg/kg and 31.0 mg/kg, respectively and which were relatively higher than other metals such as Cr, Co and Ni. Metals such as Mn (0.65 ~ 9.08 mg/kg), Cu (1.16 ~ 4.40 mg/kg) and Zn (1.10 ~ 3.80 mg/kg) in essential oil and solvent extracts were detected. At this point it is not clear that the metals were cross-contaminated in the course of treating Amomi Fructus or metals were contained in Amomi Fructus. The influence evaluation toward biological model study of these metals in essential oil and solvent extracts will be needed.

Physicochemical and Microbial Quality Characteristics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Superheated Steam Treatment (과열증기 처리에 따른 마늘의 이화학적 및 미생물학적 품질 특성)

  • Park, Chan-Yang;Lee, Kyoyeon;Kim, Ahna;So, Seulah;Rahman, M. Shafiur;Choi, Sung-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.10
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    • pp.1438-1446
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    • 2016
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of superheated steam (SHS) treatment on the physicochemical and microbial properties of garlic. The garlic was treated by SHS at temperatures of 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and $350^{\circ}C$ for 60 s. The moisture content of raw garlic was lower than that of SHS-treated garlic. The total thiosulfinate and pyruvate contents were dramatically reduced by SHS treatments. The antioxidant activities of garlic measured by ferric reducing/antioxidant power, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical scavenging assay, and total phenolics content decreased by SHS. The major volatile sulfur compounds of garlic such as diallyl disulfide, allicin, allyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, and diallyl trisulfide were significantly reduced by SHS. The antimicrobial effects of raw garlic were stronger than those of SHS-treated garlic against three strains of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus cereus. However, total aerobic bacteria in garlic were dramatically reduced by SHS from 8.6 to 2.9 log CFU/g. The results from the sensory evaluation show that SHS treatment of garlic above $200^{\circ}C$ provides better acceptably due to reduction of off-flavor and pungency of garlic. These results suggest that superheated steam treatment can used as an efficient process for reducing garlic off-flavor and pungency.

Measurements of Isoprene and Monoterpenes at Mt. Taehwa and Estimation of Their Emissions (경기도 태화산에서 isoprene과 monoterpenes 측정 및 배출량 산정)

  • Kim, Hakyoung;Lee, Meehye;Kim, Saewung;Guenther, Alex.B.;Park, Jungmin;Cho, Gangnam;Kim, Hyun Seok
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.217-226
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    • 2015
  • To investigate the distributions of BVOCs (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) from mountain near mega city and their role in forest atmospheric, BVOCs and their oxidized species were measured at a 41 m tower in Mt. Taehwa during May, June and August 2013. A proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to quantify isoprene and monoterpenes. In conjunction with BVOCs, $O_3$, meteorological parameters, PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) and LAI (Leaf Area Index) were measured. The average concentrations of isoprene and monoterpenes were 0.71 ppbv and 0.17 ppbv, respectively. BVOCs showed higher concentrations in the early summer (June) compared to the late summer (August). Isoprene started increasing at 2 PM and reached the maximum concentration around 5 PM. In contrast, monoterpenes concentrations began to increase 4 PM and stayed high at night. The $O_3$ maximum was generally found at 3 PM and remained high until 5 PM or later, which was concurrent with the enhancement of $O_3$. The concentrations of BVOCs were higher below canopy (18 m) than above canopy, which indicated these species were produced by trees. At night, monoterpenes concentrations were negatively correlated with these of $O_3$ below canopy. Using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature), the emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were estimated at 1.1 ton/year and 0.9 ton/year, respectively at Mt. Taehwa.

Effects of High Temperature Sterilization on Qualities Characteristics of the Canned Boiled Oyster (가열살균처리가 굴 보일드통조림의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, Chung-Sik;Yun, Jae-Ung;Oh, Dong-Hun;Park, Jun-Yong;Kang, Jin-Yeong;Oh, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2009
  • The boiled oyster vacuum-packed in cylindrical can(No. 301-3) were thermally processed at $115^{\circ}C$ to reach Fo values of 5~20 min. The yield was slightly decreased with the increasing of Fo-values (79.2~ 83.7%), and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) contents increased markedly with the increasing of Fo-value. In fatty acid composition of canned oyster, the composition ratio of saturates and monoenes such as 14:0, 16:0 and 18:1n9 increased, while polyunsaturated fatty acids such as 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 decreased with the increasing of Fo-value. In taste compounds, content of total free amino acid in raw oyster was 1,533.5 mg%, and this total content was slightly increased (1,140.8~1,266.2 mg%) with the increasing of Fo values. But contents of betaine and ionic minerals such as Na, K, Mg and P decreased markedly by thermal processing at $115^{\circ}C$. As compared with Fo 5 min. heat treatment; Fo 20 min. heat treatment at $115^{\circ}C$ became more hardened in texture of oyster meat. In sensory evaluations on organoleptic characteristics, no significant difference at 5% level was observed among the canned boiled oyster meats heated at Fo 5~15 min.