• Title, Summary, Keyword: volatile organic acid

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The Effect of Salt Concentrations on the Production of Volatile Organic Acids by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a Soy Sauce Yeast (간장에서 분리한 Zygosaccharomyces rouxii의 휘발성 유기산 생성에 미치는 식염농도의 영향)

  • 권동진;하덕모
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 1994
  • By using a synthetic medium simulated on the amino acid composition of soybeam, the effect of salt concentrations on the production of volatile organic acid by the strains of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii So-3101, a soy sauce yeast, was studied at the concentrations of 12.5, 18.0, 22.0 and 28.5% NaCl. The growth, consumption of glucose, and production of alcohol, total acid and volatile organic acid, showed the highest values at a concentration of 12.5% NaCl, and those values were decreased with an increase in the salt concentration. The ratio of volatile organic acid to total organic acid was remained at approximately the same level within the range of salt concentrations between 12.5~22.0%, whereas the ratio was decreased at a salt concentration of 28.5%. After incubation for 16 days, 8 volatile organic acids, i.e. acetic, propionic, n-butyric, isobutyric, isovaleric, isocaproic, n-caproic, and heptanoic acids, were detected by gas chromatography. Among the volatile organic acids, acetic acid was produced in the appreciable amiunt and its ratio to the other volatile acids was increased with an increase in the salt concentration.A small amount of isocaproic, propionic, isobutyric and isovaleric acids were produced, and n-caproic, n-butyric and heptanoic acids were detected only at the lower salt concentration.

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Organic Acids and Fatty Acids of Honey Harvested in Kangwon Area (강원도산 잡화벌꿀의 유기산 및 지방산 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김복남;김택제;최홍식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 1991
  • Physico-chemical properties including the composition of organic acids and fatty acids in native bee-honey and foreign bee-honey harvested in Kangwon area were studied with the emphasis on the honey which was collected form wild flowers nd mixed flowers sources for honey nectars. the major organic acids were considered as acetic acid formic acid and valeric acid in volatile acids and gluconic acid maleic acid malic acid quinic acid and citric acid in non-volatile fraction in both of native bee-honey and foreigr bee-honey. Some naturally occuring fatty acids({{{{ { C}_14{ } }}}}-{{{{ {C }_{20 } }}}}) were observed with the principal fatty acids of myristic aicd linolenic acid and palmitic acid and palmitic acid in the various honey, The characteristics of moisture content pH viscosity free acidity lactone and total acidity were also analyzed and discussed.

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Effect of Temperature on the Production of Free Organic Acids during Kimchi Fermentation

  • Park, Young-Sik;Ko, Chang-Young;Ha, Duk-Mo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.266-269
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    • 1993
  • The production of free non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Kimchi during fermentations at 30, 20 and $5^{\circ}C$, were determined by gas chromatography. The order in the amount of non-volatile organic acid, soon after preparation, was malic, citric, tartaric, pyroglutamic, oxalic, lactic, succinic and ${\alpha}-ketoglutaric$ acids. The major non-volatile acids at the optimum ripening time were malic, tartaric, citric and lactic acids, and as the temperature was lowered, the amount of lactic, succinic, oxalic, pyroglutamic and fumaric acids increased, while that of malic and tartaric acids decreased. The order in the amount of volatile acids at the beginning was acetic, butyric, propionic and formic acids. Among these acids, acetic acid was significantly increased in its amount during fermentation and the Kimchi fermented at low temperature produced more acetic acid than that fermented at high temperature.

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The Changes of Non-Volatile Organic Acids in Low Salt Fermented Squid Affected by Adding to Squid Ink (오징어 먹즙 첨가에 따른 저염 오징어 젓갈의 비휘발성 유기산 변화)

  • Oh, Sung-Cheon;Cho, Jung-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2003
  • Squid ink was added to the low salt fermented squid by 4% of concentration and ripened at 10$^{\cric}C$ for 6 weeks and at 20$^{\cric}C$ for 28 days. The effect of the squid ink on the non-volatile organic acids of low salt fermented squid were investigated. The results are as follows; The non-volatile organic acid in the salt fermented squid without addition of the squid ink was examined and the result showed that lactic and acetic acids were the major organic acids even if very small amount of citric and oxalic acids were detected. In the squid ink added to the low salt fermented squid, total quantity of non-volatile organic acid in the latter part of the ripening was lower than no treatment groups.

Changes of Alcohol, Free Amino Acid, Non-Volatile Organic Acid and fatty Acid Composition during Brewing of Backilju (백일주 양조중 알코올, 유리아미노산, 비휘발성유기산 및 지방산조성의 변화)

  • 박석규;박필숙;김귀영;강우원;이영근
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 1994
  • Changes in taste components of Backilju, an traditional alcoholic beverage of Korea, were investigated. Ethanol(17%) was the most abundant, and then isoamylalcohol(23mg%) and methanol(8mg%) were also detected in a small amount in Backilju. Major non-volatile organic acids were lactic and malic acid, followed by citric, fumaric and succinic acid. Arginine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were major free amino acids and essential amino acid content was 230∼560 mg%, which was 45∼48% of total free amino acids. The major fatty acid of total lipid was palmitic acid(37∼43%). It has been found that the Backilju contained more free amino acids and alcohols than other Korean Yokjus.

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Properties of Organic Acids and Volatile Components in Brown Rice Vinegar Prepared Using Different Yeasts and Fermentation Methods (효모 종류 및 발효 방식에 따른 현미식초의 유기산과 휘발성분 특성)

  • Yoon, Sung-Ran;Kim, Gui-Ran;Lee, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Su-Won;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.733-740
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    • 2010
  • Brown rice vinegars were prepared by agitated or static acetic acid fermentation using different yeast strains (Saccharomyces kluyveri DJ97, Saccharomyces cerevisiae JK99, Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRJ, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae H9). Organic acid contents and levels of volatile compounds were compared in vinegars prepared by different methods. The chosen yeast strain did not significantly affect the organic acid content of vinegar. In vinegars prepared by agitated acetic acid fermentation, organic acid contents were, in the order of descending abundance, acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid. In vinegars prepared by static acetic acid fermentation, no citric acid was detected, and lactic acid content was higher than that in agitated acetic acid fermented vinegar. The volatile compounds of both vinegars, analyzed by GC-MS, did not significantly differ when various yeast strains were used. Eighteen volatile compounds were detected in vinegar prepared by agitated acetic acid fermentation and 11 in vinegar prepared by static fermentation. Volatile compounds that can affect vinegar quality, including ethyl acetate and phenethyl acetate, were present at high concentrations in static acetic acid fermented vinegar. Electronic nose analysis showed that volatile chemical patterns differed between the two types of vinegar, but there were no significant differences in sensory scores between vinegars prepared using various yeast strains or by either of the two methods of fermentation.

Free Sugar, Free Amino Acid, Non-Volatile Organic Acid and Volatile Compounds of Dongchimi added with Jasoja(Perillae semen) (자소자 첨가 동치미의 유리당, 유리아미노산, 비휘발성 유기산 및 휘발성 향기성분)

  • 황재희;장명숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2003
  • All optional ingredient, Jasoja(Perillae semen) was adopted to improve Dongchimi in qualify during fermentation. Free sugar, free amino acid, non-volatile organic acid and volatile compounds were determined during fermentation at 10$^{\circ}C$ for 45 days. Free sugar content was slightly higher in 0.5%-Jasoja-treated samples than that of control. The contents of free amino acids in control Dongchimi (without jasoja) increased slowly during fermentation while those in 0.5 %-treated samples began to decrease after reaching their maximum value on the day 11 when Dongchimi became most acceptable. There were 6 non-volatile organic acids, such as lactic, fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, and citric acid. Among these, only lactic and succinic acid increased consistently with fermentation while others decreased. Volatile components in Dongchimi were mostly identified as sulfur-containing compounds by gas chromatography. Their numbers and % peak areas in the gas chromatogram decreased slightly with the increase in organic acids and alcohols during fermentation period. On the other hand, Dongchimi prepared with Jasoja maintained its contents of total acids as well as the level of sulfur-containing compounds.

Organic Acid in Korean Soy-Sauces (한국(韓國) 간장중(中)의 유기산(有機酸)에 대(對)하여)

  • Chang, Chi-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.8
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1967
  • Korean soy-sauces were orepared by the ordinary and impreved method and its analyses on the organic acid. The results obtained is as following: 1. In analysing general components of prepared soy-sauce, total acid, volatile acid and non-volatile acid were found more in improved soy-sauce than in ordinary soy-sauce. 2. Volatile organic acid were analysed by gas-chromatography method. As a result, the followings was attained: a) In the ordinary soy-sauce, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were detected. Butyric acid was in the highest amount and then propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid are followed in the order. b) In the improved soy-sauce, formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were detected. Acetic acid was in the highest amount and then propionic acid, butyric acid and formic acid are followed in the nrder. 3. Non-volatile organic acid were analysed by paper partition chromatography method. As a result, the followings were attained: a) Lactic, glutaric, fumaric, malonic, malic, glycolic, oxalic, tartaric, and succinic acid and two unknown spots were detected in ordinary soysauce. Lactic acid was in the highest amount and then succinic, glycolic, oxalic, tartaric, glutaric, malic, fumaric and malonic acid are followed in the order. b) Lactic, glutaric, malonic, malic, glycolic, tartaric, succinic and tgalacturonic acid and two unknown spots were detected in the improved soy-sauce. Lactic acid was in the highest amount and then succinic, glycolic, malic, glutaric, tartaric, galacturonic and malonic acid are followed in the order. 4. ${\alpha}-keto$ acid were analysed by paper partition chromatography. As a result, the followings were attained: Pyruvic acid and ${\alpha}-keto$ glutaric acid and an unknown spot were detected in the ordinary and improved soy-sauce. Pyruvic acid was in the highest amount and then ${\alpha}-keto$ glutaric acid are ollowed in the order. 5. Stale flavor in the ordinary soy-sauces seems to be partly affected by butyric acid and propionic acid. 6. Substances influencing taste, such as lactic acid and succinic acid, were found more in improved soy-sauce than ordinary soy-sauce.

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A Study on the Flavor Compounds of Dongchimi (동치미의 맛 성분에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Mae-Ry;Lee, Hei-Soo
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1990
  • To study the most optimum condition of Dongchimi, the various Dongchimi distinct from the amount of salt, the temperature of fermentation and the ratio of radish to water were examed by sensory evaluation. Also, the content of volatile organic acids and nonvolatile organic acids were investigated by GC, the content of sulfur compounds by GC/MS. Volatile organic acids were identified with those butyl esters and nonvolatile organic acids were done with those TMS derivatives. Sulfur compounds and those decomposed products were extracted by steam distillation In results, the most optimum conditions ware salt 2.4% fermented temperature $4^{\circ}C$, ratio 1:1.5. Volatile organic acids detected were formic, acetic acid, and the amounts were effected by saltness. Nonvolatile organic acids detected were lactio, malio, fumario, tartario acid. Lactic acid was thought to effect overall eating quality. Sulfur compounds were almost the isothiocyanate groups in raw radish, which little in fermented Dongchimi.

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Chemical Characterization of Commercial Vinegars (식초의 종류별 화학성분의 특징)

  • Yoon, Hee-Nam
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1440-1446
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    • 1999
  • Fourty-two commercial vinegars were analyzed for their non-volatile organic acids, free sugars. amino acids, and volatile compounds. A study was made to characterize commercial vinegars chemically into three kinds of vinegars such as spirit, cider, and brown rice vinegars. Sixteen chemical components were significantly effective for the chemical characterization of commercial vinegars by stepwise discriminant analysis. Those were malic, succinic and lactic acids from the non-volatile organic acids; fructose and glucose from the free sugars; lysine, serine, leucine, valine and alanine from the amino acids; 1-hexanol, acetaldehyde, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylpropanoic acid, isopropyl butanoate and ethanol from the volatile compounds. Six components including malic acid, lysine, succinic acid, glucose, lactic acid and 1-hexanol were the most significant contributors to the differentiation of commercial vinegars into spirit, cider, and brown rice vinegars. In particular, cider vinegars could be characterized to be abundant in amounts of malic acid and 1-hexanol, whereas brown rice vinegars in amounts of lysine and lactic acid compared to spirit vinegars.

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