• Title, Summary, Keyword: volcanic rock

Search Result 263, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

Field Investigation and Stability Analysis of a Volcanic Rock Slope at the Song-Gok site, Wan-Do (완도 송곡지구 화산암류 비탈면의 현장조사 및 안정성 검토 사례 연구)

  • Kim, Hong-Gyun;Ok, Young-Seok;Kim, Seung-Hyun;Koo, Ho-Bon
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.149-160
    • /
    • 2013
  • Volcanic activity commonly creates a highly complicated volcanic complex due to the admixture of lava flow and sedimentation of volcanic ash. The Song-Gok site is composed of volcanic rocks that collapsed at the lower part of the slope, in combination with several discontinuities in and around a fault. The results of projection analysis indicated the possibility of plane, wedge, and toppling failure in the failure section. The results of discontinuity modeling using the Distinct Element Method (DEM) revealed a total displacement of 207 mm and a joint shear displacement of 114 mm. The yield surface zone was verified at the fault plane of the failure section. In geotechnical terms, volcanic rock slopes are characteristically vulnerable to failure because of differential weathering among the various rock types, the effect of groundwater based on the permeability of the rocks, and the presence of systematic joints generated by the cooling and contraction of lava. When considering the stability of a volcanic rock slope, it is necessary to consider data such as the geological features of the rock, as obtained through detailed geological survey, and variations in discontinuities and rock blocks.

Environmental Characteristics of Natural Radionuclides in Groundwaters in Volcanic Rock Areas: Korea (국내 화산암 지역 지하수 중 자연방사성 물질에 대한 환경 특성)

  • Jeong, Do Hwan;Kim, Moon Su;Ju, Byoung Kyu;Hong, Jung Ki;Kim, Dong Su;Kim, Hyun Koo;Kim, Hye Jin;Park, Sun Hwa;Han, Jin Seok;Kim, Tae Seung
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.36-45
    • /
    • 2013
  • We analyzed natural radionuclides in 80 wells in volcanic rock areas and investigated environmental characteristics. Uranium and radon concentrations ranged from ND to $9.70{\mu}g/L$ (median value: 0.21) ${\mu}g/L$, 38~29,222 pCi/L (median value: 579), respectively. In case of gross-${\alpha}$, 26 samples exceeded MDA (minimum detectable activity, < 0.9 pCi/L) value and the activity values ranged from 1.05 to 8.06 pCi/L. The radionuclides concentrations did not exceed USEPA MCL (maximum contaminant level) value of Uranium ($30{\mu}g/L$) and gross-${\alpha}$ (15 pCi/L). But Rn concentrations in 4 samples exceeded USEPA AMCL (Alternative maximum contaminant level, 4,000 pci/L) and one of them showed a significantly higher value (29,222 pCi/L) than the others. The levels of uranium concentrations in volcanic rock aquifer regions were detected in order of andesite, miscellaneous volcanic rocks, rhyolite, basalt aquifer regions. Radon, however, was detected in order of miscellaneous volcanic rocks, rhyolite, andesite, basalt aquifer regions. The correlation coefficient between uranium and radon was r = 0.45, but we found that correlations of radionuclides with in-situ data or major ions were weak or no significant. The correlation coefficient between the depth of wells and uranium concentrations was a slightly higher than that of depth of wells and radons. Radionuclide concentrations in volcanic rock aquifers showed lower levels than those of other rock aquifers such as granite, metamorphic rock aquifers, etc. This result may imply difference of host rock's bearing-radioactive-mineral contents among rock types of aquifers.

MÖssbauer Spectrum of Lava in Jeju Island (제주도 용암의 MÖssbauer 스펙트럼 연구)

  • Hong, Sung-Rak;Ko, Jeong-Dae;Choi, Won-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
    • /
    • v.13 no.6
    • /
    • pp.226-230
    • /
    • 2003
  • In this study, we analyzed the volcanic rock and scoria samples taken from special sites of Jeju island in two ways at the room temperature. One is the analysis of the chemical composition using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, the other is the analysis of minerals in the samples, oxidized iron's genus, valence state and magnetic properties using X-ray diffractometry and Mossbauer spectroscopy. We believe that the volcanic rock and scoria samples are chiefly made of silicate minerals, like SiO$_2$, and they also have olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, hematite and magnetite. The major Fe fractions of the volcanic rock samples are 2+ charge state and those of the scoria samples are 3+ charge state.

The Study on Geology and Volcanism in Jeju Island (I): Petrochemistry and $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ Absolute ages of the Subsurface Volcanic Rock Cores from Boreholes in the Eastern Lowland of Jeiu Island (제주도의 지질과 화산활동에 관한 연구 (I): 동부지역 저지대 시추코어 화산암류의 암석화학 및 $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ 절대연대)

  • Koh, Gi-Won;Park, Jun-Beom;Park, Yoon-Suk
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
    • /
    • v.41 no.1
    • /
    • pp.93-113
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study presents petrochemistry and $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ absolute ages of subsurface volcanic rock cores from twenty(20) boreholes in the eastern lowland (altitude loom below) of Jeju Island, Handeong-Jongdal-Udo-Susan-Samdal-Hacheon areas, and discusses topography and volcanism in the area. The subsurface volcanic rock cores are mainly basalts in composition with minor tholeiitic andesites and basaltic trachyandesites. Sequences of intercalated tholeiitic, transitional and alkalic lavas suggest that tholeiitic and transitional to alkalic lavas must have erupted contemporaneously. Especially, occurrences of trachybasalts and basaltic trachyandesites at the bases in the area imply that the volcanism in the area was initiated with slightly differentiated alkaline magma activity. The $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ absolute ages of the subsurface volcanic rock cores range from $526{\pm}23ka\;to\;38{\pm}4Ka$. The lava-forming Hawaiian volcanic activities of the eastern lowland can be divided into five sequences on the basis of sediment distribution, whole rock geochemistry and $^{40}Ar/^{39}Ar$ absolute ages of the subsurface volcanic rock cores; stage I-U$(550{\sim}400Ka)$, stage II$(400{\sim}300Ka)$ and stage III$(300{\sim}200Ka)$ during syn-depositional stage of Seoguipo Formation, and stage IV$(200{\sim}100Ka)$ and stage V(younger than 100Ka) during post-depositional stage. In the eastern lowland of Jeju Island, compositional variations and local occurrences of the subsurface volcanic rocks as well as existences of various intercalated sediment layers (including hydrovolcanogenic clasts) suggest that the volcanism must have continued for long time intermittently and that the land has been progressively glowed from inland to coast by volcanic activities and sedimentation. It reveals that the subsurface volcanic rocks in the eastern lowland of Jeju Island must have erupted during relatively younger than 200Ka of stages IV and V. The results of this study are partly in contrast with those of previous studies. This study stresses the need that previous reported volcanic activities in Jeju Island based on K-Ar ages of volcanic rocks should be carefully reviewed, and that stratigraphic correlation from boreholes should be conducted by quantitative criteria combined with petrography and petrochemstry as well as radiometric studies of volcanic rock cores.

Petrology of the Cretaceous Volcanic Rocks in the Gyemyeong peak and Janggun peak area, Mt. Geumjeung, Busan (부산 금정산의 계명봉과 장군봉 일대 백악기 화산암류에 관한 암석학적 연구)

  • Kim, Hye-Sook;Kim, Jin-Seop;Moon, Ki-Hoon
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-17
    • /
    • 2009
  • This article carried studies of the petrographical and petrochemical characteristics on the Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the area of Janggun peak and Gyemyeong peak which is located at the northeastern area of Mt. Geumjeong, Busan. The areas are composed of andesitic rock, sedimentary rock, rhyolitic rock, and intrusive hornblende, biotite granites, in ascending order. According to petrochemistry, the major elements show the calc-alkaline rock series ranged medium-K to high-K. With increasing $SiO_2$, $Al_{2}O_{3}$, $Fe_{2}O_{3}$, $TiO_2$ CaO, MgO MnO and $P_{2}O_{5}$ are decreased and $K_{2}O$ and $Na_{2}O$ are increased in the volcanic rocks. The trace element compositions show high LILE/HFSE ratios and negative anomaly of Nb, and REE patterns show enrichments in LREE and (-) anomaly values increase of Eu from the basaltic andesite to andesite facies, therefore the volcanic rocks have typical characteristics of continental margin arc calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, produced in the subduction environment. The volcanic rock show nearly the same patterns in spider and REE diagram. Fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma would have produced the calc-alkaline andesitic magma. And the rhyolitic magma seems to have been evolved from the basaltic andesitic magma with fractional crystallization of plagioclase, pyroxene, hornblende, biotite.

Rock Type Classification by Multi-band TIR of ASTER

  • Watanabe, Hiroshi;Matsuo, Kazuaki
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1445-1456
    • /
    • 2003
  • The ASTER TIR (thermal infrared radiometer) sensor has 5 spectral bands over 8 to 12 ${\mu}$m region. Rock type classification using the ASTER TIR nighttime data was performed in the Erta Ale range of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Erta Ale range is the most important axial volcanic chain of the Afar region. The petrographic diversity of lava erupted in this area is very important, ranging from magnesian transitional basalt to rhyolites. We tried to classify the rock types based on the spectral behavior of each volcanic rock types in thermal infrared range and estimated SiO$_{2}$ content with emission data by the ASTER TIR.

  • PDF

Evaluation of the Groundwater Flow in Rock Masses

  • Kim, Gye-Nam;Kim, Jae-Han;Ahn, Jong-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Hydrosciences
    • /
    • v.3
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 1992
  • The effects of fractures in rock masses on the groundwater flow and the groundwater flow system in the volcanic rocks are analyzed by GFFP-WT model, which allows more realistic analysis of groundwater system by considering the fractures in rock masses. The evaluation of the effects of fractures in rock masses on the groundwater flow has been carried out in the 2nd Yeonwha and resulted in that the fractures mostly influence flow time because of hydraulic head distribution change. The results of the groundwater flow system analysis in the volcanic rocks are as follows. Most of groundwater once flowed in Lapilli tuff flowed out through Lappilli tuff layer. But only a small fraction of water flowed out through crystal tuff layer.

  • PDF

Selecting Hazardous Volcanoes that May Cause a Widespread Volcanic Ash Disaster to the Korean Peninsula (한반도에 광역화산재 재해를 발생할 수 있는 위험화산의 선정)

  • Yun, Sung-Hyo;Choi, Eun-Kyeong;Chang, Cheolwoo
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
    • /
    • v.37 no.6
    • /
    • pp.346-358
    • /
    • 2016
  • This study built the volcano Data Base(DB) of 289 active volcanoes around the Korean Peninsula, Japan, China (include Taiwan), and Russia Kamchatka area. Twenty nine more hazardous volcanoes including Baekdusan, Ulleungdo and 27 Japanese volcanoes that can cause a widespread ash-fall on the Korean peninsula by potentially explosive eruption were selected. This selection was based on the presence of volcanic activity, whether or not containing dangerous explosive eruption rock types, distance from Seoul, and volcanoes having Plinian eruption history with volcanic explosivity index (VEI) 4 or more. The results of this study are utilized for screening high-risk volcanoes that may affect the volcanic disaster caused by a widespread fallout ash. By predicting the extent of spread of ash caused by these hazardous volcanic activities and by analyzing the impact on the Korean peninsula, we suggest that it should be used for helping to predict volcanic ash damages and conduct hazards mitigation research as well.

Rock Phosphate with Mycorrhizae as P Source for Tomato Plant in Volcanic Ash Soil (화산회토양에서 Arbuscular Mycorrhizae 에 의한 토마토의 인광석 이용)

  • Chung, Jong-Bae;Moon, Doo-Khil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.287-291
    • /
    • 1999
  • In order to examine the possible use of rock phosphate as P source, tomato seedlings with or without inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were grown in the pots of sterile volcanic ash soil from Cheju island with two levels of phosphorus (100 and 200 mg/kg) supplied either as fused or as rock phosphate. After three months of culture, plant dry weight, P and other nutrient uptake, root colonization and spore density in the soil were determined. Treatments of rock phosphate of both levels resulted in the significantly depressed plant growth in comparison to the treatments of fused phosphate, likely due to lower P availability in soil with rock phosphate. Mycorrhizal fungi inoculation increased the dry weight of plant at 200 mg/kg level of both fused and rock phosphate. Root infection and sporoulation were reduced in rock phosphate treatments. Nitrogen, K, Ca and Mg contents in plants were not significantly different at all treatments. As a P source, rock phosphate in combination with mycorrhizae was not satisfactory for optimum plant growth at $100{\sim}200\;mg/kg$ levels in Cheju volcanic ash soil.

  • PDF

백두산 화산군 환경과 동굴 암석의 년대측정 및 성분분석

  • 김경훈
    • Journal of the Speleological Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.34 no.35
    • /
    • pp.32-42
    • /
    • 1993
  • The Paektu-san mountains are geographically situated in the Korea strait to the north of the main peninsula, coordinated between the longitudes of W(127$^{\circ}$15'~128$^{\circ}$00')and E(128$^{\circ}$15'~129$^{\circ}$00'), and between the latitudes of S(41$^{\circ}$15'~42$^{\circ}$00') and N(42$^{\circ}$10'~42$^{\circ}$40'). The volcanic group of the Paektu-san mountains can be devided into 2 main kinds of volcanos by the method investigation, The ashes are mainly made of tremolite, trachte, basalt and pumice, or, a little quartz, labradorite and volcanic glass. These sorts, ratios and forms of the rocks are respectively similar. The Haeven lake is surrounded by 19 peaks. The central volcanic cone is a secant cone in shape, with an altitude of the 1800m to 2749,2m (Chang-kun-bong), an average diameter of 10km, and a shape of an ellipse seen high from the plane. They say there were several eruptions in 1668, 1700 and 1702 A. D. The crystal structure of the rock sample collected at the cave of Mt. Paektu-san is monoclinic. The quantitative analysis of the rock samples in the cave is done by using XRF this time. The chemical compositions by XRF fundamamental parameter analysis is : SiO$_2$: 50.72Wt%, TiO = 2.422Wt%, $Al_2$O$_3$= 17.65Wt%, Fe$_2$O$_3$= 9.371Wt%, CaO = 8.711Wt%, MgO = 4.l19Wt%, MnO = 0.l15Wt%, $K_2$O = 1.369Wt%, Na$_2$O : 3.028Wt% and P$_2$O$_{5}$ = 0.365Wt%. The K-Ar age of the rock sample is also determined to be 0.16Ma. This paper describes some problems experienced in dating young volcanic rocks, and then discusses chemical compositions, X-ray fluorescence analyses and the age of the formation of a lava tunnel such as in Mt. Paektu-san.n.

  • PDF