• Title, Summary, Keyword: volume reduction ratio

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A Study on the Various Volume Reducing Methods for Wasted EPS Foam (폐스티로폼의 감용방식에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Joong-Yeon;Choi, Ho-Joon;Hwang, Beong-Bok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling Conference
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2003
  • Current volume reduction methods for wasted expandable polystyrene (EPS) foam are summarized and compared each other. Wasted EPS foam has not been recycled effectively because of its large volume to weight ratio. This has prevented from its proper recycling because of high cost of transportation to recycling plant. Successful recycling of wasted EPS foam results directly from successful, i.e. economically and environmentally, volume reduction of wasted EPS foam. This paper deals with various methods for volume reduction methods of wasted EPS foam. Five typical methods of volume reduction are introduced and they are compared each other in terms of expected PS properties after volume reduction, cost effectiveness of each process, possible effects on environment caused by the volume reduction process, and possible recycled products. The methods include thermal, solvent, far infrared and mechanical compaction. Comparison in this paper is made mostly in qualitative manner. The focus in this study is concentrated on summarizing and comparing existing methods of volume reduction for wasted EPS foam.

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Comparison of Effects of Chaff and Sawdust on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes (음식물쓰레기의 호기성 퇴비화에 있어서 왕겨와 톱밥의 영향에 관한 비교 연구)

  • 박석환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.28-34
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to compare the effects of chaff and sawdust as bulking materials on temperature, pH, weight and volume reduction and salinity in aerobic composting of food wastes. Volume ratios of food wastes to chaff in reactor of Control, Ch-l, Ch-2, Ch-3 and Ch-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Volume ratios of food wastes to sawdust in reactor of Control, Sd-l, Sd-2, Sd-3 and Sd-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Reactors were operated for 24 days with 1 hour stirring by 1 rpm and 2 hours aeration per day. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff and sawdust resulted in the reaction at higher reaction temperature and the elongation of the high temperature reaction period. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff and sawdust resulted in faster pH increase. In the volume ratio of 4:3 and 4:4, pH increased faster in food-chaff mixtures than in food-sawdust mixtures. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff and sawdust resulted in faster steady state in the weight reduction rate and the volume reduction rate. The weight reduction rates of chaff mixtures were higher than those of sawdust mixtures, but the volume reduction rates of sawdust mixtures were more higher than those of chaff mixtures. Salinity increased as composting reaction proceeded, due to reduction in mass weight. The final salinity of Control was 2.79%, and the final range of salinities of chaff and sawdust mixtures were 2.18∼2.37% and 1.86∼2.05%, respectively.

Effect of Chaff on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes (왕겨가 음식물쓰레기의 호기성 퇴비화에 미치는 영향)

  • 박석환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.56-61
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to examine the effects of chaff as a bulking material on temperature, pH, weight and volume reduction and salinity in aerobic composting of food wastes. Volume ratios of food wastes to chaff in reactor of Control, Ch-1. Ch-2, Ch-3 and Ch-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4. respectively. Reactors were operated for 24 days with 1 hour stirring by 1 rpm and 2 hours aeration per day. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wasted to chaff resulted in the reaction at higher reaction temperature and the elongation of the high temperature reaction period. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff resulted in the more faster pH increase. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff resulted in the more faster reduction in the weight and the volume of wastes. Salinities were condensed by reaction days. The final salinity of Control and the final range of salinities of chaff mixtures were 2.79%, and 2.18~2.37%. respectively.

Effects of Chaff as Bulking Materials on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes

  • Park, Seok-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Health Society Conference
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    • pp.208-212
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to examine the effects of chaff as bulking materials on temperature, pH, weight and volume reduction and salinity in aerobic composting of food wastes. Volume ratios of food wastes to chaff in reactor Control, Ch-1, Ch-2, Ch-3 and Ch-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Reactors were operated for 24 days with 1 hour stirring by 1 rpm and 2 hours aeration per day. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff resulted in the ascending of the highest reaction temperature and the elongation of the high temperature reaction period. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff resulted in the more fast time of pH ascending. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to chaff resulted in the more fast consistency in the weight and volume reduction rates. Salinities were condensed by reaction days. The final salinity of Control was 2.79%, and the final range of salinities of chaff mixtures was 2.18 - 2.37%.

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Comparison of Effects of Rice Straw and Sewage Sludge Cake on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes (음식물쓰레기의 호기성 퇴비화에 있어서 볏짚과 하수슬러지케이크가 미치는 영향에 관한 비교 연구)

  • 박석환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to compare the effects of rice straw and towage sludge cake as bulking materials on temperature, pH, weight and volume reduction, porosity, C/N ratio, salinity, and conductivity in aerobic composting of food wastes. Volume ratios of food wastes to rice straw in reactor control, RS-1, RS-2, RS-3 and RS-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Weight ratios of food wastes to sewage sludge rake in reactor control, SL-1, SL-2, SL-3 and SL-4 were 4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Reactors were operated for 24 days with 1 hour stirring by 1 rpm and 2 hours aeration per day. The values of pH of food waters, rice straw and sewage sludge cake were 4.39, 7.40 and 5.79, respectively. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to rice straw resulted in the high reaction temperature and the fast weight and volume reduction rates. The lowering of the weight ratio of food wastes to sewage sludge cake resulted in the slow weight and volume reduction rates. C/N ratio in control was larger than that in rice straw containing reactors, and that in rice straw containing reactors was larger than that in sewage sludge cake containing reactors. Salinity and conductivity in reactors were condensed and increased by reaction days.

Effects of Rice Straw as Bulking Materials on Aerobic Composting of Food Wastes (팽화재로서의 볏짚이 음식물쓰레기의 호기성 퇴비화에 미치는 영향)

  • 박석환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to examine the effects of rice straw as bulking materials on temperature, pH, weight and volume reduction, porosity, C/N ratio, salinity, and conductivity in aerobic composting of food wastes. Volume ratios of food wastes to rice straw in reactor control, RS-1, RS-2, RS-2 and RS-4 were 4:0, 4:1. 4:2. 4:3 and 4:4, respectively. Reactors were operated for 24days with 1 hour stirring by lrpm and 2hours aeration per day. The values of pH of food wastes and rice straw were 4.39 and 7.4, respectively. The lowering of the volume ratio of food wastes to rice straw resulted in the high reaction temperature and the fast weight and volume reduction rates. C/N ratio in control was larger than that in rice straw containing reactors. Salinity and conductivity in reactors were condensed and increased by reaction days.

The effect of cold rolling reduction ratio on the texture evolution in Al-5% Mg alloy (Al-5%Mg 합금 판재의 집합조직 발달에 미치는 냉간 압하율의 영향)

  • Choi, J.K.;Kim, H.W.;Kang, S.B.;Choi, S.H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.102-105
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    • 2008
  • To investigate the evolution of deformation texture during cold rolling deformation, cold rolling process on a commercial Al-5% Mg sheet was carried out at different rolling reduction ratio. The evolution of annealing texture in cold-rolled Al-5% Mg sheet was also investigated. The evolution of recrystallization texture during annealing process strongly depends on the rolling reduction ratio before heat treatment. Visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal model was used to predict r-value anisotropy of the cold-rolled and annealed Al-5% Mg sheets. The change of volume fraction for the major texture components was also analyzed.

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The Effect of Connected Bioretention on Reduction of Surface Runoff in LID Design (LID 설계시 식생체류지간 연결에 의한 강우유출수 저감 효과분석)

  • Jeon, Ji-Hong;Seo, Seong-Cheol;Park, Chan-Gi
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.562-569
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    • 2016
  • Recently, Low Impact Development (LID) is being used in Korea to control urban runoff and nonpoint source pollution. In this study, we evaluated the reduction of surface runoff from a study area, as the effect of connecting three bioretention as LID-BMP. Surface runoff and storage volume of bioretention is estimated by the Curve Number (CN) method. In this study, the storage volume of bioretention is divided by the volume of surface runoff and precipitation which directly enters the bioretention. The ratio of captured surface runoff volume to storage volume is highly influenced by the ratio of drainage area to surface area of bioretention. The high bioretention surface area-to-drainage area ratio captures more surface runoff. The ratio of 1.2 captures 51~54% of the total surface runoff, ranging from 5-30cm of bioretention depth; a ratio of 6.2 captures 81~85%. Three connected bioretentions could therefore captures much more runoff volume, ranging from $35.8{\sim}167.3m^3$, as compared to three disconnected bioretentions at their maximum amount of precipitation with non-effluent from the connecting three bioretentions. Hence, connecting LID-BMPs could improve the removal efficiencies of surface runoff volume and nonpoint source pollution.

The Clinical Study of Keumsuyukunjeon on the Dyspnea (금수육군전(金水六君煎)이 호흡곤란(呼吸困難)에 미치는 임상적(臨床的) 고찰(考察))

  • Kim, Jong-Soon;Park, Dong-Il
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.232-243
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    • 1999
  • In the Oriental Medicine, the breathing problem is defined as one of the symptoms such as Cheon-Jeung, Hyo-Jeung and chronic respiratory organs disease. Its source is heard to be the functional reduction of descending of Lung and Kidney. The organs for breathing are known as Lung, Spleen and Kidney. In this research, some remarkable results are referred which were detected by measuring the variations of the breathing volume of 20 patients after taking Keumsuyukunjeon. Picrometer is used for the measurement of the volume. The investigation had been performed since from January 1 st to August 31th of 1998. The patients for the experiment were mainly composed of patients who had trouble in breathing due to the pneumonectasis, sthmas, pneumonias. The percent of men is 67% in sex distribution and the ratio of persons over 50's was 85%. After Keumsuyukunjeon was taken to the patients, the enhancement ratio of breathing volume was appeared as 7.7%. The analysis based on an age was that the patients of 40's show the highest volumetric advancement. The ratio of breathing volume was the aged patients whose lung or kidney is weak and it can be used as the prescription for supplement of body and lung. From the relations between the breathing volume before treatment and the enhancement ratio, the increase of the enhancement ratio and the better response to the medicine were shown to the more serious patients. The period of treatment was 27.5 days average. The enhancement ratio of smoker was 23. and that of non-smoker was 50. At the test of relation between the trouble rate in breathing and the enhancement ratio. Grade Ⅲ shows the highest enhancement value 50%. From the experimental results, It is found that Keumsuyukunjeon gives a noticeable benefit for the patients whose main symptom was breathing problem. Long-term treatments for the serious and aged patients will make much more efficient to the reduction of the symptoms.

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Optimal Design of Laminate Composites with Gradient Structure for Weight Reduction

  • Back, Sung-Ki;Kang, Tae-Jin;Lee, Kyung-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society For Composite Materials Conference
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    • pp.68-72
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    • 1999
  • In an effort to construct a structure under the design principle of minimal use of materials for maximum performances, a discrete gradient structure has been introduced in laminate composite systems. Using a sequential linear programming method, the gradient structure of composites to maximize the buckling load was optimized in terms of fiber volume fraction and thickness of each layer. Theoretical optimization results were then verified with experimental ones. The buckling load of laminate composite showed maximum value with the outmost [$0^{\circ}$] layer concentrated by almost all the fibers when the ratio of length to width(aspect ratio) was less than 1.0. But when the aspect ratio was 2.0, the optimum was determined in a structure where the thickness and fiber volume fraction were well balanced in each layer. From the optimization of gradient structure, the optimal fiber volume fraction and thickness of each layer were proposed. Experimental results agreed well with the theoretical ones. Gradient structures have also shown an advantage in the weight reduction of composites compared with the conventional homogeneous structures.

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