• Title, Summary, Keyword: washing solutions

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Effect of Washing Solution Characteristics on the Removal and Color of Cocoa Stains (세탁용수의 특성에 따른 코코아 오구의 세척성과 색상)

  • Chung, Hae-Won;Kim, Hyo-Jeong
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.492-500
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    • 2012
  • Cocoa is a popular drink for children and contains healthy polyphenols however; a deep brown stain is left when cocoa is spilled over clothes. The main pigments in cocoa are anthocyanins that change in washing solutions with different alkalinity and metals. The removal and color changes in a cocoa stain after washing with various pH solutions and water hardness were studied. Alkalinity and the water hardness of washing solutions were important factors for the removal of cocoa stains. The removal of cocoa things in washing solutions without detergent was low (and even became negative after removal and darker) in solutions with a pH 9 and above. The cocoa stain was not removed and only the fabric color faded, although the cocoa stained cloth was washed with Korea tap water that has a pH of 7. The cocoa stain removal in detergent solutions was conspicuously higher than for only water. Even in detergent solutions, the cocoa stain removal decreased as water hardness increased. Cocoa stain removal was more effective and the color dimmest when the stained cloth was washed in a solution without the metal cations, and the bleach added with the detergent at a temperature of $40^{\circ}C$ and for longer than 20 minutes. Effective and economical equipment for tap water softening for a washing machine should be developed and used to improve cocoa stain removal.

Effects of Alkalinity and Hardness of Washing Solutions on the Color and Removal of Red-Wine Soil (세척용수의 알칼리도와 경도에 따른 레드와인 오구의 색상과 세척성)

  • Chung, Hae-Won;Kim, Hyo-Jeong
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.331-339
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    • 2011
  • Red wine has become very popular, in part for its professed health benefits. Anthocyanin pigments, which are the main components of the pigments in red wine, are changed in the molecular structures and the color with the solution having different alkalinity and metals. The color changes of a red wine soiled cloth after washing in various pHs and water hardness solutions were studied. Distilled and tap water, which have lower water hardness, showed the highest $L^*$ value and lowest $a^*$ and $b^*$ values at pH 9. The detergent with added oxygen bleach was more effective in removing red wine soil, even though its pH was 10.8. The effect of the red wine removal with the solution where bleach was added separately was much lower than with the solution of the detergent containing bleach. Water hardness greatly affected the color of the cloth, soiled with red wine after washing. That is, the color was the faintest when the cloth was washed with the bleach-added detergent solution having 0 ppm of water hardness. An effective and economical method or equipment for removing metals in a washing solution for a washing machine should be developed to enhance the stain and soil removal.

Studies on Synthesis of Magnesium Carbonate. II. Electronmicroscopic Shape of Magnesium Carbonate (탄산마그네슘의 제조연구 II 탄산마그네슘의 전자현미경적 고찰)

  • Rhee, Gye-Joo;Song, Churl;Sung, Nak-Won;Ahn, Yung-Pil
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.32-40
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    • 1971
  • Optimum reactons for the preparation of extra-light magnesium carbonate from magnesium chloride and sodium carbonate solutions were found by observing the difference of crystalline shapes under an electromicroscope. Reaction temperature the and washing temperature were main factors affecting the crystalline shapes, and drying temperature was found to be of secondary importance. Optimum temperatures for reaction and washing ranged from $20^{\circ}C$ to $30^{\circ}C$ and the temperature over $40^{\circ}C$ should be avoided for the reaction and washing. It was found that the higher the drying temperature, the lighter the crsytal of the produced magnesium carbonate. Reaction time, molar ratio (Mg$^{2+}/CO_{3}^{2-}$ ) and the concentrations of magnesium chloride and sodium carbonate solutions have only a slight effect on the form of the product.

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Remediation of Insecticides (Parathion, Diazinon) Contaminated Soil by Washing Process (토양 세척을 통한 살충제 (파라티온, 다이아지논)로 오염된 토양의 정화)

  • 현재혁;백정선;조미영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.3-6
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    • 1999
  • Several chemical washing procedures were applied to Parathion and Diazinon contaminated soil. Batch and column tests were performed to determine the insecticides extraction efficiency as a function of pH. Washing efficiency of methanol is more higher than that of water and HCl when washed parathion and diazinon are. Those are completely miscible with most organic solvents. For parathion, release trend is increased as pH is increased because it is hydrolyzed easily at the condition of alkali. But diazinon shows reverse because diazinon is decomposed rapidly at the condition of acidic So, diazinon is more released than parathion is because this experiment is peformed in acidic and weak acidic conditions. Generally, parathion and diazinon are classified as having low mobility, so they can be easily controlled if the proper washing process are applied.

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Soil Washing에 의한 세슘과 코발트 오염 토양 복원기술 개발

  • 김계남;원휘준;오원진;김민길
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.337-339
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    • 2003
  • The technology removing radionuclides from soil using soil washing was studied. The main radionuclides contaminated in the soil are Cs$^{137}$ and Co$^{60}$ . It is suitable that scrubbing time is 4 hours and a mixing ratio of soil weight and washing solution volume is 1:10. more than two times continuous scrubbing method with 0.5 M oxalic acid was needed to remove Cs$^{137}$ and Co$^{60}$ from soil more than 70%. Radionuclides removal efficiencies of recycling washing solutions recycled with strong acid resins until 5 times are similar to that of 0.5 M oxalic acid.

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Effects of Additives on Soil Washing Efficiency for Mixed Surfactants (혼합 계면활성제에 적용된 각종 첨가제가 토양세척 효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Sang-Il;Jang, Min;Hwang, Kyung-Yub;Ryoo, Doo-Hyun
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 1998
  • To enhance the washing efficiency of soil polluted by hydrophobic organic compounds, the effects of electrolytes and monomeric organic additives on micelle formation and washing efficiency of mixed surfactant solutions were investigated in this study. The surface tensions and critical micelle concentrations(CMCs) of the single and mixed surfactant solutions[$POE_5$/SDS] supplemented by NaCl were measured to investigate the effects on washing efficiency, and the composition ratios of surfactants and NaCl were optimized for the efficient soil washing system. As the mixing ratio of $POE_5$/SDS was increased to 80%, the mixed surfactant with 0.01M NaCl showed more proportional increase of washing efficiency than the mixed surfactant without any salts. The 3% solution of $POE_5$ and SDS(80%/2o%) with 0.01M NaCl showed the washing efficiency of 90%. However, the washing efficiency was not enhanced by NaCl addition to the single surfactant solution of $POE_5$. The CMC of SDS(0.049%) was higher than that of $POE_5$(0.016%), but the CMCs of mixed surfactants were decreased as the mixing ratio of $POE_5$ was increased. Alcohols having longer chain and branched carbon chain were found to be desirable for the soil washing additives.

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The Effects of Salt Treatment on Thermal Coagulation of Diluted Eggs in Cookery (난액의 열응고조리에 미치는 식염의 영향)

  • 박영선
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 1979
  • The effects of salt concentration on the qualities of cooked egg preparations were evaluated. Diluted egg samples which contained different amounts of slat were prepared by diluting whole egg fluid with rice washing, anchovy stock , or distilled water. After heating them rapidly, hardness, gel strength, and amount of syneresis were determined along with the performance of sensory test. the pH of the diluted eggs also measured before heating. Results obtained from these experiments are summarized in the following. 1. The pH of whole egg, egg yolk, and egg white was 7.32, 6.31, and 8.41 , respectively. 2. The pH whole eggs after addition of diluting solutions and salt showed a little differences over the whole salt concentration as follows. distilled water dilution > anchovy stock dilution > rice washing dilution 3. The hardness and gel strength of cooked samples were increased with the increase of salt concentration in the range of low salt concentrations of all diluting solution. These physical properties marked maximal values at salt concentration of 3% and then decreased as salt concentration increased. 4. Amount of syneresis decreased as salt concentration increased regardless of all diluting solutions used. 5. In sensory test, 1% salt concentration were scored good by the panel members regardless of diluting solutions which showed no significant difference among three diluting solutions.

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Effect of HPC Dispersant on Synthesis of Monodispersed Hydrated Zirconia Powder by Hydrolysis of Zr-n-butoxide (Zr(n-OC$_4$H$_9$)$_4$의 가수분해에 의한 선분산 지르코니아 분체의 합성에서 분산제 HPC의 첨가효과)

  • Rhee, Jhun;Jo, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.611-618
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    • 1991
  • In the present study adding hydroxypropyl celluose as dispersant to the ethanol solution of Zr-butoxide prior to starting the hydrolysis reaction, spherical and submicrometer sized hydrated zirconia powders were synthesized successfully. But syntesized hydrated zirconia powders were soluble considerably in ethanol used as washing medium. Washing once the powder with plenty amount of water after washing thrice it with acetone, reaction mother solution remained between the particles was effectively removed and the particles were converted to insoluble state to ethanol at the same time. As a result of such washing processes it was able to prevent the formation of polydispersed, agglomerated and multiplet particles almost always even when such concentrated solutions of Zr-n-butoxide as 0.5 M were hydrolyzed.

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Remediation of Contaminated Soil with Heavy Metal Using Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids (저분자 유기산에 의한 중금속 오염토양의 복원)

  • Jeong, Euh-Deok;Won, Mi-Sook;Yoon, Jang-Hee;Lee, Byung-Ho;Paek, U-Hyon;Joseph A. Gardella, Jr
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.299-304
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    • 2001
  • For the remediation of the contaminated soil with heavy metals, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, the reaction parameters were optimized. Tartaric acid (TA) and oxalic acid(OA) as a washing agent and recovery of metals, The optimum washing conditions of TA and OA were in the ratio of 1 : 20 between soil and acid solution during 2hr reaction under unbuffered pH solutions. At the optimized reaction conditions, the removal efficiencies were compared with that of 0.1 M HCl and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid(EDTA). TA showed higher efficiency on the removal of Pb than that of EDTA, which established for the remediation of contaminated soil with Pb and Cd metals. The recovery of metal ions from washing solution was achieved by adding calcium hydroxide and sodium sulfide by forming the precipitation of metal hydroxide and metal slfied. Optimum amounts of sodium sulgide and calcium hydroxide were Cd = 25g/$\ell$, Cu = 5~10g/$\ell$ and Pb = 5~10g/$\ell$ for the washing solution of OA and 2~5g/$\ell$ for the washing solution of TA, respectively. The amounts of $Na_2S$ and $CA(OH)_2$ for the tartaric acid was less than that of oxalic acid.

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Characterization and Feasibility Study of the Soil Washing Process Applying to the Soil Having High Uranium Concentration in Korea (우라늄 함량이 높은 국내 토양에 대한 토양학적 특성 규명 및 토양세척법의 적용성 평가)

  • Chang, See-Un;Lee, Min-Hee
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.8-19
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    • 2008
  • The physicochemical properties of soils having high uranium content, located around Duckpyungri in Korea, were investigated and the lab scale soil washing experiments to remove uranium from the soil were preformed with several washing solutions and on various washing conditions. SPLP (Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure), TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), and SEP (Sequential Extraction Procedure) for the soil were conducted and the uranium concentration of the extracted solution in SPLP was higher than Drinking Water Limit of USEPA (30 ${\mu}g$/L), suggesting that the continuous dissolution of uranium from soil by the weak acid rain may generate the environmental pollution around the research area. For the soil washing experiments, the uranium removal efficiency of pH 1 solution for S2 soil was about 80 %, but dramatically decreased as pH of solution was > 2, suggesting that strong acidic solutions are available to remove uranium from the soil. For solutions with 0.1M of HCl and 0.05 M of ${H_2}{SO_4}$, their removal efficiencies at 1 : 1 of soil vs. washing solution ratio were higher than 70%, but the removal efficiencies of acetic acid, and EDTA were below 30%. At 1 : 3 of soil vs. solution, the uranium removal efficiencies of 0.1M HCl, 0.05 M ${H_2}{SO_4}$, and 0.5M citric acid solution increased to 88%, 100%, and 61% respectively. On appropriate washing conditions for S2 soil such as 1 : 3 ratio for the soil vs. solution ratio, 30 minute for washing time, and 2 times continuous washing, TOC (Total Organic Contents) and CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity) for S2 soil were measured before/after soil washing and their XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) results were also compared to investigate the change of soil properties after soil washing. TOC and CEC decreased by 55% and 66%, compared to those initial values of S2 soil, suggesting that the soil reclaimant may need to improve the washed soils for the cultivated plants. Results of XRF and XRD showed that the structural change of soil after soil washing was insignificant and the washed soil will be partially used for the further purpose.