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The assessment of self cleaning velocity and optimal flushing velocity in water distribution system (상수관망의 자가세척 유속과 적정 플러싱 유속 평가)

  • Bae, Cheol-Ho;Choi, Doo Yong;Kim, Ju-Hwan;Kim, Do-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.441-451
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    • 2014
  • The flushing is important to maintain good water quality in water main. It is a technique of using water velocity to remove sediments in water distribution system. The variety of water quality problems can occur in a distribution system, so too can a variety of benefits be gained by system flushing. In order to effectively perform the flushing, the contaminants to be removed to set up and it can be solved, it is necessary to ensure the proper flow rate. In this study, the removal of contaminants present in the inner water pipe attached loose deposits such as fine particles of granular activated carbon, sand and iron corrosion product sought to derive flow rates. Thus, the constant observation of using pilot plant scale water distribution plant for the movement of floating characteristics of particles were assessed.

The Monitoring of Corrosive Water Quality in Water Distribution System by Corrosion Characteristics of Raw and Tap water (원·정수의 부식특성에 따른 상수관망에서의 부식성 수질 모니터링)

  • Bae, Seog-Moon;Kim, Do-Hwan;Son, Hee-Jong;Choi, Dong-Hoon;Kim, Ik-Sung;Kim, Kyung-A
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.907-915
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    • 2015
  • The tap water is generally known to be corrosive in the pH range at 6.5 ~ 7.5. And the degree of corrosion varies depending on the types of raw water such as river surface water or lake water of the dam. Although several corrosion index represents the corrosivity of tap water, the typical corrosion indexes such as Langelier saturation index (LI) and calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) were calculated to monitoring the corrosive water quality about raw and tap water in water distribution system. To control the corrosive water quality, the correlation between corrosion index and water quality factors were examined. In this study, corrosion index (LI, CCPP) and the pH was found to be most highly correlated.

Estimation of Water Footprint for Livestock Products in Korea (한국의 축산물 물발자국 산정)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jin-Yong;Yoo, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Young Deuk;Shin, Ankook
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2015
  • Since the consumption of the livestock products increased for the past 10 years in Korea, the water use for live animals has become more important in terms of water savings. Therefore, the index connecting water use and livestock products consumption should be required for sustainable water management, and water footprint concept could be suggested as the index. The aim of this study is to estimate the water footprint for livestock products; beef cattle, swine, and broiler chicken. The water footprint for livestock products is divided into direct and indirect water. The direct water includes the drinking and servicing water, and the indirect water includes the water for the cultivation of feed crops. The water footprint of beef cattle was calculated to $17,023.1m^3/ton$, and direct water was $91.2m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $16,931.9m^3/ton$. The water footprint of swine was calculated to $4,235.8m^3/ton$, and direct water was $129.7m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $4,106.0m^3/ton$. The water footprint of broiler chicken was calculated to $2,427.7m^3/ton$, and direct water was $7.6m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $2,420.1m^3/ton$. Also, we compared the water footprint to water demand of water vision 2020 which is the main report for national water management. The water vision 2020 reported only direct water for live animal, but the water footprint includes the direct and indirect water. Therefore, the water footprint could be applied to various fields relating water and food.

Evaluation of Water Productivity of Thailand and Improvement Measure Proposals

  • Suthidhummajit, Chokchai;Koontanakulvong, Sucharit
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.176-176
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    • 2019
  • Thailand had issued a national strategic development master plan with issues related to water resources and water security in the entire water management. Water resources are an important factor of living and development of the country's socio-economy to be stable, prosperous and sustainable. Therefore, water management in both multidimensional and multi-sectoral systems is important and will supports socio-economic and environmental development. The direction of national development in accordance with the national strategic framework for 20 years that requires the country to level up security level in terms of water, energy and food. To response to the proposed goals, there is a subplan to increase water productivity of the entire water system for economical development use by evaluating use value and to create more value added from water use to meet international standard level. This study aims to evaluate the water productivity of Thailand in each basin and all sectors such as agricultural sector, service and industrial sectors by using the water use data from water account analysis and GDP data from NESDB during the past 10 years (1996-2015). The comparison of water productivity with other countries will also be conducted and in addition, the measures to improve water productivity in next 20 years will be explored to response to the National Strategic Master Plan goals. Water productivity is defined as output per unit of water depleted. The simplest way to compare water productivity across different enterprises is in monetary terms. World Bank presents water productivity as an indication of the efficiency by which each country uses its water resources. There are two data sets used for water productivity analyses, i.e., the first is water use data at end users and the second is Gross Domestic Product. The water use at end users are estimated by water account method based on the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-Water) concept of United Nations. The water account shows the analyses of the water balance between the use and supply of each water resource in physical terms. The water supply and use linkage in the water account analyses separated into each phases, i.e., water sources, water managers, water service providers, water user at end user under water regulators of all kinds of water use activities such as household, industrial, agricultural, tourism, hydropower, and ecological conservation uses. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a well- known measuring method of the national economic growth is not actually a comprehensive approach to describe all aspects of national economic status, since GDP does not take into account the costs of the negative impacts to natural resources that result from the overexploitation of development projects, however, at present, integrating the environment with the economy of a country to measure its economic growth with GDP is acceptable worldwide. The study results will show the water use at each basin, use types at end users, water productivity in each sector from 1996-2015 compared with other countries, Besides the productivity improvement measures will be explored and proposed for the National Strategic Master Plan.

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A Study on the Drinking Water Quality for Primary Lunch School in Seoul (서울지역 급식 국민학교의 음용수 수질에 관한 연구)

  • 이원묘;이용옥;방형애
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.7-20
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    • 1995
  • The aims of this study are to enhance the students' knowledge of the drinking water and its reliability by investigating drinking water situation on the drinking water. The results are as following 1. Status and drinking behavior about school drinking water (1) 97.82% of the schools are using the tap water as the resource of drinking water. (2) 46 schools are in possession of water tank and 18 schools of them are using the water tank as the resource of drinking water. The clearing and sanitization of the tank are carried out once in a year with hypochloronatrium by the low-level officials. (3) 51.28% of the schools are providing the students with drinking water and 75% of them with boiled water. The drinking water supply managers are low-level officials, nurse teachers, and dietitian. 2. Analysis of the drinking water quality (1) Most of the drinking water provided by the school are tap water 35.8%, barely tea 5.85%, filtered water 6.3%, ground water 1.1% and all turned out to be suitable for drinking. (2) The drinking water carried from home turned out to be unsuitable for drinking except pH criterion, especially the test of APC(Aerobic Plate Count) and Coliform group showed worse degree. These results were caused by the hygiene problem and maltreatment in water container.

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Analysis of the Water Quality by Various Gate Operation Effects at Nakdong Estuary Barrier (낙동강하구둑 수문운영에 따른 수질 영향 분석)

  • Lee, Sang Jin;Ryoo, Kyong Sick;Hwang, Man Ha;Lee, Sang Uk
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.651-658
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    • 2008
  • Estuary barrier is a hydraulic structure constructed to supply safely water as protecting chlorine penetration of sea water. However, the barrier brings about a problem which decreases original functions of estuary because hydraulic ecology was disrupted as obstructing natural water exchange between fresh water and sea water. It is important to supply Enough fresh water in the estuary ecosystem. But it is possible to reduce the problems brought from barrier throughout efficient water gate operation of estuary barrier. It was shown in this study that the environmental effect of estuary in Nakdong river was investigated according to the control of water level. Also, the basic information about the effective water gate operation was provided. The analysis results showed that the release rate of estuary was increased about 20% as changing the operational water levels. This helps supplying fresh water durably to the mixing zone. Also, CE-QUAL-W2 model was utilized to assess water quality. The values of BOD and COD were not changed in estuary area. From the result, it was analyzed the effect of water quality according to the water gate operation was not indicated.

Evolution of Water supply system! Smart Water Management for customer - Smart Water City Pilot Project - (수도 서비스의 진화! 소비자 중심의 스마트 물 관리 - Smart Water City 시범사업 -)

  • Kim, Jae-Bog
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.511-517
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    • 2015
  • Korea's modern waterworks began with construction of DDukdo water treatment plant in 1908 and has been growing rapidly along with the country's economic development. As a result, water supply rates have reached 98.5% based on 2013. Despite multilateral efforts for high-quality water supply, such as introduction of advanced water treatment process, expansion of waterworks infrastructure and so on, distrust for drinking tap water has been continuing and domestic consumption rate of tap water is in around 5% level and extremely poor comparing to advanced countries such as the United States(56%), Japan(52%), etc. Recently, the water management has been facing the new phase due to water environmental degradation caused by climate change, aging facilities, etc. Therefore, K-water has converted water management paradigm from the "clean and safe water" to the "healthy water" and been pushing the Smart Water City(SWC) Pilot Project in order to develop and spread new water supply models for consumers to believe and drink tap water through systematic water quality and quantity management combining ICT in the whole water supply process. The SWC pilot projects in Pa-ju city and Go-ryeong county were an opportunity to check the likelihood of the "smart water management" as the answer to future water management. It is needed to examine the necessity of smart water management introduction and nationwide SWC expansion in order to improve water welfare for people and resolve domestic & foreign water problems.

Estimating the economic value of agricultural water using the virtual water concept

  • Lee, Gyumin;Kim, Yoon Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.636-641
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    • 2017
  • Water is an essential resource for human survival. According to the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050, rapid industrialization and a global population increase by approximately two billion will likely increase global water use by 55% in 2050. However, water depletion has been getting worse than before and has been happening more quickly, as Earth's water resources are limited. The present study proposes water management measures by using the virtual water theory which enables water consumption measurement and the confirmation and recognition of water scarcity problems, and will support the development of counter-measures. As a method for estimating the value of agricultural water, virtual water theory was used to calculate the amount of agricultural water input for domestic rice and to apply prices of agricultural water in the United States and China to Korean water prices. When the Chinese price was applied to Korean water prices, the value of agricultural water represented 0.3% of the Korean rice producer's price. When the US price was applied to Korean water prices, the value of agricultural water represented 1.6% of the domestic rice producer's price. The study exposes the percentage of the value of agricultural water in agricultural product prices, as well as how this scare resource may affect future prices. In the future, if there are water charges to effectively manage agricultural water, this study, which uses the virtual water theory, can be used as a preliminary research.

A successful province of agriculturalwater-saving: Gansu

  • Bin, Jiang
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.194-194
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    • 2016
  • Gansu, located in the northwestern region, is a typical agricultural province of arid, semiarid in China. The shortage of water resources is the biggest obstacle of Gansu Province's development, and the dry farming water-saving is the eternal theme of Gansu agricultural sustainable development. In recent years, intensify reform in Gansu, has walked out a successful way in the agricultural water-saving. Using the integrated river basin governance as opportunity, the total water-using quantity was regarded as rigidity to retrain, distributed to counties (districts), irrigated areas, towns, associations, groups step by step. Agricultural water price was substantially increased, with the surface water price from about $0.1RMB/m^3$ to more than $0.2 RMB/m^3$, and the ground water from zero to more than $0.1RMB/m^3$. Simultaneously, the difference water prices and over-quota water progression price markup were carried out. The transaction of water rights was encouraged to impel the peasant to establish the consciousness of saving-water. The regulatory documents were formulated to standardize the scope, condition, mode, program etc. of agriculture water-rights transaction, to guarantees the transaction of water rights is carries out in order. The pattern of farming was optimized and adjusted, reducing the high water-consumption crop, increasing economic crops with high benefit and low water-consumption, developing industrialized agricultures such as green house. The relative engineering and measuring facility were comprehensively improved, with the anti-seepage of canal system and the enforcement of dynamo-electric well, developing high-efficient water-saving irrigation and overall metering facilities. The water fine-grained management has realized, and obvious water-saving effect has obtained: water-using rate in the irrigation area by river water has brought up to 0.57 from 0.52, and by well water up to 0.84 from 0.76. Although the water price has increased, the proportion that the water rate expenditure accounted for the cost lasts decline, and the farmers' income has gone up. The peasants express, the used water is few, and it is few to till land, but the income is many, and life is better.

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