• Title/Summary/Keyword: water deficit

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Yield and Seed Quality as Affected by Water Deficit at Different Reproductive Growth Stages in Soybean

  • Kim, Wook-Han;Hong, Byung-Hee;Kim, Seok-Dong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.321-329
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    • 1999
  • The effect of water deficits on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] could appear on seed quality through changes of morphological plant characteristics. Two Korean genotypes, Hwangkeum (determinate growth habit) and Muhan (indeterminate growth habit), were used to examine the influences of treatment stage and method of water deficit during reproductive growth period on yield and seed quality of soybean. Water deficit at R5 or R6 stages was as damaging to seed quality as double water-deficit treatments at R2+R5 or R2+R6. However, seed from double water-deficit treatment tended to have lower oxidation-reduction potential compare to the corresponding single water-deficit treatment. In comparison with Muhan, Hwangkeum had significantly greater oxidation-reduction potential value. Seed yield per plant in both genotypes depended greatly on seed yield of branches. However, the proportion of number of branch seed to total seed umber in Hwangkeum was increased as the water deficit was applied during later reproductive stage, whereas, in Muhan the proportion was lower. Water-deficit treatments including the single and double water-deficit treatments and non-stressed treatment were able to be classified into five groups for Hwangkeum and four groups for Muhan based on the influences on yield components, number of pod, number of seed, and single seed weight, using principal component analysis. In both genotypes, R2+R5 water-deficit treatment decreased number of pod and seed, but increased single seed weight. On the contrary, R6 or R2+R6 stress increased the pod and seed number, but decreased single seed weight.

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Effects of Water Deficit on Biomass Accumulation and Water Use Efficiency in Soybean during Vegetative Growth Period

  • Kim, Wook-Han;Hong, Byung-Hee;Larry C. Purcell
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.6-13
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    • 2000
  • Water deficit is the primary constraint of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield, and a physiological understanding of processes affected by water deficit is a key step in identifying and improving drought tolerance in soybean. The objectives of this research were to evaluate biomass and nitrogen accumulation patterns and water use efficiency (WUE) as possible mechanisms associated with the drought tolerance of Jackson. Biomass accumulation of Jackson was contrasted with the PI416937, which also has demonstrated tolerance to drought. For water-deficit treatment, total biomass accumulation was negligible for PI416937, but biomass accumulation continued at approximately 64 % of the well-watered treatment of Jackson. Transpirational losses for Jackson and PI416937 were approximately the same for the water-deficit treatment, indicating that Jackson had superior WUE. Isotopic discrimination of $^{13}$ C relative to $^{12}$ C also indicated that Jackson had higher WUE. Results indicated that increased WUE for Jackson under water deficit showed it was tolerant to drought rather than had an avoidance mechanism.

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Effects of Water Deficit on Leaf Growth during Vegetative Growth Period in Soybean

  • Kim, Wook-Han;Hong, Byung-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2000
  • Leaf area is critical for crop light interception, and thereby has a substantial influence on crop yield. This experiment was conducted to characterize the development of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] leaf area. Plastochron index and leaf relative growth rate of Jackson was contrasted with the PI416937, which also has demonstrated tolerance to drought. First, plastochron ratio (PR) and plastochron index (PI) were evaluated in greenhouse to compare the leaf growth rate between two genotypes under well-watered condition. There was reasonable constancy of PR between two genotypes. The PR means of Jackson and PI416937 were 0.41 and 0.44, respectively. A fairly smooth increase of PI during vegetative stage was observed. Second, the relative growth rates were graphed against leaf area, normalized with respect to final leaf area, under well-watered and water-deficit conditions. Leaf growth was sustained longer in well-watered condition than water-deficit condition and there was a sizable proportion of leaves which was ceased earlier their growth in water-deficit condition compared to well-watered condition. The leaf relative growth rate of Jackson until leaves had completed at 45% of their growth during water deficit period was higher than that of PI416937.

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Lignification in Relation to the Influence of Water-deficit Stress in Brassica napus

  • Lee, Bok-Rye;Zhang, Qian;Kim, Tae-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2014
  • To investigate lignification process and its physiological significance under water-deficit condition, the responses of peroxidases, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in relation to leaf water status to the short term of water deficit treatment in the leaves with different maturities in forage rape were measured. The significant decrease in relative water content (RWC) and leaf osmotic potential (${\Psi}{\pi}$) were apparent after 5 d of water-deficit treatment. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOD), coniferyl alcohol peroxidase (CPOD), and syringaldazine peroxidase (SPOD) was depressed especially in middle and old leaves when compared with that of control leaves. On the other hand, in young leaves, a significant increase in CPOD (+34%) and SPOD (+24%) activity as affected by water-deficit treatment was apparent. The activation of PAL and PPO was observed in middle and old leaves for PAL and in young and middle leaves for PPO. These results suggest that peroxidases in middle and old leaves did not involve in lignification under mild water-deficit stress, whereas CPOD and SPOD in young leaves participate in lignification by a coordination with PAL and PPO to incorporate phenol and lignin into the cell walls.

Turfgrass Responses to Water Deficit: A Review (물 부족 현상으로 인한 잔디의 생리학적 반응: 리뷰)

  • Lee, Joon-Hee
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 2011
  • Drought is a major limiting factor in turfgrass management. Turfgrass responses to water deficit depend on the amount and the rate of water loss as well as the duration of the stress condition. This review paper was designed to understand responses such as photosynthesis, canopy spectral reflectance, plant cell, root, hormone and protein alteration when turfgrass got drought stress. Furthermore, mechanisms to recover from drought conditions were reviewed in detail. However, there are still many questions regarding plant adaptation to water deficit. It is not clear that the mechanism by which plants detect water deficit and transfer that signal into adaptive responses. Turfgrass research should focus on the best management practices such as how to enhance the ability of self-defense mechanism through understanding plant responses by environmental stress.

Salicylic Acid and Water Stress Effects on Growth and Proline of Cucumber Seedlings

  • Lee, Gui-Soon;Kim, Tae-Yun;Hong, Jung-Hee
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.11
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    • pp.1165-1172
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    • 2002
  • The effects of salicylic acid(SA) and water deficit on growth and proline accumulation were investigated in cucumber(Cucurmis sativus L.) seedlings. Exogenous application of SA(100 $\mu$M-1 mM) led to a noticeable decrease in root and shoot growth, and dry weight of seedlings. Anatomical observation on leaf of cucumber revealed that the thickness of all leaf tissue components decreased in SA-treated plants. The effect was most pronounced on the width of the adaxial epidermis. In the separate effects of SA(0, 100, 500 and 1000 $\mu$M) and water deficit induced by PEG(0, 4.4, 7.0 and 9.6 %) on growth, the water deficit treatments had greater effects on growth traits than SA. Combinations of SA and PEG(SA+PEG) decreased shoot and root dry matter, and root length. Proline increased slightly in SA-treated seedlings, but exhibited a marked increase in water deficit application. Combinations of SA+PEG induced higher proline in both shoots and roots than SA stress alone. Shoots had higher proline than roots. Our data support a role of SA potentiating the osmotic stress response of germinating cucumber seedling.

Growth and Physiological Adaptations of Tomato Plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) in Response to Water Scarcity in Soil (토양 수분 결핍에 따른 토마토의 생육과 생리적응)

  • Hwang, Seung-Mi;Kwon, Taek-Ryun;Doh, Eun-Soo;Park, Me-Hea
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.266-274
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    • 2010
  • This study aim to investigate fundamentally the growth and physiological responses of tomato plants in responses to two different levels of water deficit, a weak drought stress (-25 kPa) and a severe drought stress (-100 kPa) in soil. The two levels of water deficit were maintained using a micro-irrigation system consisted of soil sensors for the real-time monitoring of soil water content and irrigation modules in a greenhouse experiment. Soil water contents were fluctuated throughout the 30 days treatment period but differed between the two treatments with the average -47 kPa in -25 kPa set treatment and the -119 kPa in -100 kPa set treatment. There were significant differences in plant height between the two different soil water statuses in plant height without differences of the number of nodes. The plants grown in the severe water-deficit treatment had greater accumulation of biomass than the plants in the weak water-deficit treatment. The severe water-deficit treatment (-119 kPa) also induced greater leaf area and leaf dry weight of the plants than the weak water-deficit treatment did, even though there was no difference in leaf area per unit dry weight. These results of growth parameters tested in this study indicate that the severe drought could cause an adaptation of tomato plants to the drought stress with the enhancement of biomass and leaf expansion without changes of leaf thickness. Greater relative water content of leaves and lower osmotic potential of sap expressed from turgid leaves were recorded in the severe water deficit treatment than in the weak water deficit treatment. This finding also postulated physiological adaptation to be better water status under drought stress. The drought imposition affected significantly on photosynthesis, water use efficiency and stomatal conductance of tomato plants. The severe water-deficit treatment increased PSII activities and water use efficiency, but decreased stomatal conductance than the weak water-deficit treatment. However, there were no differences between the two treatments in total photosynthetic capacity. Finally, there were no differences in the number and biomass of fruits. These results suggested that tomato plants have an ability to make adaptation to water deficit conditions through changes in leaf morphology, osmotic potentials, and water use efficiency as well as PSII activity. These adaptation responses should be considered in the screening of drought tolerance of tomato plants.

A Study on Water Resource Development Due to the Present Situation of Water Deficit (물 부족현상에 따른 수자원개발에 관한 고찰)

  • 김재홍
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 2002
  • Recently, deficit of water for daily We, industrial, agricultural use and Increasing water demand of river maintenance has increased gradually by the improvement of living condition of the Republic of Korea. Comprehensive measures for water deficit In the future are studied, based on the Investigated result of the actual condition of water use.

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Response of Monodehydroascorbate Reductase (MDHAR) in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Leaves Subjected to Water Deficit Stress (수분 부족 스트레스 처리시 Monodehydroascorbate Reductase (MDHAR)의 반응)

  • Kang, Sang-Jae
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 2008
  • The relationship between water deficit stress and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) activity was determined in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) leaves under water stress condition imposed by with-holding water for 72 hrs. Relative water content determined in water deficit stressed lettuce leaves gradually reduced from 91.29% to 74.58%, and water content of medium drastically decreased 4.73% after quitting of irrigation. Hydrogen peroxide content in leaves subjected to water deficit stress rapidly increased, but soluble protein content rapidly decreased when those were compared to control plant. The relationship between relative water content and hydrogen peroxide content in stressed leaves positively correlated with $R^2$=0.8851, but soluble protein content reversely correlated with $R^2$=0.9826. Total chlorophyll content in stressed plant leaves was higher than that of control plant, and increased rapidly in early stage of treatment of both stressed and control plants. Carotenoid content was higher than that of control plant, and the ratio of carotenoid to total chlorophyll in stressed plant was higher as compared to control plant. As water deficit stress continued progressively, total ascorbate content in stressed plant leaves was a little higher than that of control plant. But dehydroascorbate (DHA) content within 6 hr of water deficit stress was higher than that of control plant, and then, content of control plant in 12 hr of stress treatment higher than that of stressed leaves. The activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase of cytosolic and chloroplastic tractions increased dramatically, and mRNA of MDHAR was highly detected by probing $^{32}P$-labeled single stranded MDHAR RNA of lettuce plant leaves subjected to water deficit stress. Relationship between MDHAR activity and relative water content and hydrogen peroxide highly correlated with $R^2$=0.9937 and 0.8645, respectively.

Physiological Responses of Calystegia soldanella under Drought Stress

  • Bae, Chae-Youn;Hwang, Jeong-Sook;Bae, Jeong-Jin;Choi, Sung-Chul;Lim, Sung-Hwan;Choi, Deok-Gyun;Kim, Jong-Guk;Choo, Yeon-Sik
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine the extent of drought resistance based on physiological responses of Calystegia soldanella under water deficit. In order to investigate the changes of plant growth, stomatal density, photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, osmolality, total ion contents, the contents of carbohydrate and proline, C. soldanella was grown under well watered and drought stressed conditions for 12 days. In this study, water-deficit resulted in remarkable growth inhibition of C. soldanella. The effect of water-deficit on plant growth was associated with low osmotic potential of soil. On day 12 after drought treatment, dry weight, relative water contents, number and area of leaves and stem length were lower than those of control. The stomatal conductance and net photosynthetic rate were significantly reduced in water stressed plant to regulate inner water contents and $CO_2$ exchange through the stomatal pore. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll contents were not different in comparison with the control, indicating that the efficiency of photosystem II was not affected by drought stress. This results could be explained that water-deficit in C. soldanella limits the photosynthetic rate and reduces the plant's ability to convert energy to biomass. A significant increase in total ion contents and osmolality was observed on day 7 and day 12. Accumulation of proline in leaves is associated with the osmotic adjustment in C. soldanella to soil water-deficit. Consequently, this increase in osmolality in water stressed plant can be a result in the increase of ion contents and proline.