• Title, Summary, Keyword: water extraction

Search Result 2,315, Processing Time 0.047 seconds

Extraction Characteristics of Soluble Solid from Rumex crispus(Curled Dock) Roots (소리쟁이(Rumex crispus) 뿌리로부터 가용성 고형분의 추출특성)

  • Jeong, Kap-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.20 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1265-1272
    • /
    • 2011
  • In this study, the extraction characteristics of soluble solid from Rumex crispus(Curled dock) was studied from the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on extraction rate; extraction ratio, composition of extractants, extraction time and pH of extractant, etc. The proximate composition of Rumex crispus was 2.58% crude lipid, 5.59% crude protein, 7.39% crude ash, 6.13% moisture and 78.31% carbohydrate, respectively. Turbidity of extract by distilled water was higher and increased with extraction time and extraction temperature, where as the turbidity didn't increase by ethanol and methanol in 20 folds of extraction ratio. Turbidity was inversely proportional to the extraction ratio for the three extractants at 25$^{\circ}C$ and 1 hour extraction. But turbidity of extract was highest by composition of 50% methanol-water extractant than any other compositions of extractants. Eighteen and fifteen free aminoacids were detected in extracts with distilled water, methanol and ethanol extractant, respectively, and it's contents were order of glutamic acid>proline>aminobutyric acid>alanine. The extraction rate of soluble solid from Rumex crispus was order of distilled water>methanol>ethanol within experimental extraction ratio. In extraction with distilled water, the contents of soluble solid was inversely proportional to the pH of extractant.

Effects of Ethanol Addition on the Efficiency of Subcritical Water Extraction of Proteins and Amino Acids from Porcine Placenta

  • Park, Sung Hee;Kim, Jae-Hyeong;Min, Sang-Gi;Jo, Yeon-Ji;Chun, Ji-Yeon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.35 no.2
    • /
    • pp.265-271
    • /
    • 2015
  • In a previous study, hydrolysates of porcine placenta were obtained and the extraction efficiency for proteins and amino acids was compared between sub- and super-critical water extraction systems; optimum efficiency was found to be achieved using subcritical water ($170^{\circ}C$, 10 bar). In this study, the effects of adding ethanol to the subcritical water system were investigated. The lowest-molecular-weight extraction product detected weighed 434 Da, and the efficiency of extraction for low-molecular-weight products was increased when either the concentration of ethanol was decreased, or the extraction time was lengthened from 10 min to 30 min. The highest concentration of free amino acids (approximately 8 mM) was observed following 30 min extraction using pure distilled water. The concentration of free amino acids was significantly lower when ethanol was added or a shorter extraction time was used (p<0.05). Color change of the solution following extraction was measured. There were no significant differences in color between lysates produced with different extraction times when using distilled water (p>0.05); however, using different extraction times produced significant differences in color when using 20% or 50% ethanol solution for subcritical extraction (p<0.05). The range of pH for the hydrolysate solutions was 6.4-7.5. In conclusion, the investigated extraction system was successful in the extraction of $\leq$ 500 Da hydrolysates from porcine placenta, but addition of ethanol did not yield higher production of low-molecular-weight hydrolysates than that achieved by DW alone.

In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction

  • Lee, Kyoung Ah;Kim, Kee-Tae;Chang, Pahn-Shik;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
    • /
    • v.38 no.4
    • /
    • pp.289-292
    • /
    • 2014
  • Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature ($190^{\circ}C$) posses higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems.

Methods for the Extraction of DNA from Water Samples for Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • Jung, Jae-Sung;Lee, Young-Jong
    • Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.354-359
    • /
    • 1997
  • Methods for the extraction of DNA from water sample were approximated. Four different procedures of DNA extraction were carried out with pellets obtained from centrifugation of 4 liter water samples. The recovery efficiency and purity of DNA extracted by each method from different sources were compared. DNA yield varied with extraction methods, Method I, which involves enzymatic and freeze-thaw lysis steps and phenol and phenol-chloroform purification of extracted nucleic acid, showed a significantly higher yield and purity than the other methods. The use of glass beads in the DNA extraction methods improved the purity of DNA suitable for PCR. Bovine serum albumin in the PCR reaction mixture was useful in reducing inhibitory effects of contaminants. The efficiency of an extraction method was determined by the detection of the aer of Aeromonas hydrophila with PCR. The lower limit of detection of A. hydrophila from seeded tap water was 2 CFU/ml in PCR when method I was used for DNA preparation.

  • PDF

Comparison Studies between Conventional Hot Water and Cellulase Extraction for Safflower Dyestuff (홍화색소의 일반추출과 셀룰라아제추출의 비교연구)

  • 신인수;홍경옥;오태광
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
    • /
    • v.39 no.4
    • /
    • pp.49-59
    • /
    • 2001
  • Natural red and yellow dyestuff was extracted from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Linnaeus) by a new process of cellulase extraction compared with the conventional hot water extraction. Dyestuffs were extracted from safflower easily and repeatedly by means of cellulose as safflower cell wall destroyer. It means that new dyestuff extraction by cellulase improves not only yields of dyestuff from safflower successfully but also the rate of repetition of extraction. From the above experiments, the conclusions of this study were summarized as follows. 1. The optimum conditions of dyestuff extraction from safflower by general extraction method were that the solvent was the water of pH 6.0 on yellow dyestuff and 3% $K_2CO_3$ solution on red dyestuff, extraction temperature was $55^{\circ}C$, and extraction time was 30 min. 2. Among various cellulase, the NOVO cellulase was the best cell wall destroyer of safflower and finally produced the largest amount of dyestuff from safflower by cellulase extraction method. 3. The optimum conditions of dyestuff extraction by cellulase extraction method were conducted on 10 unit of cellulase per gram of safflower at $100m{\ell}$ water of pH 5.0 at $50^{\circ}C$ for 30 min.

  • PDF

Effect of Microwave Assisted Water Extraction on Insoluble Phenolic Compounds through Bioactivity of Fagopyrum esculentum

  • Kim, Hyun Gi;Kim, Yong Ju;Lian, Thang Tung;Song, Sueng Yeob;Bang, Kuek Soo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
    • /
    • v.32 no.6
    • /
    • pp.723-729
    • /
    • 2019
  • Fagopyrum esculentum (Buckwheat) is a globally used alternative crop that contains several useful substances with various effects; however, many of these substances (rutin, quercetin, etc.) are water insoluble. To extract these substances, alcohols is required, which is inconvenient because these solvents cause diverse problems. Many studies are underway to achieve effective extraction of these substances with water. Among of these studies, microwave assisted water extraction (MAE) has been performed extensively. In this study, we performed the extraction in various solvents and/or microwave from Fagopyrum esculentum. The analysis of the content of useful substances and the bioactivity were performed and shown to increase in MAE. Liquid chromatography-mass was performed in order to identify of the useful water-insoluble substances. Catechin, quercetin, and rutin, which are all insoluble in water, were hardly extracted with water even on heating (4.4 ppb, 3.9 ppb and 60.3 ppb, respectively). However, MAE was found to extract much more of these substances than water (1204 ppb, 110.8 ppb and 2946 ppb, respectively). Although less efficient than alcohols, MAE showed much higher efficiency than simple water extraction. These results indicate that water extraction using microwave technology is effective in cases where it is difficult to extract useful substances using water.

Optimized Design of Dioxin Analysis for Water Sample

  • Choi, Jaewon;Lee, Jaehee;Kim, Kyoungsim;Kim, Sunheong;Bae, Kyunghee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.219-229
    • /
    • 2005
  • The analytical methods for dioxins in water sample from wastewater to tap water were reviewed. For extraction method, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been widely used, however, this process needs too much time and man power. New approach including solid phase extraction (SPE) is now applicable to large volume of water sample with high extraction efficiency. Column clean up in classical analytical methods were very complex and time consuming procedures during decade. Modifications were tried to decrease solvent and reagents volume. Moreover, use of column connection method has been demonstrated in the environmental matrices. Instrumental configurations also have been improved, in which GC/MS/MS with large volume injection approach can analyze picogram levels. Absolute sensitivities of HRMS increased compared to old versions of double focusing sector type mass spectrometers. Based on these analytical evolutions during last 10 years, we tried to optimize the analytical method for dioxins in water sample from sample extraction to instrumental analysis.

Recovery of Aluminium Coagulants from Water Treatment Plant Sludges (정수 슬러지로부터 알루미늄 응집제의 회수에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Bok;Hwang, Jeong-Wuk;Kim, Jin-Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.30-40
    • /
    • 1998
  • Increasing water consumption produced sludge problems of the water treatment plants. The objective of this study is to investigate aluminium coagulants recovery n acidic and alkaline conditions. Water treatment plant sludge produced in Pusan Metropolitan City were tested for the aluminium extraction process. Experiment samples were obtained in summer from water treatment plants of Deoksan and Myongjang. Aluminium coagulants used in these plants during the test period were polyaluminium chloride(PAC), polyaluminium sulfate organic(PSO), polyaluminium sulfate silicate(PASS). Aluminium contents of water treatment sludge were in the range of 7.2~10.9% of the total solids. The recovery percentages for aluminium and iron by acidic extraction method was evaluated to 88% and 42% respectively. Extracted mass variation for other materials such as iron, manganese, total organic carbon was observed during the extraction operation. Alkaline extraction produced more than two times amount of total organic carbon than that in the acidic extraction process.

  • PDF

Optimization of Jirisan Mountain Cudrania tricuspidata leaf substance extraction across solvents and temperatures

  • Kim, Yong Ju
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.48-60
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to optimize the extraction of beneficial substance from Cudrania tricuspidata leaves grown at Jirisan Mountain in South Korea by three different solvents depending on extraction time and at different temperature. Methods: The total phenolic contents were determined by the method reported by $S{\acute{a}}nchez$-Moreno et al. The total flavonoid contents were analyzed by Slinkard and Singleton. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined according to the method reported by Blois Results: The extraction yield for each solvent is 9.05-14.1%, 2.17-5.67%, and 2.3-3.9% for D.W., ethanol, and hexane, respectively. The overall results were maximized for the extract obtained with D.W. for 5 min at $100^{\circ}C$. The average phenol contents were 77.11, 45.64, and 0.343 mg/g at $100^{\circ}C$ in water, $78^{\circ}C$ in ethanol, and $68^{\circ}C$ in hexane, respectively. The flavonoid contents were the highest in the materials extracted with D.W., and were increased with increasing temperature, regardless of the extraction solvents, whether water (green), polar organic ethanol, or nonpolar organic hexane. In the ethanol extract, the flavonoid contents are increased gradually from 5.66 mg/g to 7.73 mg/g. The total flavonoid contents were proportional to the concentrations of the water extracts, ranging from 4.14 mg/g to 48.89 mg/g. The antioxidative activities of the water-extracted compounds are generally increased with increasing temperature from 42.5% to 85.5%. Those of the hexane extracts are increased slowly from 3.79% to 8.8%, while those of ethanol extracts are increased from 29.8% to 47.4%. Conclusion: The extraction yields were dependent upon solvents for extraction as well as extraction time and the temperature. The optimal extraction time was 5 min and the extraction yields were increased with increasing temperature excepted hexane. Of the three tested extraction solvents, the greenest solvent of water shows excellent results, suggesting that water is among the most effective solvents for natural sample extractions for general medicinal, pharmaceutical, and food applications.

Effects of Extraction Time, Temperature and Amount of Added Water on Beef Extracts by Hot Water (추출시간, 추출온도 및 가수율이 쇠고기의 열수추출물에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoo, Ick-Jong;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Kim, Young-Eon;Park, Woo-Mun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.22 no.7
    • /
    • pp.858-864
    • /
    • 1990
  • In an attempt to establish efficient extraction conditions of beef extract by hot water extraction, effects of extraction time, temperature and amount of added water were investigated. Beef extract was prepared with three different extraction conditions and quality parameters for optimization of extraction condition were content of total nitrogen, non protein nitrogen and collagen in terms of extractability. As a result, in order to produce beef extract from beef by hot water extraction, it was efficient to extract at $97^{\circ}C$ for 75 minutes with the addition of 2.5 times water. Proper extraction condition under pressure was at $125^{\circ}C$ for 30 minutes with the addition of 2 times water.

  • PDF