• Title, Summary, Keyword: water holding capacity

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Changes in Water Absorption, Water-holding Capacity, Chromaticity and Mineral Contents of Dried Sea Mustards on Soaking (건미역의 수침에 따른 흡수율과 보수율, 색도 및 무기성분의 함량 변화)

  • ;;;南出隆久
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.209-218
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to examine the water absorption, water-holding capacity, color and mineral contents in natural and cultured dried sea mustards on soaking treatment. Four dried samples of natural and cultured sea mustards were used for the experiments. The effects of soaking treatment on water absorption and water-holding capacity in sea mustards were examined, as the results, these were rapidly accelerated 5 minutes after soaking. It showed that water-holding capacity was significantly high in the case of high absorption of water by soaking. The L, a and b values were increased until 30 minutes after soaking. There was significant difference for potassium content between dried natural and dried cultured sea mustards and the natural sea mustard was 10 times as high as the cultured sample. All mineral elements in these materials were significantly decreased and especially, potassium were significantly more decreased at 50~80% of total content by soaking treatment. Ca/ P ratio in these materials by soaking was about 2~3 : 1 levels.

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Muscle Fiber Characteristics and Their Relationship to Water Holding Capacity of Longissimus dorsi Muscle in Brahman and Charolais Crossbred Bulls

  • Waritthitham, A.;Lambertz, C.;Langholz, H.-J.;Wicke, M.;Gauly, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 2010
  • Muscle fiber characteristics and their relationship to water-holding capacity of longissimus dorsi (ld) muscle were studied in Brahman (BRA) and Charolais (CHA) crossbred bulls fattened under practical farm conditions. Thirty-four BRA and 34 CHA bulls were randomly selected and slaughtered at 500, 550 and 600 kg live weight. Parameters of water-holding capacity such as drip, ageing, thawing, cooking and grilling loss were determined. Muscle fiber characteristics were conducted for muscle fiber type percentage and cross-sectional areas of slow- and fast-twitch fiber types, and correlation coefficients to water-holding capacity parameters were calculated. Results showed that CHA meat had a better water-holding capacity (less ageing, thawing and grilling loss) when compared with BRA, whereas slaughter weights had no significant effects on these parameters. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between genotypes and slaughter weights in muscle fiber type percentage and cross-sectional areas of ld muscle. Slow- and fast-twitch fiber types of all experimental groups averaged 24.4 and 75.6%, respectively. Cross-sectional areas of fast-twitch fibers had almost twice the size of slow-twitch fibers (6,721 and 3,713 ${\mu}m^2$, respectively). The correlation between muscle fiber area and water-holding capacity indicated that muscles with larger fiber areas had a lower drip and ageing loss but a higher cooking and grilling loss.

Solubility, Viscosity, Water Holding Capacity, and Oil Holding Capacity of Soybean Proteins by Bacillus subtilis and/or Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Bacillus subtilis와 Lactobacillus bulgaricus에 의한 청국장 단백질의 용해성, 점성, 보수성 및 보유성)

  • Lee, Jin-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.399-406
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    • 2007
  • Soybean seeds were fermented by Bacillus subtilis and/or Lactobacillus bulgaricus to improve solubility, viscosity, water holding capacity and oil holding capacity of soybean proteins in Chongkukjang. The maximum colony forming unit and protease activity of B. subtilis or L bulgaricus were observed after 60 hours of fermentation, and those of the mixed fermentation by two microorganisms were steadily increased during the fermentation periods. Solubilities of soybean proteins by B. subtilis or L bulgaricus were steadily increased before the values were considerably increased to 60 hours of fermentation, whereas water holding capacities of the proteins were decreased by B. subtilis or L. bulgaricus and those of the mixed fermentation were decreased progressively. Viscosities of soybean proteins by B. subtilis and/or L. bulgaricus were decreased progressively during the fermentation. Viscosities of soybean proteins by B. subtilis and/or L. bulgaricus were decreased progressively during the fermentation. Oil holding capacities of soybeans by B. subtilis or L. bulgaricus were maximum at 20 or 80 hours of fermentation and those of the mixed fermentation were decreased after 10 hours of the fermentation.

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Effects of Surfactant Tween 80 on Enzymatic Accessibility and Degradation of Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) at Different Growth Stages

  • Goto, M.;Bae, Hee-Dong;Yahaya, M.S.;Karita, S.;Wanjae, K.;Baah, J.;Sugawara, K.;Cheng, K.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.83-87
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    • 2003
  • The study evaluates the enzymatic dry matter (DM) degradability and water holding capacity of leaf and stem fractions of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) at different growth stages with or without the presence of surfactant Tween 80. While Tween 80 significantly (p<0.05) increased water and enzyme holding capacities in the leaf blades fraction, less was observed in the fraction of leaf sheath and stem of orchardgrass. The enzyme holding capacity in the leaves was also altered more than that for water holding capacity. This resulted in the increased rate and extent of enzymatic hydrolysis of the leaf blade fractions at two growth stages, whereas little was with leaf sheath and stem fractions. It was also observed that at 0.005% concentrations of Tween 80 the enzymatic DM degradability of young leaf blades was higher (p<0.05) by 20-30% compared to that of the control, as well as for water and enzyme holding capacity. For matured leaf blades the DM degradability were increased with over 0.01% concentrations of the surfactant, but the increase was less than leaf blades of young orchardgrass. This result suggests the possibility of using the surfactant Tween 80 to improve forage digestibility in the rumen.

Changes of Rheological Properties of Yoghurt by Different Kinds Stabilizers (Yoghurt의 안정제 종류에 따른 물성 변화)

  • 최순호;장운기;정종국;오동규;이부웅
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1998
  • The objective of this study was to examine the changes of physical properties by additions of different kinds of stabilizers milk proteins concentration, when stored at 4$^{\circ}C$ or 20$^{\circ}C$ for yoghurt. the results were summarized as follows: 1. Addition of 2% carboxyl methyl cellulose and carrageenan, gelation 0.4%, pectin and starch 0.6%, and carrageenan & pectin 0.8% in the manufacture of yoghurt increased the viscosity, water-holding capacity and protein hydration of yoghurt. 2. Addition of 3% skim milk powder, Ca-caseinate or Na-caseinate 0.6% increased the viscosity, water-holding capacity and protein hydration of yoghurt. 3. Twenty five percent of evaporation of milk promoted to build up the optimal structure of the micelles of yoghurt and improved viscosity, water-holding capacity and protein hydration of yoghurt. 4. Addition of stabilizers to yoghurt showed an increase of viscosity, water-holding capacity and protein hydration when compared with non-addition of stabilizers to yoghurt at 4$^{\circ}C$, 20$^{\circ}C$ storage for 12hrs, 96hrs followed by the decrease of it.

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Research of Sludge Quantity and Evaluation of Sludge Handling Facilities in Water Treatment Plants (정수 슬러지 발생량 조사 및 슬러지 처리시설의 공정평가)

  • Moon, Seong-Yong;Kim, Seung-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.279-290
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    • 2004
  • Sludge quantity has increased at "A"water treatment plant due to deterioration of raw water quality and GAC installation. Increased sludge resulted in overloading on sludge handling facilities. The object of this study is to survey sludge quantity and capacity of sludge handling facilities at "A"water treatment plant. Measured quantity of sedimentation sludge considerably exceeded the design capacity of sludge holding basin. Sludge holding basin was properly designed, but low concentration of sludge discharged from sedimentation basin caused production of large volume of the sludge. Timer operated control system for sludge withdrawal unit and leakage through a control valve were suspected to cause the low concentration. Augmentation of the control system by a turbidity meter and addition of a new control valve successfully reduced the sludge volume enough to satisfy the design capacity of sludge holding basin. Unlike sedimentation sludge, measured quantity of washwater was considerably less than the design capacity of washwater basin because it was over-designed.

A Study on Water Holding Capacity of Fish Meat Paste Products (어육(魚肉) 연제품(煉製品)의 보수력(保水力)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Mu-Nam;Jo, Sang-Joon;Lee, Kang-Ho;Choi, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 1978
  • It is well known that water holding capacity plays an important role in processing such meat products as frankfurter-type sausage and fish meat paste products as kamaboko and fish sausage. Consumer qualities of meat products, such as appearance, flavor, as well as drip and shrinkage on cooking, depend greatly on the degree of water binding. In this paper, the water holding capacities of fish paste and salt added paste of white corvenia, Argyrosomus argentatus and file fish, Novodon modestus were measured by centrifuging and press method before and after cooking. And the effects of the addition of phosphates and starch to enhance water binding and stabilize gel formation were also discussed. In addition, the experimental conditions which are suitable to determine the water binding of fish meat paste product were suggested. The results were expressed in percent of water absorbed by the filter paper when pressed or released by pressor or centrifuge to the weight of sample. From the results. a proper condition to measure the water holding capacity of fish meat paste was that 3.0 g of sample which was previously added with 10 percent water was centrifuged at 13,400 G or 12,000 rpm for 15 minutes for the centriguging method and for press method, 0.3 g sample with 10 percent of water added was extracted by an oil pressor at $30\;kg/cm^2$ for 1 minute. Water holding capacity of fresh paste of white corvenia was relatively higher than that of file fish and the difference between species of fish was greater than the difference between measurments by two methods. Sodium chloride had a great effect on enhancing the water holding capacity of fish meat paste giving better effect when 3.0 percent of salt was added. Phosphates used except calcium phosphate revealed a certain enhancement in water binding, yielding best effect at 0.3 percent addition, and metaphosphate seemed to be more effective in order. The addition of corn starch, however, appeared to be not so effective for enhancement of water binding in fresh-salt-added fish meat paste but in cooked fish paste which might be attributed to absorption of water by starch grain and swelling during the heating and consequently enforced gel strength of cooked fish paste. And the water holding capacity of cooked fish paste was proportionally related to its gel strength.

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Physical Properties of the Dietary Fiber Prepared from Lentinus edodes Mycelia (표고버섯 균사체 식이섬유 소재의 물리적 특성)

  • Lee, Byung-Woo;Kim, Tae-Jong;Choi, Soo-Hyun;Im, Geun-Hyung;Yoo, Moo-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.147-150
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    • 1995
  • The industrial procedure for the preparation of dietary fiber material from Lentinus edodes by drying and grinding process was developed. The chemical composition of dietary fiber of mycelia was as follows; crude protein: 16.16%, crude fat: 2.96%, crude ash: 3.25% and carbohydrates: 77.63%. The mycelia contained total dietary fiber of 54.5%. The 40 mesh pass of dietary fiber exhibited water-holding capacity 7.39g water/g and oil-holding capacity 2.03g oil/g, while $40{\sim}80$ mesh of dietary fiber had water-holding capacity 7.80g water/g and oil-holding capacity 2.77g oil/g.

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Water Holding Capacity and Hydraulic Conductivity According to Compaction and Saturation Degree for Perlite amended with Ground Coir (압밀과 포화수준에 따른 분쇄 Coir 혼합 펄라이트의 수분보유력과 수리전도도)

  • Kim, Gi-Rim;Woo, Hyun-Nyung;Kim, Hye-Jin;Park, Mi-Suk;Song, Jin-A;Song, Tae-Yong;Jang, Hyo-Ju;Chung, Doug-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.998-1003
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    • 2011
  • This investigation was performed to determine the hydraulic conductivity coefficient and water holding capacity for a specified compaction forces which are the amount of mechanical energy applied to the porous granule (PG) volume. Most current specifications of minerals and perlite as growth media require to be compacted to a specified density, which in general is equivalent to a certain percentage of laboratory compaction. The water holding capacity of the saturated PG was very large at potential above -1 bar compared with perlite, but very little water remained below this value. The water holding capacity and hydraulic conductivity characteristics of graded PG amended with the ground coir less than 2 mm in diameter were also determined from pressure outflow data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the saturated and compacted PG was slightly lower by more than one tenth order of magnitude at equal matric potentials of perlite, but when expressed on the basis of equal water deficits, the conductivity of PG was higher at all but the smallest deficits than those of perlite.

Effects of Pigment of Red Beet and Chitosan on Reduced Nitrite Sausages (레드비트 색소 및 키토산 첨가가 저아질산염 소시지에 미치는 효과)

  • 강종옥;이강현
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to produce reduced-nitrite sausages by using the red beet pigment and chitosan. The addition of red beet pigment affected the color of sausage and was effective in nitrite scavenging ability, water holding capacity, and tenderness. The addition of chitosan was effective in water holding capacity and tenderness, but was not effective in nitrite scavenging ability. On the other hand, the use of ${\beta}$-cyclodextrine was effective in water holding capacity and tenderness. Pyrophosphate was only effective in water holding capacity. The adding level of nitrite could be reduced by half by using red beet pigment and chitosan for the development of color of sausage.