• Title, Summary, Keyword: water uptake rate

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Determination of the Water Uptake Rate into Biodegradable Polymer (생분해성 고분자로의 물의 유입속도 측정)

  • Park, Eun-Seok;Chi, Sang-Cheol
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.223-226
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    • 1995
  • A new method to study water uptake into biodegradable polymer was developed. Polymer was gently mixed with the tritiated buffer and the radioactivity level of the polymer due to water uptake was measured by liquid scintillation counting. The rate of water uptake was estimated from the plot of the amount of water in the device as a function of time. The technique used in this study is particularly useful for estimating water uptake of biodegradable polymers which were difficult to study by other techniques such as weight gain used for hydrogel.

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Varietal Difference in Water Absorption Characteristics of Milled Rice, and Its Relation to the Other Grain Quality Components

  • Hae Chune, Choi;Jeong Hyun, Chi;Soo Yeon, Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.288-295
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    • 1999
  • Nineteen japonica and Tongil-type rices were selected from seventy nine Korean and Japanese rice cultivars grown in 1989 based on the water uptake behavior of milled rice under the room temperature and boiling conditions. The selected rice cultivars were investigated for water absorbability and some physicochemical characteristics of milled rice, proper water amount for cooking and sensory evaluation of cooked rice. The relationships among the tested grain properties were also examined. The highest varietal variation of water uptake rate was observed at twenty minutes after soaking in water. The maximum water uptake of milled rices at room temperature occurred mostly at about eighty minutes after soaking in water. Newly harvested rices showed a significantly lower water uptake rate of milled rice at 20 minutes after soaking, a relatively higher maximum water absorption ratio under the room temperature, and the less water uptake and volume expansion of boiled rice compared with the one-year old rice samples. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice ansd the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio(in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was averaged to 2.63(in v/v basis). The water amount needed for optimum cooking was the lowest in Cheongcheongbyeo (Tongil-type rice) and the highest in Jinbubyeo, and the amount could be estimated with about 70% fittness by the multiple regression formula based on some water uptake characteristics, ADV and amylose content of milled rice as the independent variables. Nineteen rice cultivars were classified into seven groups based on scatter diagram projected by principal component analysis using eight properties related to water uptake and gelatinization of milled rice.

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Differences of Germination Rate, Degree of Solute Leakage and Water Uptake Rate of Soybean Seeds in Two Storage Periods (저장기간에 따른 콩종실의 발아율이, 용출정도 및 수분흡수율의 차이)

  • 손범영;박금룡;김석동;김수희
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 1996
  • This investigation was conducted to investigate if germination rate, degree of solute leakage and water uptake rate of seeds are a meaningful information for the selection criteria among soybean genotypes and to find out their characteristics in the variable temperature and moisture conditions encounted during long-term warehouse storage. Germination rate in soybean sprouting box and petri dish differed largely among genotypes stored for twenty months but there was little difference when stored for eight months. Length of hypocotyl was shorter at twenty months of storage than at eight months. Degree of solute leakage of Paldalkong and Pulmuwon was twice higher than that of SS88038 lines at twenty months of storage. In 30 minutes after imbibition, water uptake rate in all genotypes stored for twenty months was faster than these stored for eight months, and water uptake rate in Paldalkong and Pulmuwon stored for eight months was 1.5 and 2 times faster than in SS88038 lines. In correlation coefficients, the germination ability and emergence exhibited significantly negative correlation with degree of solute leakage at twenty months of storage. Water uptake rate in soybean seeds stored for eight months had highly significant positive correlation with degree of solute leakage in 30 minutes and one hour after imbibition while for twenty months of storage, it had highly significant positive correlation with that in 30 minutes, one hour and three hours after imbibition. In eight months of storage, the number of open micropyle had positive correlation with water uptake rate at 30 minutes after imbibiton. But in seeds stored twenty months, it wasn't correlated with water uptake.

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Water uptake rate of brown rice at $100^{\circ}C$ ($100^{\circ}C$에서의 현미의 수분 흡수 속도)

  • Kim, Sung-Kon;Suh, Chung-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.261-263
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    • 1990
  • The water uptake rates of thirty-four japonica and twenty-five j x indica brown rices at $100^{\circ}C$ were analyzed. The water uptake rates had no correlation with size or volume of brown rice kernel. The regression equations for water uptake rates between brown rice at $100^{\circ}C$(Y) and milled rice at $23^{\circ}C(X)$ for japonica and j x indica varieties were Y = 1.12X-0.34(r = 0.976, p<0.001) and Y = 1.16X-0.54(r = 0.990, p<0.001), respectively (Received August 13, 1990 and accepted September 20,1990).

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The Relationship of Specific Phosphorus Release / Uptake Rate and Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate considering the Sludge Retention Time in the A/O Process (A/O공정에서 슬러지체류시간에 따른 인 방출 및 섭취속도와 비산소소비율과의 상관관계)

  • Choi, Jung Soo;Lee, Kwang Hyun;Joo, Hyun Jong;Kim, Sung Chul
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.468-473
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to derive the correlation between the Specific Phosphorus Release Rate (SPRR), Specific Phosphorus Uptake Rate (SPUR) and Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate (SOUR) at various Sludge Retention Time (SRT) condition in the A/O process. The laboratory scale reactor was operated on various SRT (10 day, 20 day, 30 day, 40 day). In this study, the SPRR, SPUR and SOUR tended to decrease with the SRT increase. Empirical equations was be obtained $y=4.54E-006x^2+0.0007x-0.0315$, $R^2=0.925$ (SOUR vs. SPRR) and $y=3.22E-006x^2+0.0004x-0.0173$, $R^2=0.928$ (SOUR vs. SPUR) from the relationship between SRT, SPRR and SPUR and SOUR. Therefore, the anaerobic tank design based on the research result such as SPRR, SPUR of a phosphorus design and SOUR would be possible.

Relationship between Clearance Rates and Metal Uptake Rates of Corbicula fluminea, Potamocorbula amurensis and Macoma balthica: Influence of Water Temperature and Body Size (세 종의 이매패류 Corbicula fluminea, Potamocorbula amurensis, Macoma balthica의 여수율과 금속 흡수율과의 관계에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jung-Suk;Lee, Byeong-Gwon
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2005
  • A series of radiotracer studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of water temperature and/or body size on the clearance rates and uptake rates of Cd, Se and Zn in the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis and Balthic clam, Macoma balthica. Uptake rates of Cd, Se and Zn were estimated simultaneously with clearance rate of clams under 3 different water temperature conditions (5, 13 and $21^{\circ}C$). The weight specific clearance and metal uptake rates of P. amurensiswere increased with temperature, however, no consistent temperature effect was observed for the other clams. The variation of uptake rates of Cd, Se and Zn along with temperature or body size in each clam species was well associated with clearance rates. The inter-species as well as the intra-species difference of metal uptake rates could be well explained by the variation of clearance rates of clam individuals.

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Relationship of the Clearance Rate and Nonylphenol Uptake Rate of Three Bivalve Species with Different Size Classes and Temperatures (이매패류 3종의 크기 및 수온에 따른 여수율과 노닐페놀 흡수율의 관계)

  • Yang, Songyi;Lee, Jong Hyeon;Lee, Byeong Gweon
    • The Sea
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.80-88
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    • 2013
  • The present study was conducted to evaluate relationship between nonylphenol uptake rate and clearance rate of Ruditapes philippinarum, Corbicula japonica and Mytilus edulis. Variation of the temperature and body size of the bivalves was used to modulate clearance rate and nonylphenol uptake rate in this experiment. Clearance rate and nonylphenol uptake rate experiments were determined for two different size classes of the bivalves (R. philippinarum: 0.35, 0.73 g, C. japonica : 0.047, 0.1000g, M. edulis: 0.30, 0.37 g; mean flesh dry weight) and three different temperature regime (5, 13 and $18^{\circ}C$). Weight-specific clearance rate in all animal size and temperature ranges increased in the order of R. philippinarum, C. japonica and M. edulis. The weight-specific nonylphenol uptake rate did not show specific trend among species. The clearance rate and nonylphenol uptake rate generally decreased with animal size and increased with water temperature. For all three species nonylphenol uptake rate had a strong relationship with clearance rate. For a given clearance rate ranges, the nonylphenol uptake rate was in the order of R. philippinarum > C. japonica > M. edulis. The results suggest that water ventilation capacity of filter-feeding organisms is an important physiological factor controlling uptake rate of dissolved nonylphenol.

Bran Structure and Water Uptake Rate of Japonica and Tongil-type Brown Rices (일반계와 통일계 현미의 겨층구조와 수분 흡수 속도)

  • Lee, Soo-Jeung;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.94-99
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    • 1994
  • Bran structure and water uptake rate for brown rices of thirteen japonica and twelve Tongil cultivars were investigated. The japonica type was shorter in length and had lower value in the ratio of length to width than Tongil one. No differences were observed in width and weight between the two types. The number of aleurone layer and the thickness of bran layer were higher in dorsal side than in ventral side in all rice cultivars. The structure in ventral side was similar but the number of aleurone layer in dosal side was higher in japonica samples. There were no significant differences in water uptake rates showed no correlation with the bran structure.

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A Study on Moisture Related Properties and Human Sensations of Underwear (1) -A Study on Water and Water Vapor Transport characteristics of Underwear Fabrics- (시판 내의류소재의 수분특성 및 착용감에 관한 연구 (I) -시판 내의류 소재의 수분특성-)

  • 이순원
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 1988
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate water and after vapor transport characteristics of underwear fabrics. Experimental materials were cotton woven fabric and cotton knitted fabric, nylon tricot (untreated and hydrophilic finished) and cotton/polyester/cotton triple layer. Cotton knitted fabric have three types of knit structure (interlock, rib, plain stitch) and knit with either 38's or 60's combed yarn. And cotton woven fabric have plain weave with 60's combed yarn. As experimental methods, vapor cup test, dynamic method, vertical wicking test and transplanar uptake test were used. The results are as follows. 1) In cotton specimens, the order of water vapor transpiration (wvt) was plain > rib > interlock in the same yarn diameter. The knit fabric of thinner yarn showed the better wvt among the same knit structure. 2) In cotton specimens, the order of water absorbency was interlock > rib > plain in the same yarn diameter. the knit fabric of thicker yarn showed the better absorbency among the same knit structure. 3) When knit fabric (60's plain) is compared with woven fabric 960's plain), knit fabric showed faster rate of wvt, more amount of uptake and slower rate of water uptake than woven fabric did. 4) When compared untreated nylon with hydrophilic finished nylon, hydrophilic finished nylon showed much more water absorbency than untreated nylon did, but showed same rate of wvt. 5) The water transport characteristics of triple layer underwear fabric showed that the thinner and the lighter one, the better wvt and absorbency did.

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