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The Generation of Westerly Waves by Sobaek Mountains (소백산맥에 의한 서풍 파동 발생)

  • Kim, Jin wook;Youn, Daeok
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.24-34
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    • 2017
  • The westerly waves generation is described in the advanced earth science textbook used at high school as follows: as westerly wind approaches and blows over large mountains, the air flow shows wave motions in downwind side, which can be explained by the conservation of potential vorticity. However, there has been no case study showing the phenomena of the mesoscale westerly waves with observational data in the area of small mountains in Korea. And thus the wind speed and time persistency of westerly winds along with the width and length of mountains have never been studied to explain the generation of the westerly waves. As a first step, we assured the westerly waves generated in the downwind side of Sobaek mountains based on surface station wind data nearby. Furthermore, the critical or minimum wind velocity of the westerly wind over Sobaek mountains to generate the downwind wave were derived and calcuated tobe about $0.6m\;s^{-1}$ for Sobaek mountains, which means that the westerly waves could be generated in most cases of westerly blowing over the mountains. Using surface station data and 4-dimensional assimilation data of RDAPS (Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System) provided by Korea Meteorological Agency, we also analyzed cases of westerly waves occurrence and life cycle in the downwind side of Sobaek mountains for a year of 2014. The westerly waves occurred in meso-${\beta}$ or -${\gamma}$ scales. The westerly waves generated by the mountains disappeared gradually with wind speed decreasing. The occurrence frequency of the vorticity with meso-${\beta}$ scale got to be higher when the stronger westerly wind blew. When we extended the spatial range of the analysis, phenomena of westerly waves were also observed in the downwind side of Yensan mountains in Northeastern China. Our current work will be a study material to help students understand the atmospheric phenomena perturbed by mountains.

Diurnal Variation of Atomospheric Pollutant Concentrations Affected by Development of Windstorms along the Lee Side of Coastal Mountain Area

  • Choi, Hyo
    • International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics Korean Journal of Geophysical Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.29-45
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    • 1996
  • Before (March 26, 1994) or after the occurrence of a downslope windstorm (March 29), the NO, $NO_2$, and $SO_2$ at the ground level of Kangnung city were monitored with high concentrations in the afternoon, due to a large amount of gases emitted from combustion of motor vehicle and heating apparatus, especially near 1600-1800 LST and 2000-2100 LST, but at night, they had low concentrations, resulting from small consumptions of vehicle and heating fuels. When both moderate westerly synoptic-scale winds flow over Mt. Taegwallyang and easterly meso-scale sea breeze during the day, atmospheric pollutants should be trapped by two different wind systems, resulting in higher concentration at Kangnung city in the afternoon. At night, the association of westerly synoptic wind and land breeze can produce relatively strong winds and the dissipation by the winds cause these low concentrations to lower and lower, as nightime goes on. From March 27 through 28, an enforced localized windstorm could be produced along the lee side of the mountain near Kangnung, generating westerly internal gravity waves with hydraulic jump motions. Sea breeze toward inland appartantly confines to the bottom of the eastern side of the mountain, due to the interruption of eastward violent internal gravity waves. As the windstorm moves down toward the ground, an encountering point of two opposite winds approaches Kangnung, and a great amount of NO and $NO_2$ were removed by the strong surface winds. Thus, their maximum concentrations are found to be near 18 and 20 LST, 17 and 21 LST. In the nighttime, the more developed storm should produce very strong surface winds and the NO and $NO_2$ could be easily dissipated into other place. The $SO_2$ concentration had no maximum value, that is, almost constant one all day long, due to its removal by the strong surface winds. Especially, the CO concentrations were slightly lower during the strom period than both before or after the strom, but they were nearly constant without much changes during the during the daytime and nighttime.

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Characteristics of Atmospheric Circulation in Sokcho Coast (속초연안에서 대기순환의 특성)

  • Choi Hyo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.41-51
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    • 2005
  • Using three-dimensional non-hydrostatical numerical model with one way double nesting technique, atmo­spheric circulation in the mountainous coastal region in summer was investigated from August 13 through 15, 1995. During the day, synoptic westerly wind blows over Mt. Mishrung in the west of a coastal city, Sokcho toward the East Sea, while simultaneously, easterly upslope wind combined with both valley wind from plain (coast) toward mountain and sea-breeze from sea toward inland coast blows toward the top of the mountain. Two different directional wind systems confront each other in the mid of eastern slope of the mountain and the upslope wind goes up to the height over 2 km, becoming an easterly return flow in the upper level over the sea and making sea-breeze front with two kinds of sea-breeze circulations of a small one in the coast and a large one in the open sea. Convective boundary layer is developed with a thickness of about 1km over the ground in the upwind side of the mountain in the west and a thickness of thermal internal boundary layer from the coast along the eastern slope of the mountain is only confined to less than 200 m. On the other hand, after sunset, no prohibition of upslope wind generated during the day and downward wind combined with mountain wind from mountain towardplain and land-breeze from land toward under nocturnal radiative cooling of the ground surfaces should intensify westerly downslope wind, resulting in the formation of wind storm. As the wind storm moving down along the eastern slop causes the development of internal gravity waves with hydraulic jump motion in the coast, bounding up toward the upper level of the coastal sea, atmospheric circulation with both onshore and offshore winds like sea-breeze circulation forms in the coastal sea within 70 km until midnight and after that, westerly wind prevails in the coast and open seas.

Modification of Sea Water Temperature by Wind Driven Current in the Mountainous Coastal Sea

  • Choi, Hyo;Kim, Jin-Yun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.177-184
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    • 2003
  • Numerical simulation on marine wind and sea surface elevation was carried out using both three-dimensional hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models and a simple oceanic model from 0900 LST, August 13 to 0900 LST, August 15, 1995. As daytime easterly meso-scale sea-breeze from the eastern sea penetrates Kangnung city in the center part as basin and goes up along the slope of Mt. Taegullyang in the west, it confronts synoptic-scale westerly wind blowing over the top of the mountain at the mid of the eastern slope and then the resultant wind produces an upper level westerly return flow toward the East Sea. In a narrow band of weak surface wind within 10km of the coastal sea, wind stress is generally small, less than l${\times}$10E-2 Pa and it reaches 2 ${\times}$ 10E-2 Pa to the 35 km. Positive wind stress curl of 15 $\times$ 10E-5Pa $m^{-1}$ still exists in the same band and corresponds to the ascent of 70 em from the sea level. This is due to the generation of northerly wind driven current with a speed of 11 m $S^{-1}$ along the coast under the influence of south-easterly wind and makes an intrusion of warm waters from the southern sea into the northern coast, such as the East Korea Warm Current. On the other hand, even if nighttime downslope windstorm of 14m/s associated with both mountain wind and land-breeze produces the development of internal gravity waves with a hydraulic jump motion of air near the coastal inland surface, the surface wind in the coastal sea is relatively moderate south-westerly wind, resulting in moderate wind stress. Negative wind stress curl in the coast causes the subsidence of the sea surface of 15 em along the coast and south-westerly coastal surface wind drives alongshore south-easterly wind driven current, opposite to the daytime one. Then, it causes the intrusion of cold waters like the North Korea Cold Current in the northern coastal sea into the narrow band of the southern coastal sea. However, the band of positive wind stress curl at the distance of 30km away from the coast toward further offshore area can also cause the uprising of sea waters and the intrusion of warm waters from the southern sea toward the northern sea (northerly wind driven current), resulting in a counter-clockwise wind driven current. These clockwise and counter-clockwise currents much induce the formation of low clouds containing fog and drizzle in the coastal region.

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Atmospheric Pollutant Concentrations under the Influences of Internal Gravity Wave and Sea-Land Breeze Circulations in the Mountainous Coastal Regions (산악연안지역에서 내부중력파와 해륙풍순환 영향하의 대기오염농도)

  • Hyo Choi;Joon Choi
    • International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics Korean Journal of Geophysical Research
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.18-33
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    • 1995
  • Under the synoptic scale strong westerly winds flowing over the large steep mountains in the eastern coastal region, the strong downslope wind storms such as internal gravity waves should be generated in the lee-side of mountain. Int he daytime as sea breeze circulation induced by meso-scale thermal forcing from sea toward inland confines to the offshore side of coastal sites due to the eastward internal gravity waves. Thus, surface winds near the coastal seas were relatively weaker than those in the open sea or the inland sites. Evidently, two different kinds of atmospheric circulations such as an internal gravity wave circulation with westerly wind and a sea breeze circulation with both easterly wind near the sea surface and westerly in the upper level were apparently produced. Under this situation the atmospheric pollutants at Kangnung city should be trapped by two different circulations in the opposite directions and resulted in the high concentrations of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and ozone (O3). At night a meso-scale land breeze from land toward the more intensification of westerly winds in the coastal regions. The concentrations of TSP controled by the strong surface winds blowing from the mountain side toward the coastal sea were relatively higher at night than those in the daytime case and the concentrations of O3 due to the downward transport of ozone from the upper atmosphere toward the surface were also much higher at night than during the day. Consequently, the atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the mountainous coastal region under the downslope wind storms were higher than those after and before the occurrences of wind storms.

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Recycling of Suspended Particulates by Atmospheric Boundary Depth and Coastal Circulation (대기경계층과 연안순환에 의한 부유입자의 재순환)

  • Choe, Hyo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.721-731
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    • 2004
  • The dispersion of suspended particulates in the coastal complex terrain of mountain-inland basin (city)-sea, considering their recycling was investigated using three-dimensional non-hydrostatic numerical model and lagrangian particle model (or random walk model). Convective boundary layer under synoptic scale westerly wind is developed with a thickness of about I km over the ground in the west of the mountain, while a thickness of thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) is only confined to less than 200m along the eastern slope of the mountain, below an easterly sea breeze circulation. At the mid of the eastern slop of the mountain, westerly wind confronts easterly sea breeze, which goes to the height of 1700 m above sea level and is finally eastward return flow toward the sea. At this time, particulates floated from the ground surface of the city to the top of TIBL go along the eastern slope of the mountain in the passage of sea breeze, being away the TIBL and reach near the top of the mountain. Then those particulates disperse eastward below the height of sea-breeze circulation and widely spread out over the coastal sea. Total suspended particulate concentration near the ground surface of the city is very low. On the other hand, nighttime radiative cooling produces a shallow nocturnal surface inversion layer (NSIL) of 200 m thickness over the inland surface, but relatively thin thickness less than 100m is found near the mountain surface. As synoptic scale westerly wind should be intensified under the association of mountain wind along the eastern slope of mountain to inland plain and further combine with land-breeze from inland plain toward sea, resulting in strong wind as internal gravity waves with a hydraulic jump motion bounding up to about 1km upper level in the atmosphere in the west of the city and becoming a eastward return flow. Simultaneously, wind near the eastern coastal side of the city was moderate. Since the downward strong wind penetrated into the city, the particulate matters floated near the top of the mountain in the day also moved down along the eastern slope of the mountain, reaching the. downtown and merging in the ground surface inside the NSIL with a maximum ground level concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP) at 0300 LST. Some of them were bounded up from the ground surface to the 1km upper level and the others were forward to the coastal sea surface, showing their dispersions from the coastal NSIL toward the propagation area of internal gravity waves. On the next day at 0600 LST and 0900 LST, the dispersed particulates into the coastal sea could return to the coastal inland area under the influence of sea breeze and the recycled particulates combine with emitted ones from the ground surface, resulting in relatively high TSP concentration. Later, they float again up to the thermal internal boundary layer, following sea breeze circulation.

Marginal Sea Surface Temperature Variation as a Pre-Cursor of Heat Waves over the Korean Peninsula

  • Ham, Yoo-Geun;Na, Hye-Yun
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.445-455
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    • 2017
  • This study examines the role of the marginal sea surface temperature (SST) on heat waves over Korea. It is found that sea surface warming in the south sea of Korea/Japan ($122-138^{\circ}E$, $24-33^{\circ}N$) causes heat waves after about a week. Due to the frictional force, the positive geopotential height anomalies associated with the south sea warming induce divergent flows over the boundary layer. This divergent flow induces the southerly in Korea, which leads to a positive temperature advection. On the other hand, over the free-atmosphere, the geostrophic wind around high-pressure anomalies flows in a westerly direction over Korea during the south sea warming, which is not effective in temperature advection. Therefore, the positive temperature advection in Korea due to the south sea warming decreases with height. This reduces the vertical potential temperature gradient, which indicates a negative potential vorticity (PV) tendency over Korea. Therefore, the high-pressure anomaly over the south sea of Korea is propagated northward, which results in heat waves due to more incoming solar radiation.

Evolution of Wind Storm over Coastal Complex Terrain (연안복합지형에서 바람폭풍의 진화)

  • Choi, Hyo;Seo, Jang-Won;Nam, Jae-Cheol
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.9
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    • pp.865-880
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    • 2002
  • As prevailing synoptic scale westerly wind blowing over high steep Mt. Taegulyang in the west of Kangnung coastal city toward the Sea of Japan became downslope wind and easterly upslope wind combined with both valley wind and sea breeze(valley-sea breeze) also blew from the sea toward the top of the mountain, two different kinds of wind regimes confronted each other in the mid of eastern slope of the mountain and further downward motion of downlsope wind along the eastern slope of the mountain should be prohibited by the upslope wind. Then, the upslope wind away from the eastern slope of the mountain went up to 1700m height over the ground, becoming an easterly return flow in the upper level of the sea. Two kinds of circulations were detected with a small one in the coastal sea and a large one from the coast toward the open sea. Convective boundary layer was developed with a thickness of about 1km over the ground in the upwind side of the mountain in the west, while a thickness of thermal internal boundary layer(TIBL) form the coast along the eastern slope of the mountain was only confined to less than 200m. After sunset, under no prohibition of upslope wind, westerly downslope wind blew from the top of the mountain toward the coastal basin and the downslope wind should be intensified by both mountain wind and land breeze(mountain-land breeze) induced by nighttime radiative cooling of the ground surfaces, resulting in the formation of downslope wind storm. The wind storm caused the development of internal gravity waves with hydraulic jump motion bounding up toward the upper level of the sea in the coastal plain and relatively moderate wind on the sea.

Analysis of Granite Behavior In Blasting Using Microplane Constitutive Model (마이크로플레인 모델을 이용한 발파시 화강암의 거동해석)

  • Zi, Goangseup;Moon, Sang-Mo;Lee, In-Mo
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2006
  • A kinematically constrained microplane constitutive model is developed for intact granite. The model is verified by fitting the experimented data of Westerly granite and Bonnet granite. Using the model with the standard finite element method, the behavior of the intact granite subjected blasting impact is studied. What is studied includes the attenuation of the blasting waves, the size of the fractured zone and the effect of the charge condition to avoid overbreak of the rock mass. The model developed captures the energy loss due to the inelastic behavior and the microcracking of granite during blasting very well. The attenuation of the blasting waves calculated based on the model is much more than that based on the linear-elastic constitutive law. The size of damaged (or fractured) zone is calculated directly from the principal strain as blasting impact is spreading, not like in the case with the linear elasticity model.

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Recycling of Suspended Particulates by Atmospheric Boundary Depth and Coastal Circulation

  • Choi, Hyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2003
  • The dispersion of recycled particulates in the complex coastal terrain containing Kangnung city, Korea was investigated using a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic numerical model and lagrangian particle model (or random walk model). The results show that particulates at the surface of the city that float to the top of thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) are then transported along the eastern slope of the mountains with the passage of sea breeze and nearly reach the top of the mountains. Those particulates then disperse eastward at this upper level over the coastal sea and finally spread out over the open sea. Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration near the surface of Kangnung city is very low. At night, synoptic scale westerly winds intensify due to the combined effect of the synoptic scale wind and land breeze descending the eastern slope of the mountains toward the coast and further seaward. This increase in speed causes development of internal gravity waves and a hydraulic jump up to a height of about 1km above the surface over the city. Particulate matter near the top of the mountains also descends the eastern slope of the mountains during the day, reaching the central city area and merges near the surface inside the nocturnal surface inversion layer (NSIL) with a maximum ground level concentration of TSP occurring at 0300 LST. Some particulates were dispersed following the propagation area of internal gravity waves and others in the NSIL are transported eastward to the coastal sea surface, aided by the land breeze. The following morning, particulates dispersed over the coastal sea from the previous night, tend to return to the coastal city of Kangnung with the sea breeze, developing a recycling process and combine with emitted surface particulates during the morning. These processes result in much higher TSP concentration. In the late morning, those particulates float to the top of the TIBL by the intrusion of the sea breeze and the ground level TSP concentration in the city subsequently decreases.

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