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Comparison of Quality Analyses of Domestic and Imported Wheat Flour Products Marketed in Korea (시판 중인 우리밀 및 수입밀 밀가루의 품질 및 특성 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Sang Sook;Chung, Hae Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.287-293
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    • 2014
  • The physicochemical characteristics of 4 domestic wheat flour products were compared to those of 4 imported wheat flour products marketed in Korea. The contents of moisture, ash, protein, total dietary fiber (TDF), color (L, a, b), whiteness, solvent retention capacity (SRC), water absorption index (WAI), water soluble index (WSI), pasting characteristics by rapid visco analyzer (RVA), and principle component analysis (PCA) were analyzed. The domestic wheat flour products were composed of higher content in ash and protein, compared to the imported wheat flour products. The domestic wheat flour products had lower SRC and WSI characteristics than the imported wheat flour products. The values of lactic acid SRC (LASRC) in the imported wheat flour products showed an increasing trend as the protein content increased. The differences in viscosity were observed in the domestic wheat flour products. However, no major significant differences of viscosity were found among the imported wheat flour products. The result of PCA showed a consistent trend in the imported wheat flour (strong, medium, and weak), while a consistent trend was not shown in the domestic wheat flour products. Therefore, further research is needed to standardize the different types of domestic wheat flour products.

Rheological Properties of Dough with Whole Wheat Flour (전립분 첨가 반죽의 물리적 특성)

  • 김영호;최광수;손동화;김정호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.817-823
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    • 1996
  • The rheological prouerties of dough were evaluated the dough added whole wheat flour during breadmaking. From the farinogram, water absorption of the dough was decreased as the amount of coarse whole wheat flour was increased. While water absorption of the dough was increased as the amount of fine whole wheat flour was increased. Arrival time and development time of the dough with coarse whole wheat flour were longer than those of fine whole wheat flour. As the amount of whole wheat flour was increased, the weakness was increased. Weakness of coarse whole wheat flour was higher than that of fine whole wheat flour. From the extensograph, extension and resistance to extension were decreased with increasing the amount of whole wheat flour. Resistance to extension of coarse whole wheat flour was higher than that of fine whole wheat flour. From the amylograph, as the amount of whole wheat flour increased, maximum viscosity was decreased gradually. Though the amount of coarse whole wheat flour and fine whole wheat flour was increased up to 30% and 50%, respectively, external characteristics of bread was remained in normal. As the amount of whole wheat flour was increased, the value of whiteness was decreased.

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Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

  • Choi, In-Duck;Kang, Chun-Sik;Cheong, Young-Keun;Hyun, Jong-Nae;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2012
  • Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

The Effect of Potato Lipoxygenase on the Farinograph Characteristics of Wheat Flour Dough (감자 Lipoxygenase 가 밀가루 반죽의 페리노그라프 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 문정원;서명자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.110-115
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    • 1994
  • To investigate the effect of potato lipoxygenase on the farinograph characteristics of wheat flour dough, composite flours containing enzyme-active potato flor (EPF) and hot-ar dried potato flour(HPF) were used. EPF was made by freeze-drying potato tuber. DPF (denaturated potato flour) was prepared by holding EPF at 8$0^{\circ}C$ for 18 hr in a dry oven. The potato flours were added to wheat flour at a level of 10% , respectivley. EPFB (enzyme-active potato flour blends, 90% wheat flour +105 enzyme -active potato flour) containing lipoxygenase activity gave higher farinogram peak time and higher stability values, lower MTI (mixing tolerance index ) and lower weakness values than those of HPFB(hot-air potato flour blends, 90% wheat flour + 10 % hot-air potato flour). Moreover, then lipoxygenase was added to DPFB(denatured potato flour blends , 90% wheat flour + 10% denatured potato flour) at a level of EPFB, it resulted in increasing stability, peak time and decreasing MTI , weakness at a level of EPFB. When the lipoxugenase was added to wheat flour with fumaric acid at alevel of 6.5 $\times$ 10units/g flour, lipoxygenase overcame the deleterious effects that fumaric acid including activated double-bond compounds have at mixing stability. Also the addition of liposxygenase with linoleic acid to defatted wheat flour resulted in the increase in stability and decrease in MTI value compared with those of linoleic acid and defatted wheat flour.

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Qualities of Bread and Changes in Phytic Acid during Breadmaking with Whole Wheat Flour (전립분 첨가빵의 품질과 제빵 과정 중 Phytic Acid 변화)

  • 김영호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.779-785
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    • 1996
  • The qualities of bread and change of phytic acid during breadmaking with whole wheat flour were investigated. The ratios of ash contents in wheat flour and whole wheat flour were 0.41% and 1.57%, respectively. The ratios of fiber contents in wheat flour and whole wheat flour were 0.14% and 1.83%, respectively. In amino acid analysis, glutamic acid was determined to be 32~36g/100g protein, which was the highest. Lysine, glycine, arginine and aspartic acid were higher in whole wheat flour than those of wheat flour. Proline, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine were higher in wheat flour than those of whole wheat flour. The ratio of phytic acid content in wheat flour and whole wheat flour was 0.312% and 0.734%, respectively. The content of phytic acid during beadmaking was decreased approximately 65% after proofing, while this was almost constant in the process of oven baking. The content of phytic acid in bread with 3% yeast had less hydrolysis than that in bread with 5% yeast during breadmaking. The phytic acid content in the 0.1% yeast food was decreased more than the 0, 0.3, and 0.5% yeast food groups. As the amount of whole wheat flour increased, the volume of bread was decreased, and color became dark. The sensory evaluation was showed the quality of bread to be the highest when the amounts of coarse whole wheat flour and fine whole wheat flour was 20% and 30%, respectively. Though the amount of coarse whole wheat flour and fine whole wheat flour were increased up to 30% and 50%, respectively, external characteristics of bread was remained in normal.

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Effect of Soybean Milk Residues Powder on the Quality of Dough (두유박 분말 첨가가 식빵 반죽에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Doo-Ho;Lee, Yeon-Wha
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.381-391
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    • 2006
  • The rheological properties of dough made the substitution of wheat flour(composite flour) at the levels of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% soymilk residue flour, with addition of vital wheat gluten at the levels of 3, 6 and 9% were investigated. And nutrition contents of soymilk residue flour were analyzed. The results were as follows; Principal components of soymilk residue flour were 22.0% crude protein, 13.2% crude lipid, 54.3% carbohydrate, 27.2% dietary fiber and $220{\mu}g/g$ isoflavones. Free amino acid component of soymilk residue were L-glutamic acid, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-valine, L-phenylalanine, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, L-methionine and L-cystine. Total dietary fiber content of bread with soymilk residue and wheat flour were 5% soymilk residue; 3.50%, 10% soymilk residues; 4.65%, 15% soymilk residues; 5.96%, and wheat flour bread: 2.1% respectively Mixing water absorption capacity was increased by increasing amounts of added soymilk residue and vital wheat gluten. Dough development time was increased by increasing amounts of added soymilk residues, while decreased by increasing amounts of vital wheat gluten. The dough volume of composite flour with 5%, 10% and 15% soymilk residue flour were the smaller than wheat flour dough. But the dough volume was increased by added vital wheat gluten, and the composite flour with 5% soymilk residue flour and 9% vital wheat gluten was better than the others. This study proved that the dough volume of composite flour with 5% soymilk residue flour and 9% vital wheat gluten was better than the others. On the other hand, the soymilk residue flour contains dietary fiber, isoflavone, protein, lipid and carbohydrate. Therefore the soymilk residue flour will be very useful as food material.

Sensory Quality of Rice-Wheat Bread (쌀가루 혼합빵의 관능적 품질)

  • 조숙자;정은희
    • Korean Journal of Rural Living Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 1995
  • The sensory quality and the baking property of blonds containing 10-50% of rice flour with wheat flour were analysed by QDA. As sensory characteristics, color, air cell size, air cell distribution, flavor, softness, chewiness and overall quality were evaluated. Bread could be made successfully even using up to 50% rice flour. The color, flavor, softness and chewiness were increased in rice-wheat bread especially using 10∼30% of rice flour, but in case of using 40∼50% of rice flour those characteristics were not significantly different from those of wheat bread. The size of air cell in 10∼30% rice-wheat bread was not significantly different but in 40∼50% rice-wheat bread it was increased. The distribution of air cell was more even in 10∼30% rice-wheat bread than in wheat bread, but not in 40∼50% rice-wheat bread. The overall quality of rice-wheat bread was shown to be better in 10∼30% rice-wheat bread than in wheat bread.

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Discoloration of Korean Wheat Flour Noodles with Additives (첨가제를 이용한 한국산 밀가루 국수의 탈색)

  • Kim, Myung-Shin;Koh, Bong-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.792-798
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    • 2000
  • The objectives of this study were to reduce the characteristic dark color of Korean wheat flour noodles. Several additives were tested to reduce dark color of wheat flour dough and 2% ascorbic acid and 0.05% cysteine were selected as additives to Korean wheat flour noodle. Comparative study was performed between commercial imported wheat flour noodle and Korean wheat noodle with two additives to investigate the color, mechanical and sensory properties of noodles. Addition of 2% ascorbic acid increased the brightness of raw and dried Korean wheat flour noodles and 0.05% cysteine was the most effective in improving the brightness for cooked wheat flour noodles. Mechanical properties of cooked Korean wheat flour noodles with 2% ascorbic acid and 0.05% cysteine were similar to that of the imported wheat flour noodles. However, sensory evaluation test showed Korean wheat flour noodles with 2% ascorbic acid had the darkest yellowish-red color, the strongest aftertaste and the lowest overall quality. Therefore, the addition of cysteine was the most effective in mechanical and sensory attributes as well as discoloration of cooked wheat flour noodles.

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Rheological Properties of Dough Added with Wheat Bran (밀기울 첨가 반죽의 물리적 특성)

  • 김영호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1125-1131
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    • 1998
  • The rheological properties of wheat flour dough were investigated in the dough added with 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% of wheat bran. The ratios of ash contents in wheat flour and wheat bran were 0.43% and 5.28%, respectively. The ratios of fiber contents in wheat flour and wheat bran were 0.18% and 11.86%, respectively. The farinograph water absorption was increased as the amount of wheat bran was increased. Both arrival time and development time of the dough added with wheat bran were longer than those of wheat flour. As the amount of wheat bran was increased, the weakness was increased. The extensograph showed that extensibility and resistance to extension of dough were decreased, while the ratio of resistance to extensibility(R/E) was increased with increasing the amo unt of wheat bran. The maximum viscosity by amylograph was decreased gradually with the adding amount of wheat bran, while the gelatinization temperature was slightly increased with wheat bran.

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The effects of partial replacement of rice flour with wheat flour and fermentationi time on the characteristics of Jeung-Pyun (밀가루 첨가 및 발효시간에 따른 증편의 특성)

  • 김영희
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 1985
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fermentation time and the proportion of wheat flour to rice flour on Jeung-Pyun's texture. Textural characteristics were examined through sensory Evaluation and Instron Universal testing machine. The properties examined through sensory evaluation were grain, softness, sourness, chewiness and overall quality. Wigh Instron, hardness, cohesivenessm elasticity, gumminess and chewiness were measured. RESULTS : 1. Sensory evaluation data indicated that Jeung-Pyun containing 25% wheat flour and fermented 2 hrs were obtained higher scores than any other Jeug-Pyuns in the grain, softness and overall quality. 2. pHs of Jeung-pyundough and Jeung-Pyun containing 100% rice flour were lower than pHs of those with wheat flour added. 3. Volume of Jeung-Pyun increased as the proportion of wheat flour to rice flour and the length of fermentation time increased. 4. Instron measurement indicated that the hardness of Jeung-Pyun with 50% wheat flour added and 2hrs fermentation time was higher than of others.

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