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A Study on Rheological Properties of Dough and Whole Wheat Bread-Baking Test of Wheat Variety 'Cho-Kwang' (한국산(韓國産) 밀품종(品種)"조광"의 물리적(物理的) 성질(性質)과 전밀빵 제조(製造)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.215-219
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    • 1983
  • Rheological properties of the dough made from milled wheat products of various particle size, i.e., wheat shorts, girls and flour, and their effect on the loaf-volume potential of whole wheat bread were investigated in this study. One Korean wheat variety 'Cho-Kwang' was tested for suitability in whole wheat bread. The percent ash and protein content of the milled wheat products were 2.3% and 13.7% respectively. Ranges of 7.3, 5.6 and 4.8 mixograph peak-height were observed in Fraction 1(wheat flours), Fraction 2 (wheat girts) and Fraction 3(wheat shorts), respectively. Dought stability of Fraction 1 did not decreased appreciably as compared to that of commercial first grade baker's flour. Bread-baking test employing a standard formula showed that the wheat grits (0.2-0.5 mm in diameter) appeared to be the limit beyond which a rapid decrease in loaf-volume potential was noted. Optimum loaf volume and crumb characteristics were obtained in 80% wheat grits/20% wheat flour blend.

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Physicochemical Properties and the Product Potentiality of Soft Wheats (연질밀의 품종별 이화학적 특성 및 제품의 제조적성)

  • Lim, Eun-Young;Chang, Hak-Gil;Park, Young-Seo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.412-418
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    • 2007
  • The physicochemical properties and mixograph characteristics of soft white winter (SWW) and club wheat, as well as their product potentiality, were investigated. There were no significant differences between the SWW wheat and club wheat regarding their Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) properties. The straight-grade flour yield, break flour yield, ash content, and milling score of the SWW wheat were similar to those of the club wheat, and the straight-grade flour yield had a significant positive correlation to the break flour yield (r = 0.805**). The Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) peak viscosity and swelling volume of the SWW wheat flour were very similar to those of the club wheat flour, and there was a significant positive correlation between the RVA peak viscosity and the swelling volume (r = 0.662**). The average mixograph absorption of the SWW wheat was higher than that of the club wheat. The club wheat resulted in a higher cookie diameter than the SWW wheat, but the difference was not significant. The sponge cake volume using the SWW wheat flour was higher than that with the club wheat flour. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the cookie diameter and the sponge cake volume (r = 0.745**).

Studies on the Characteristics of Noodles Using Allium fistulosum L. Flour (대파가루를 첨가한 국수의 품질 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이병영;윤건묵;서지우;김성호
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2003
  • This study on the processing of noodles was carried out to increase utilization of Allium fistulosum L., In the areas of total solids in residual liquid, swelling volume, and water absorption, a mixture of 10.0% dried Allium fistulosum L. flour and wheat flour, and a mixture of 25.0% raw Allium fistulosum L. flour and wheat flour both perform similarly to noodles made with just wheat flour. In the area of texture- the gumminess, cutting factor, and chewiness increase as the percentage of dried Allium fistulosum L. flour increases. There is no great difference in these factors between the 10.0% dried and the 25.0% raw mixtures. The color of the noodles with a mixed Allium fistulosum L. flour is green-yellow. As the quantity of Allium fistulosum L. flour increases the color gets darker The over all perception of the noodles made with a mixed Allium fistulosum L. flour was rated higher in color, taste, and smell than regular noodles. This study shows that mixing wheat flour with 10.0% dried Allium fistulosum L. flour or 25.0% raw Allium fistulosum L. flour produces a better noodle product.

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A Study on the Preparation of Dried Noodle Made of Composite Flours Utilizing Rice, Wheat and Gelatinized Waxy Rice Flours (호화찹쌀가루를 이용한 쌀가루 복합분의 제면성 시험)

  • Park, Wook-Hee;Kim, Hyong-Soo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 1982
  • This study was attempted to investigate the effects of adding gelatinized waxy rice flour, wheat flour, and Xanthan Gum to rice flour on the preparation and (quality) of dried noodles. 1) Rice flour demonstrated higher maximum viscosity value as determined by Amylograph than wheat flour. Among the composite flour mixture (Rice Flour 85+Gelatinized Waxy Rice Flour 15 + Xanthan Gum 2%) showed the highest viscosity value and (RF 35+ GWRF 15 + Wheat Flour 50) had the lowest. (RF 35 + GWRF 15 +WF 50) demonstrated gelatinization characteristics which is quite similar to that of wheat flour. 2) Forty and 50% replacement of rice flour and gelatinized waxy rice flour (15%) mixture by wheat flour improved significantly noodle making characteristics and cooking quality of noodles. 3) The addition of 2% XG to (RF 45 + GWRF 15 + WF 40) was effective on noodle making properties and on binding properties of cooked noodles. 4) The cooked noodle made of composite flour (RF 45 + GWRF 15 + WF 40 + XG 2%) received the highest total sensory evaluation score among the testing samples, and it was not significantly different from that of wheat flour.

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Studies on compositional Characteristics and Quantitative Determination of Buckwheat Flour in Commercial Products of Kangwondo Makkuksoo(Buckwheat Noodle) and Buckwheat Flour (강원도 막국수와 메밀분의 성분학적 특성 및 시판제품 중의 메밀함량 감별법)

  • 이상영;최용순;심태흠;김준래;김성완;정의호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.963-968
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    • 1999
  • This study was tried to evaluate possibilities for discriminating the mixture degree of wheat flour from buckwheat products. Buckwheat was milled into four grades of powder, i.e. whole grain flour (WGF), inner layer flour(ILF), middle layer flour(MLF) and outer layer flour(OLF)), and these powders were mixed with wheat flour(WF) to make mixed samples. Ash, protein and fat contents of the buckwheat flours were high in the order of OLF=WGF>MLF>ILF. On the other hand, WF showed a similar content to OLF in ash and protein, and to ILF in fats. Potassium and magnesium contents were higher in all the buckwheat powder than in the wheat flour. Flavonoid contents were higher in order of OLF>WGF=MLF> ILF, but it was not in wheat flour. Although the reliable correlation between mix ratio and components, i.e. mag nesium or ash analyzed were found, it did not seem to reflect sufficiently the expected variations of contents of original material components. Also, compositions of commercial buckwheat products were analyzed to evaluate the mixed ratio of buckwheat flour and wheat flour. The results suggest that the components analyzed in this study as putative marker were not good in determining whether or how much buckwheat products contained wheat flour.

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Effects of Transglutaminase on Pasting and Rheological Properties of Different Wheat Cultivars Blended with Barley or Soy Flour

  • Ahn, Hyun-Joo;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Chang, Yoon-Hyuk;Steffe, James F.;Ng, Perry K.W.;Park, Hee-Ra
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2008
  • The effects of transglutaminase (TG) on the pasting and rheological properties of different wheat cultivars ('Sharpshooter', 'Russ', and 'AcAriss') blended with barley (40%) or soy (20%) flour were investigated. In the rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) pasting profile, the addition of barley or soy flour to wheat flour samples induced a decrease in peak, trough, final viscosity, breakdown and setback values. However, TG treatment of these blends significantly increased peak viscosity and breakdown (p<0.05). In particular, TG treatment greatly increased the breakdown of wheat flour blended with soy flour, indicating that the cross-linking of proteins through TG may somehow be related to an increase in starch granule rupturing in pastes. Storage (G') and loss (G") moduli of the sample pastes increased with an increase in frequency ($\omega$), while complex viscosity (${\eta}*$) decreased. In all wheat cultivars, G', G", and $\eta$ were decreased by the addition of barley or soy flour, or TG treatment. Results suggest that protein cross-linking by TG can produce unique and improved properties in wheat flours blended with barley or soy flour.

A Comparative Study of the Processing Aptitudes of the Muffins Produced by Rice Cultivars (품종별 쌀가루로 제조한 퀵 브래드 쌀 머핀의 가공성 비교)

  • Kim, Joo-Hee;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Kang, Mi-Young
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.541-547
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    • 2012
  • This study was performed to compare the processing aptitudes of the rice muffins produced from the seven rice varieties, including Goami, Goami 2, Deuraechan, Baegjinju, Seolgaeng, Haiami and Hanareum, along with the use of hydroxypropyl methylcelluloses (HPMCs) as a replacement for the egg white. The water binding capacity of rice flours was significantly higher than that of wheat flour, but its fat binding capacity was lower than that of wheat flour (p<0.05). In the viscosity of the batter, Goami and Baegjinju were lower than that of the wheat flour. There was no significant difference in the specific gravity of Seolgaeng and the batter of wheat flour. The pH of all varieties except Goami 2 was higher than batter of wheat flour(p<0.05). Haiami flour produced higher muffin volume and specific volume compared with the wheat flour muffin. The textural characteristics, the muffins produced by Haiami and Hanareum flours had significantly lower hardness than the wheat flour muffin after 30 hours. All rice varieties except Gaomi 2 showed no significant difference compared to the wheat flour muffin in color, taste and texture (p<0.05). Furthermore, flavor of muffins produced from the Seolgaeng, Haiami and Hanareum flours tested higher than the wheat flour muffin. It was concluded that the rice varieties of Seolgaeng, Goami, Haiami and Hanareum were considered to be the most suitable rice cultivars for the rice muffins.

Preparation and Evaluation of Dried Noodle Products Made from Composite Flours Utilizing Rice and Wheat Flours (쌀가루와 밀가루 복합분(複合粉)의 제면성(製麵性)시험)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hea;Kim, Hyong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.6-14
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    • 1981
  • In an attempt to make dried noodles with composite flours utilizing rice and wheat flours, noodle-making characteristics were improved by the addition of popped rice and wheat flours to rice flour. Their quality was studied in terms of physical properties, noodle-making characteristics, cooking quality test and sensory evaluation. Dried noodle of the composite flour was produced by the conventional method. The results are summerized as follows; 1. In comparing the composite flours, the rice flour containing 30% popped rice flour had a lower maximum viscosity than that with 40% popped rice flour by method of amylograph. The composite flour(20% rice+30% popped rice+50% wheat flour) with added 2% xanthan gum showed the viscosity characteristics which was similar to that of wheat flour. 2. Addition of $1.5{\sim}2.0%$ xanthan gum and $40{\sim}50%$ wheat flour to rice and popped rice flour mixture helped to improve the noodle making properties and the cooking quality, and the noodle making properties and the cooking quality of the mixed flour were almost the same as those of wheat flour alone. 3. The composite flour (rice+popped rice+wheat flour) with xanthan gum showed a higher score in sensory evaluation than that without xanthan gum. The general acceptability scores obtained with the noodle products made of the composite flours with 30% popped rice flour was not significantly different from that of noodle products made of wheat flour alone. However, the noodle products made of the composite flours showed rather higher scores in odor and palatability than the products made of wheat flour alone.

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A Three Way Contribution of Wheat Flour Lipids, Shortening and Surfactants to Bread-making (제빵과정에 있어서 밀가루 지방질, 쇼트닝 및 유화제의 역할)

  • Chung, Ok-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.74-89
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    • 1981
  • Breadmaking is a complex system in which many variables govern the production of acceptable bread. Lipids, a minor component of wheat flour, function importantly in bread-making. Shortening, or fat, is one of the essential ingredients in commercial baking. Beneficial shortening effect depends on type and quantity of lipids present in wheat flour and also on wheat flour quality. Surfactants have been used in baking industry during last decade because certrain surfactants can replace shortening and/or natural flour lipids. A proper combination of lipidshortening-surfactant is more useful in the production of specialty breads such as whole wheat breads, high protein breads, high fiber breads or even non-wheat composite breads rather than in the production of regular white breads. This presentation is a review of recent studies on the contribution of flour lipids, shortening, and surfactants, alone or in combination in the production of breads; illustrations are mainly from data obtained in the author's laboratory.

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Quality Characteristics of Takju Prepared by Wheat Flour Nuruks (밀가루 누룩으로 담금한 탁주 술덧의 품질 특성)

  • Park, Chang-Sook;Lee, Taik-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.296-302
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    • 2002
  • Quality characteristics of mash of takju prepared by wheat flour nuruks (conventional and improved style) were investigated during fermentation. Those were cultured with wild microorganism on whole and crushed wheat (wheat nuruk), wheat flour and mixture of rice and wheat flour, and nuruk cultured with Aspergillus oryzae on wheat flour. Ethanol content reached maximum of 10.6-17.4% after 14 days of fermentation. And the ethanol contents of takju were high in order of wheat nuruk, wheat flour nuruk, Aspergillus oryzae nuruk and mixture of wheat flour and rice nuruk. No difference of pH was among the treatments while the wheat flour nuruk cultured with wild microorganisms contained higher amounts of acids than the others. The amount of total sugars ranged from 16.22-17.74% on the starting day of fermentation, and decreased to 4.28-6.10% after 14 days. The amount of total sugars in mashes brewed with wheat flour nuruk cultured with Aspergillus oryzae was measured to be highest at the beginning stage of fermentation. Afterwards no difference was found among the types of nuruks. Glucose was in the range of 2,735-7,842 mg% at initial period of fermentation, afterwards it was rapidly decreased. The total amounts of free sugar for control and the wheat flour nuruk was higher than other treatments. The total amounts of organic acids were the highest in wheat nuruk to 690-2,241 mg% and the contents of lactic acid and succinic acid were high in mixed rice nuruk to 183-1,293 mg%. The contents of lactic acid and succinic acid were higher than those of the other kinds of organic acids in takju.