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Evaluation of Dietary Manganese Intake in Korean Men and Women over 20 Years Old (20세 이상 일부 성인남녀의 망간 섭취상태 평가)

  • Choi, Mi-Kyeong;Kim, Eun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.447-452
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    • 2007
  • This study was peformed to estimate manganese intake and the major food source of manganese in Korean adults. The 354 subjects aged over 20 years were measured anthropometrics and dietary intake using 24-hour recall method. Daily intake and the major food sources of manganese were calculated using manganese database of food composition tables in Korea, USA and Japan. The average age, height, weight and BMI were 54.6years, 165.7cm, 67.2kg and $24.5kg/m^2$ for men and 53.8 years, 153.7cm, 59.1kg and $24.9kg/m^2$ for women, respectively. The daily energy and manganese intake of men were significantly higher than those of women (1740.9 kcal vs. 1432.6 kcal; p<0.001, 3.7mg vs. 3.2mg; p<0.01). However, daily manganese intake per 1000kcal between men and women was not significantly different (2.2mg/1000kcal vs. 2.3mg/1000kcal). Daily manganese intakes from each food group were 1.9mg from cereals, 0.5mg from vegetables, 0.4mg from pulses and 0.2mg from seasonings. The 20 major food sources of dietary manganese were rice, soybean, sorghum, Kimchi, tobu, wheat flour, red pepper powder, small red bean, glutinous millet, soybean paste, potato, Ramyeon, green pepper, noodle, buckwheat Naengmyeon, soybean sprout, laver, watermelon, perilla seeds powder and soy sauce. Manganese intake from these 20 foods was 74.0% of the total dietary manganese intake. In conclusion, daily manganese intake of the subject was 3.4mg (2.2mg/1000 kcal) and met adequate intake of manganese. The mai or food sources of manganese were cereals, pulses, and vegetables such as rice, soybean, sorghum, Kimchi and tobu.

Effects of Dropwort Powder on the Quality of Castella (미나리가루의 첨가가 Castella의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sang-Jun;Lee, Kwang-Suck;An, Bye-Lyung
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.834-839
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    • 2007
  • This study was designed to determine the optimal ratio of dropwort powder in castella by adding the powder at levels of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12% respectively. The properties of the castella were analyzed by specific gravity, specific volume, color determinations, texture properties and sensory evaluation. The Specific gravity increased with increasing amount of dropwort powder. However, the specific volume decreased with increasing dropwort powder. For the color values, as more dropwort powder was added, the L-value decreased. The castella with 9% dropwort powder had a higher hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. A sensory panel perceived that the external and internal color of the castella become darker with the dropwort powder substitution and the grain size decreased with increasing amount dropwort powder, while sweet taste showed no significant difference. The order of overall preference was DP 9>DP 6>DP 12>CON>DP 3. Therefore, the substitution of 9% of wheat flour with dropwort powder was recommended in the production of castella.

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Effects of Dietary Probiotics Supplementation on Juvenile Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli (치어기 조피볼락 Sebastes schlegeli 사료내 생균제 첨가효과)

  • Lee, Seung-Hyung;Yoo, Gwang-Yeol;Choi, Se-Min;Kim, Kang-Woong;Kang, Yong-Jin;Bai, Sung-Chul C.
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2008
  • A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of probiotics as a feed additive for juvenile Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. Four experimental diets supplemented with no probiotic(Control), Bacillus polyfermenticus(BP), Bacillus licheniformis(BL) or Bacillus polyfermenticus plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae(BP+SC) at $1.0{\times}10^7$ CFU/kg diet as a dry-mater(DM) basis were prepared by mixing with a basal diet. After 12 weeks of the feeding trial, fish fed BP+SC diet showed significantly higher weight gain(WG), feed efficiency(FE), specific growth rate(SGR) and protein efficiency ratio(PER) than those of fish fed control diet(P<0.05), however there were no significant differences in WG, FE, SGR and PER among fish fed the BP, BL and BP+SC diets. Fish fed BP and BP+SC diets showed significantly higher condition factor(CF) than that of fish fed control and BL diets. Fish fed BP, BL, BP+SC diets showed significantly higher hepatosomatic index(HSI) than that of fish fed control diet, however there was no significant difference in HSI among fish fed BP, BL and BP+SC diets. Fish fed BP+SC diet showed significantly lower serum glucose than that of fish fed control diet, however there was no significant difference in serum glucose among fish fed BP, BL and BP+SC diets. Fish fed BP+SC diet showed significantly higher respiratory burst activity(NBT assay) than that of the fish fed control and BL diets, however there was no significant difference in NBT assay between fish fed BP and BP+SC diets. Fish fed BP and BL diets showed significantly higher lysozyme activity than that of the fish fed control diet, however there was no significant difference in lysozyme activity among fish fed BP, BL and BP+SC diets. Fish fed BP and BP+SC diets showed significantly lower cumulative mortality than that of the fish fed control diet, however there was no significant difference in cumulative mortality among fish fed BP, BL and BP+SC diets after the challenge test. From these results, dietary B. polyfermenticus, B. licheniformis and B. polyfermenticus plus S. cerevisiae supplementation in juvenile Korean rockfish diet could enhance growth performances, non-speicific immunities and a higher resistance against the specific pathogen.

Establishment of optimal soybean Koji manufacturing conditions (콩 코오지의 최적 제조조건 설정)

  • Kim, Do-Yoon;Park, Geuk-Yeol;Jang, Sang-Won;Hong, Seong-Cheol;Kwon, Dong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 2013
  • To establish the optimal manufacturing conditions of soybean koji, soybean Koji prepared with Aspergillus oryzae 6-M-1 and Bacillus subtilis 3-B-1 isolated from traditional Korean meju. During 7 days of making Koji, the amount of amino-type nitrogen was getting more increase. The amount of amino-type nitrogen of Koji prepared with A. oryzae 6-M-1 was 686.16 mg% (w/w), that of Koji with B. subtilis 3-B-1 was 643.46 mg% (w/w) at seventh day of making Koji. The ${\alpha}$-amylase activity of Koji prepared with A. oryzae 6-M-1 was 1472.54 unit/g, that of Koji with B. subtilis 3-B-1 was 791.00 units/g on the seventh day of the making. The acidic protease activity of Koji prepared with A. oryzae 6-M-1 was 309.00 unit/g, that of Koji with B. subtilis 3-B-1 was 135.88 unit/g at 7th day of making. The amount of amino-type nitrogen and enzyme activities of soybean Koji prepared with A. oryzae 6-M-1 and B. subtilis 3-B-1 were produced more than those of wheat flour Koji made in factory. Sensory evaluation on a commercial doenjang and doenjangs prepared with A. oryzae 6-M-1 and B. subtilis 3-B-1 was not significantly different at p<0.05.

Processing and Quality Properties of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Cutlet (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus) 커틀렛 제품의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • YOON, Moon-Joo;LEE, Jae-Dong;KWON, Soon-Jae;PARK, Si-Young;KONG, Cheong-Sik;JOO, Jong-Chan;KIM, Jeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 2015
  • Olive flounder (Parlichthys olivaceus) is a large carnivorous fish that live at coastal area and shallow seas in Korea. It was good texture and clean taste because of a high collagen content and low lipid content. More than 70% of olive flounder annual production was traded alive, consequently processing food product from olive flounder is rare to be towed. This study was conducted to investigate the best method of olive flounder cutlet processing. Clean fillet (headless, skinless and contain no viscera part) of olive flounder were divided into 5 portion. Every 100 g of olive flounder meat was wrapped with vinyl then flatten with meat hammer. Flatten fillet then was coated with wheat flour, and seasoned with salt and pepper. These were then coated with egg wash and bread crumbs. Two different method of processing was to make this olive flounder cutlet. Cutlet-1 was fried for 1 min in olive oil, then kept in polyethylene film vacuum packaging ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$) and stored at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. After 7 days the cutlet was thawed and heat up in microwave for 2 min (Sample-1). The other proup is cutlet-2, which is directly stored in polyethylene film vacuum packaging at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days then thawed and fried for 1 min in olive oil (Sample-2). The factors such as pH, TBA value, amino-N, free amino acid, chemical composition, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the olive flounder cutlet (Sample-1, Sample-2) were measured. From the result of sensory evaluation, Sample-2 showed a little high scores than Sample-1. But there was no significant differences in color, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptance between Sample-1 and Sample-2 products.

Effects of Various Diets on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Parrot Fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus (먹이 종류가 돌돔 Oplegnathus fasciatus 치어의 성장 및 체성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon Lee, HaeYoung;Nam, Myung-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2015
  • The feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of one experimental diet (EDP) and five different commercial diets (CEPs) on growth and body composition for juvenile parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus. An EDP was formulated to contain 50% crude protein (CP) from fishmeal, casein, zein and wheat flour and 15% crude lipid (CL) from squid liver oil. Five CEPs for seawater fish were two domestic E commercial diet (DECD) and C commercial diet (DCCD), three imported H commercial diet (IHCD), L commercial diet (ILCD) and O commercial diet (IOCD) containing 53.1~66.6% CP and 10.7~14.6% CL, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of juvenile parrot fish initially weighing $1.14{\pm}.01g/fish$ (mean${\pm}$SD) in a flow-through seawater system with a water temperature of $19.0{\sim}25.0^{\circ}C$. Weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) were significantly greatest in fish fed the DCCD and IOCD; intermediate responses were observed for fish fed the ILCD, while the IECD, IHCD, and the EDP produced the lowest WG and FE values. Survival with no significant difference approached 100% for fish fed the all six diets in this experiment. Whole-body moisture, protein, lipid and ash contents were not affected by the different type of diets. Therefore, type of diets appeared to be important factor in influencing WG and FE of juvenile parrot fish; the best diets for juvenile parrot fish was determined to be the domestic commercial C and the imported commercial O diets containing high protein (61.3, 66.6%) and lipid (14.6, 13.0%) in natural seawater based on highest WG, and FE, respectively. This study indicates that the two commercially formulated diets containing two highest proteins and lipids used in this experiment could be practical diets for juvenile parrot fish; these differences of growth performance between experimental diet and commercial diets may be reason for different dietary protein and lipid levels.

Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Cookies Supplemented with Aronia Powder (아로니아 분말을 첨가한 쿠키의 품질 특성과 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Jun Ho;Choi, Ji Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.7
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    • pp.1071-1076
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    • 2016
  • The feasibility of incorporating aronia powder (AP) as a value-added food ingredient into convenient food products was investigated using cookie as a model system. AP was incorporated into cookies at amounts of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% (w/w) based on total weight of wheat flour. The pH level of cookie dough decreased significantly with increasing levels of AP (P<0.05), whereas moisture content and density were not directly affected by levels of AP incorporation. The spread ratio increased significantly upon addition of AP; however, it was not significantly affected by level of AP incorporation. The loss rate of cookies decreased significantly with increasing levels of AP (P<0.05). In terms of color, lightness and yellowness decreased while redness increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing levels of AP. Use of AP significantly decreased hardness of cookies (P<0.05), but no significant differences were found between control and 1% sample, 1% and 2% sample, 2% and 3% sample, and 3% and 4% sample (P>0.05). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities were significantly elevated by AP addition, and they increased significantly as AP concentration increased in the formulation (P<0.05). Correlation analysis indicated that acceptances of color and chewiness were negatively correlated well with the level of AP incorporation, density and moisture content of cookie dough, and cookie redness, whereas they were positively correlated with pH of cookie dough, loss rate, and hardness (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Finally, consumer acceptance test indicated that the highest levels of AP incorporation (4%) had an adverse effect on general consumer preferences. In contrast, cookies with moderate levels of AP (2%) are recommended based on overall scores to take advantage of the antioxidant properties of AP without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

Effects of Various Diets on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (배합사료 종류가 넙치 Paralichthys olivaceus 치어의 성장 및 체성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon Lee, HaeYoung;Yoo, Hae-kyun
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.200-206
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    • 2016
  • The 7-week feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of one experimental diet (ED) and five different commercial diets (CDs) on growth and body composition of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. An ED was formulated to contain 50.0% crude protein (CP) from fishmeal, casein, zein and wheat flour and 15.0% crude lipid (CL) from squid liver oil. Five CDs for seawater fish were two domestic E commercial diet (DECD) and C commercial diet (DCCD), three imported H commercial diet (IHCD), M commercial diet (IMCD) and O commercial diet (IOCD) containing 53.1~58.0% CP and 4.8~12.7% CL, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of juvenile olive flounder initially weighing $29.1{\pm}0.8g/fish\;(mean{\pm}SD)$ in a flow-through seawater system with a water temperature of $23.4{\sim}28.0^{\circ}C$. Weight gain (WG) was significantly greatest in fish fed the IMCD; intermediate responses were observed for fish fed the DECD, DCCD, and IOCD, while the IHCD and the ED produced the lowest WG values. Feed efficiencies (FE) were similar to WG excluding fish fed the DCCD; FE was also greatest in fish fed the DCCD. Survival with no significant difference approached 100% for fish fed the all six diets in this experiment. Whole-body crude protein and ash contents were not affected excluding moisture and crude lipid by the different type of diets. Therefore, type of diets appeared to be important factor in influencing WG, FE and whole-body moisture and crude lipid of juvenile olive flounder; the best diet for juvenile olive flounder was determined to be the imported commercial M diets containing intermediate protein (55.9%) and lipid (12.7%) in natural seawater based on highest WG, and FE, respectively. This study indicates that the one commercially formulated diet containing intermediate protein and lipid used in this experiment could be a practical diet for juvenile olive flounder; these differences in growth performance between ED and CDs may be due to different dietary protein and lipid levels.

Microbiological and Physicochemical Quality Characteristics of Raw Noodle with Natural Food Preservatives (복합항균제제를 첨가한 생면의 미생물학적 및 이화학적 품질 특성)

  • Hyun, Jeong-Eun;Hwang, Jin-Ha;Choi, Yun-Sun;Han, Areum;Yoon, Jae-Hyun;Bae, Young-Min;Lee, Ho;Kim, Chul;Lee, Myunggu;Shim, Myeungkuk;Im, Kyung-Hyun;Lee, Sun-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.435-444
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural preservatives (G3, G3-1, F3, and F3-1) using Cordyceps militaris on improvement of food quality and safety of noodle during storage. Wheat flour noodle were prepared using three different concentrations of natural preservatives (0.100, 0.200, and 0.400%). Changes in microbial populations, pH value, titratable acidity, and sensory evaluation were measured during storage at $12{\pm}2^{\circ}C$ for 3 days. Overall, use of natural preservatives resulted in lower levels of total mesophilic bacteria, coliform, yeast and mold in noodle compared to the control. In particular, natural preservatives using $2{\times}$ MIC concentrations (0.400%) of F3 and F3-1 were effective at maintaining levels of total mesophilic bacteria for noodle during storage. The pH values of noodle made with F3 and F3-1 were higher than the others. The titratable acidity of noodle with natural preservatives did not significantly change during storage. In sensory evaluation, appearance, color, and overall acceptability of noodle with F3 and F3-1 were preferred than the control. These results could provide useful information for developing an alternative preservation method to improve food quality and shelf-life of noodle using natural preservatives.

Current Status and Perspectives in Varietal Improvement of Rice Cultivars for High-Quality and Value-Added Products (쌀 품질 고급화 및 고부가가치화를 위한 육종현황과 전망)

  • 최해춘
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47
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    • pp.15-32
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    • 2002
  • The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s-1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and quality evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice cultivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm, aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer, Recently, new special rices such as extremely low-amylose dull or opaque non-glutinous endosperm mutants were developed. Also, a high-lysine rice variety was developed for higher nutritional utility. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and texture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak, hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscosities with year difference. The high-quality rice variety "IIpumbyeo" showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic microscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high probability of determination. The $\alpha$-amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were IIpumbyeo, Chucheongyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tonsil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice breed. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large grain rices showed better suitability far fermentation and brewing. The glutinous rice were classified into nine different varietal groups based on various physicochemical and structural characteristics of endosperm. There was some close associations among these grain properties and large varietal difference in suitability to various traditional food processing. Our breeding efforts on improvement of rice quality for high palatability and processing utility or value-adding products in the future should focus on not only continuous enhancement of marketing and eating qualities but also the diversification in morphological, physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of rice grain suitable for processing various value-added rice foods.ice foods.