• Title, Summary, Keyword: white ginseng

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Simultaneous quantification of six nonpolar ginsenosides in white ginseng by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulsed amperometric detection

  • Song, Hyeyoung;Song, Kyung-Won;Hong, Seon-Pyo
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.563-569
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    • 2020
  • Background: White ginseng consists of the roots and rhizomes of the Panax species, and red ginseng is made by steaming and drying white ginseng. While red ginseng has both polar and nonpolar ginsenosides, previous studies showed white ginseng to have only polar ginsenosides. Because nonpolar ginsenosides are formed through the manufacture of red ginseng from white ginseng, researchers have generally thought that nonpolar ginsenosides do not exist in white ginseng. Methods: We developed a simultaneous quantitative method for six nonpolar ginsenosides in white ginseng using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulsed amperometric detection. The nonpolar ginsenosides of white ginseng were extracted for 4 h under reflux with 50% methanol. Results: Using the gradient elution system, all target components were completely separated within 50 min. Nonpolar ginsenosides were determined in the rhizome head (RH), main root (MR), lateral root, and hairy root (HR) of 6-year-old white ginseng samples obtained from several regions (Geumsan, Punggi, and Kanghwa). The total content in the HR of white ginseng was 37.8-56.8% of that in the HR of red ginseng. The total content in the MR of white ginseng was 5.9-24.3% of that in the MR of red ginseng. In addition, the total content in the RH of white ginseng was 28.5-35.8% of that in the HR of red ginseng Conclusion: It was confirmed that nonpolar ginsenosides known to be specific components of red ginseng were present at substantial concentrations in the HR or RH of white ginseng.

Comparative Study of Red Ginseng and White Ginseng (I) -Effect of Red and White Ginseng on the growth of Broiler Chicken- (홍삼(紅蔘)과 백삼(白蔘)의 비교연구(比較硏究)(I) -홍삼과 백삼이 육용추(肉用雛)의 발육에 미치는 영향-)

  • Han, Dae-Suk;Bae, Dae-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 1976
  • To compare the effects of red Ginseng and white Ginseng on the growth of experimental animals, both Ginseng were given to Broiler male chicken. Red and white Ginseng were administered to Broiler chicken in doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4g per kg weight of chicken. The increase in weight were 282g in red Ginseng group and 162g in white Ginseng group compared with control group. The increase of the feeding amounts per kg weight were 2.4kg for red Ginseng group, 2.67kg for white Ginseng group and 2.87kg for non-treated group. The growth of each organ in the red Ginseng group showed favorable increase trend than white Ginseng group as a whole and, particularly, considerable significance were observed in liver and brain. These results suggest that red Ginseng has better effect on the growth of chicken and organ than white Ginseng does.

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The Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Inside White Fresh Ginseng (내백 수삼 전분의 특성)

  • Park, Hoon;Lee, Mi-Ja;Cho, Byung-goo;Lee, Joung-ryoul
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.191-195
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    • 1994
  • Among many kinds of constituents of ginseng root, starch was the most noticeable component related to inside white in fresh ginseng. The ash of inside white section was higher in content and greenish gray in color. The water binding capacity and ash content of the starch from inside white fresh ginseng were higher than those of starch from normal fresh ginseng, but amylase content was not significantly different. Ash of inside white fresh ginseng starch contained higher in Ca, Mn and Fe content. Complexes of small granular starch and amino acids were rich in swelling power, and solubility by temperature change were similar between inside white fresh ginseng starch and normal one, but the former was more easily swelled than the latter.

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Anti-oxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of White Ginsengs in H2O2-Treated HepG2 Cells

  • Parthasarathi, Shanmugam;Hong, Se Chul;Oh, Myeong Hwan;Park, Young Sik;Yoo, Ji Hyun;Seol, Su Yeon;Lee, Hwan;Park, Jong Dae;Pyo, Mi Kyung
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.210-218
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    • 2015
  • The antioxidant activity of white ginseng was not recorded in Korea Functional Food Code, while its activity of red ginsengs was recorded. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepato protective effect of different ginsengs in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. White and red ginseng were prepared from longitudinal section of the same fresh ginseng (4-year old). The whole parts of white and red ginsengs were separately extracted with 70% ethanol and distilled water respectively, at 70 ℃ to obtain therapeutic ginseng extracts namely, WDH (distilled water extract of white ginseng), WEH (70% ethanol extract of white ginseng), RDH (distilled water extract of red ginseng) and REH (70% ethanol extract of red ginseng). In this work, we have investigated the DPPH, hydroxyl radical, Fe2+-chelating activity, intracellular ROS scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation of different ginsengs. All these extracts showed a dose dependent free-radical scavenging capacity and a ROS generation as well as lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by treatment with bioactive extracts of white ginsengs (WDH) than red ginsengs. Additionally, white ginseng extracts (WDH) has dramatically increased intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities like superoxide dismutase and catalase in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. All these results explain that administration of white ginseng is useful as herbal medicine than red ginseng for chemoprevention of liver damage.

The Physicochemical Properties of Crude Polysaccharide Fraction Isolated from Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) (고려인삼에서 분리한 조다당체 획분의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kwak, Yi-Seong;Kim, Eun-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.389-392
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    • 1996
  • Crude polysaccharide fractions were isolated from white ginseng and red ginseng (Panax ginseng). The amount of crude polysaccharide fraction in red ginseng was higher than that of white ginseng. The glucose contents of crude polysaccharide fraction isolated from white ginseng and red ginseng were determined as 95.1% and 89.9% by HPLC, respectively. Method of carbazole-sulfuric acid was applied to determine the amount of acidic polysaccharide in white ginseng and red ginseng. The amount of acidic polysaccharide in red ginseng was higher than that of white ginseng. Whereas, contents of minerals (Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg) in crude polysaccharide fraction from white ginseng were higher than those of crude Polysaccharide fraction from red ginseng.

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Antioxidant Activity and Ginsenoside Pattern of Fermented White Ginseng

  • Lim, Seong-Il;Cho, Chang-Won;Choi, Ung-Kyu;Kim, Young-Chan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.168-174
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    • 2010
  • Ethanol and water extracts of white and fermented ginseng were prepared and their ginsenoside composition and antioxidant effects were assessed. The main ginsenosides in white ginseng were $Rb_1$ > Re > $Rg_1$, and those in fermented ginseng were $Rb_2+Rb_3$ > Rd > $Rg_1$. Ginsenosides Rd and $Rg_3$ in fermented ginseng were enriched 11 and 58 times, respectively, over that in white ginseng through fermentation with five Bacillus spp. The greatest levels of 2-deoxyribose and superoxide anion dismutase-like activities were found in 50% ethanol extracts of fermented ginseng. Thus, these data suggest that white ginseng has the greatest free radical scavenging activity and that fermented ginseng has the highest antioxidant activity.

Inhibitory Effect of Crude Acidic Polysaccharide of Korean Ginseng on Lipolytic Action of Toxohormone-L from Cancerous Ascites Fluid (인삼의 조산성다당체 성분이 암독소호르몬-L의 지방분해 억제작용)

  • 이성동;이광승
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.10-13
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    • 1990
  • Effect of an acidic polysaccharide fraction In Korean white and red ginseng on lipolytic action of Toxohormone-L was studied. Crude acidic polysaccharide fraction was extracted from main and lateral root of Korean white and red ginseng separately and purified several times. Inhibitory effect of crude polysaccharide fraction was determined by unit (1 unit is loft inhibition rate per Is sample). Yields of purified crude polysaccharide fraction of main and lateral root of red ginseng were 2.9 and 2.2 times higher than those of white ginseng, respectively. Inhibitory effects of main root of white and red ginseng, 11.hen final reaction concentrations of sample were 50, 100, 200, 500 $\mu$g/ml, were 37.2가 and 23.7% higher than those of lateral root of white and red ginseng. Inhibitory effect of main root of red ginseng was 2.3 times higher than that of white ginseng.

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A Comparative Biological Study of the Rhizome and Main Root from Red and White Ginsengs (홍삼 및 백삼의 뇌두, 동체에 대한 생물활성 비교)

  • Park, Jong-Dae;Wee, Jae-Joon;Kim, Young-Sook;Kim, Si-Kwan;Park, Ki-Hyun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 1996
  • Comparative biological activities of 70fr methanol extracts from the main roots and rhizomes of both red and white ginsengs were investigated using several in vitro experimental models. The main root of red ginseng and the rhizome of white ginseng strongly inhibited lipld peroxidation of hepatic microsomes induced by the non-enzymatic $Fe^{+}$ / Ascorbate system. The main root and rhizome of red ginseng markedly inhibited the release of G07, GPT and LDH by $CCl_4$-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes as compared with those of white ginseng. And also, the main root of red ginseng showed a slight differentiating activity on HL-60 cancer cell line. The results suggest that the rhizome of ginseng have potential as a source of medicinal crude drug with possible pharmacolobica1 applications .

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Effects of Drying Conditions on the Quality of White Ginseng (백삼건조 조건이 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 도재호;김상달
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.248-255
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    • 1985
  • In order to investigate the optimal drying condition of white ginseng by using bulk air drier(130 x 62 x 65cm), drying curves, diffusion coefficient at various drying temperature, the energy of activation, variation of color intensity and chemical components during drying of white ginseng were studied. Fick's second low of diffusion for diffusion out of spheres was successfully applied to describe the drying of white ginseng. It was found that the diffusion coefficient of water was 2.2x107, 9.0x107 cm2/sec at drying temperature 4$0^{\circ}C$, 55$^{\circ}C$, respectively. An Arrhenius type temperature dependency of moisture diffusivity was found, the energy of activation being 18.8 Kcal/g mol. Color intensity of white ginseng dried at various drying temperature was increased with an increase in drying temperature. The contents of crude protein, reducing sugar and crude saponin during drying of white ginseng were gradually decreased as increasing of drying time. And with the sensory evaluation by multiple comparison difference analysis, the optimal drying temperature of white ginseng was between 45$^{\circ}C$ and 5$0^{\circ}C$.

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Biochemical and Histological Charaeteristics of Inferior Red Ginseng (불량홍삼(내백삼)의 생화학적 및 조직학적 특성)

  • Do, Jae-Ho;Kim, Sang-Dal;Seong, Hyeon-Sun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.256-263
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    • 1985
  • In order to investigate the inferior factor of red ginseng quality, the contents of various chemical components, physico-chemical properties and arrangement state of ginseng cells were observed. Contents of total reducing sugar, reducing sugar, crude protein, crude fibre and specific gravity of inside white part of red ginseng were less than those of normal part. But differences in content of crude saponin, HPLC pattern of ginsenosides and reducing ability for DP P H(1,1-dipheny 1-2-picrylhydrazyl) between normal and inside white part of red ginseng were not found. The optical density of 1 water extract of normal part of red ginseng did not differ from that of inside white 1 part of red ginseng, but the visible and UV absorbance of acid hydrolyzate of normal red ginseng showed higher than those of inside white part of red ginseng. The differences in the internal color and tissue of normal and inside white part of red ginseng were easily found with naked eye, and by the microscopic fractography, the orangement state of ginseng cell in the inside white part of red ginseng was less dense than that in normal red ginseng.

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