• Title, Summary, Keyword: white ginseng

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Effect of Red Ginseng, White Ginseng and Diethyldithoicarbamate in Irradiated Mice (방사선 피폭 마우스에서 홍삼, 백삼 및 diethyldithoicarbamate의 효과)

  • 김성호;이해준;김세라;이종환;조성기;나승렬;손창호;신동호
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.68-73
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    • 2001
  • Studies were performed to determine the effect of red ginseng and white ginseng on jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis of jejunal crypt cells in irradiated mice. The radioprotective effect of ginseng was compared with the effect of diethyldithocarbamate(D). Jejunal crypts were protected from irradiation by pretreatment of red ginseng (50 mg/kg B.W., I.P. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation) and white ginseng (50 mg/kg B.W., I.P. at 36 and 12 hours before irradiation). Red ginseng administration before irradiation and both pretreatment and posttreatment (50 mg/kg B.W., I.P. at 30 minutes after irradiation) of white ginseng resulted in an increase of the formation of endogenous spleen colony. the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells was also reduced by both pretreatment and posttreatment of red ginseng, and pretreatment of white ginseng. The radioprotective effect of DDC (1000 mg/kg B.W., I.P. at 30 minutes before irradiation) on jejunal crypt survival and apoptosis was similar to those of ginseng treatment. Treatment with DDC showed no significant modifying effects on formation of endogenous spleen colony. These results indicated that ginseng might be a useful radioprotector. Further studies are needed to characterize effective radioprotective components and mechanism of ginseng.

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Characterization of Black Ginseng Extract with Acetyl- and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities

  • Yun, Beom-Sik;Lee, Mi-Ra;Oh, Chang-Jin;Cho, Jeong-Hee;Wang, Chun-Yan;Gu, Li Juan;Mo, Eun-Kyung;Sung, Chang-Keun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.348-354
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    • 2010
  • Black ginseng and white ginseng were extracted with 80% ethanol and evaluated for relative ginsenoside composition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, and antioxidant properties. As analyzed by HPLC, black ginseng contained a greater proportion of ginsenoside $Rg_3$ compared to white ginseng. White ginseng was characterized by undetectable ginsenoside $Rg_3$ but it contained more total ginsenosides than black ginseng. Black ginseng extract exhibited higher (p<0.05) free radical-scavenging activity, as well as higher antioxidant activities than white ginseng against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, superoxide dismutase, and xanthine oxidase, despite the fact that the total saponin content was higher in white ginseng than black ginseng. In addition, the black ginseng extract displayed greater AChE and BChE inhibitory activities. These results suggest that black ginseng has stronger effects on anti-oxidation and AChE and BChE inhibition than white ginseng.

Comparison of Physicochemical Properties and Malonyl Ginsenoside Contents between White and Red Ginseng (백삼 및 홍삼의 이화학적 특성 및 말로닐 진세노사이드 함량 비교)

  • Oh, Myeong Hwan;Park, Young Sik;Lee, Hwan;Kim, Na Young;Jang, Young Boo;Park, Ji Hun;Kwak, Jun Young;Park, Young Soon;Park, Jong Dae;Pyo, Mi Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.84-91
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    • 2016
  • Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in East Asia and is very popular in the world, because of its health benefits. To comparison of pharmacological components and physiochemical properties between white and red ginseng from same body, we analyzed ginsenoside and malonyl ginsenoside, ash, crude lipid/protein, fatty acid, mineral contents, total/reducing sugar, and total phenolic and acidic polysaccharide contents. The general components did not show any significant difference between white and red ginseng. Whereas, the content of neutral ginsenoside $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, Rc and Rd were higher in red ginseng than those of white ginseng. However, malonyl ginsenoside such as $m-Rb_1$, $m-Rb_2$, m-Rc and m-Rd in white ginseng were similar to neutral ginsenoside $Rb_1$, $Rb_2$, Rc and Rd in white ginseng and far higher than those of red ginseng. These results exhibit that malonyl ginsenosides were converted to neutral ginsenosides in steaming process for red ginseng. So, we suggest that malonyl ginsenoside are necessary to applies in ginsenoside analysis of Korean ginseng.

Recent Trend of Import and Export of p. ginseng in Japan (일본의 최근 인삼수출입 동향)

  • Park, Hoon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.200-203
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    • 1994
  • Recent trend of ginseng (p. ginseng) trade in Japan was analyzed. From 1984 white ginseng import increased continuously to 240% while export of red ginseng decreased to 29%. Red ginseng import increased until 1990 and decreased thereafter, resulting in 12% of total import ginseng in 1993 from 47% in 1990. During five years (1989∼1993) white ginseng import from Korea decreased from 44% to 14% of total white ginseng imported while import from China increased. Red ginseng import from China ranged 97 to l00% of total red ginseng and little change was shown during five years. Price of Korean ginseng was higher than that of China by 2.2 times for white and 6.6 times for red. The continuous decrease of Chinese ginseng price might affect import trend. Export price of red ginseng increased continuously and was higher than that of Korean red ginseng (1.95 times) and much higher than import price (20 times in 1993).

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The Change of Ginsenoside Composition in White Ginseng and Fine White Ginseng Extract by the Microwave and Vinegar Process (백삼 및 백미삼 추출물의 초단파 및 식초 처리에 의한 인삼 사포닌 성분 변화)

  • Jo, Hee Kyung;Im, Byung Ok;Ko, Sung Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a new preparation process of ginseng extracts having high concentrations of ginsenoside $Rg_3$, $Rg_5$ and $Rk_1$, a special component of Red ginseng. Chemical transformation from ginseng saponin glycosides to prosapogenin was analyzed by the HPLC. Extracts of White ginseng (Panax ginseng) and Fine White ginseng were processed under several treatment conditions including microwave and vinegar (about 14% acidity) treatments. Results of those treatments showed that the quantity of ginsenoside $Rg_3$ increased by over 0.6% at 4 minutes of pH 2~4 vinegar and microwave treatments. The results of processing with MWG-4 indicate that the Microwave and vinegar processed white ginseng extracts (about 14% acidity) that had gone through 4-minute treatments were found to contain the largest amount of ginsenoside $Rg_3$ (0.626%), $Rg_5$ (0.514%) and $Rk_1$ (0.220%). Results of treatments with MFWG-5 showed that the Fine White ginseng extracts that had been processed with microwave and vinegar (about 14% acidity) for 5 minutes were found to contain the largest amount of ginsenoside $Rg_3$ (4.484%), $Rg_5$ (3.192%) and $Rk_1$ (1.684%). It is thought that such results provide basic information in preparing White ginseng and Fine White ginseng extracts with functionality enhanced.

Comparative Studies on the Effects of Fresh, White and Red Ginseng Their Effects on the Content of Several Components in Rat Serum and the Production of Lipid Peroxide in Rat Liver (수삼, 백삼 및 홍삼의 효과에 대한 비교 연구 흰쥐의 혈청내 몇가지 성분 함량 및 과산화지질생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 임창진;박은희;이동권;홍순근
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 1981
  • Seventy percent ethanol extracts were prepared from 6-year-old fresh, white and red ginseng cultivated in Kangwha, and administered orally into rats for the comparison of their effects. And their effects on the production of lipid peroxide in the livers of ethanol-administered rats were measured. Red ginseng administered group showed the largest body weight increase. However, fresh, white, red ginseng extract administered group showed no significant change in concentration of total lipid, triglyceride and free cholesterol in serum. White and red ginseng extract administeration decreased blood-sugar levels significantly. Lipid peroxide content in livers of white and red ginseng administered groups was decreased significantly. Red ginseng administered group showed greater decrcase in lipid peroxide content than that of white ginseng administred group. The increase of lipid peroxide content in the livers of ethanol-administered group was inhibited by administration of fresh, white, and red ginseng extract. And the strongest-inhibitory action was observed in red ginseng administered group. Therefore, it is supposed that red ginseng has the most powerful antiaging effect.

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Effective Purification of Ginsenosides from Cultured Wild Ginseng Roots, Red Ginseng, and White Ginseng with Macroporous Resins

  • Li, Huayue;Lee, Jae-Hwa;Ha, Jong-Myung
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1789-1791
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    • 2008
  • This study was aimed (i) to develop an effective method for the purification of ginsenosides for industrial use and (ii) to compare the distribution of ginsenosides in cultured wild ginseng roots (adventitious root culture of Panax ginseng) with those of red ginseng (steamed ginseng) and white ginseng (air-dried ginseng). The crude extracts of cultured wild ginseng roots, red ginseng, and white ginseng were obtained by using a 75% ethanol extraction combined with ultrasonication. This was followed sequentially by AB-8 macroporous adsorption chromatography, Amberlite IRA 900 Cl anion-exchange chromatography, and Amberlite XAD16 adsorption chromatography for further purification. The contents of total ginsenosides were increased from 4.1%, 12.1%, and 11.3% in the crude extracts of cultured wild ginseng roots, red ginseng, and white ginseng to 79.4%, 71.7%, and 72.5% in the final products, respectively. HPLC analysis demonstrated that ginsenosides in cultured wild ginseng roots were distributed in a different ratio compared with red ginseng and white ginseng.

Effects of Red Ginseng-Ejung-tang and White Ginseng-Ejung-tang Water Extract on Hydrogen Peroxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells (백삼(白蔘)과 홍삼(紅蔘)이 포함된 이중탕(理中湯)의 마우스 대식세포 내 hydrogen peroxide 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Wan-Su
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the intracellular hydrogen peroxide productions of mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 are modulated by Red Ginseng-Ejung-tang water extract (ER) and White Ginseng-Ejung-tang water extract (EG). Red Ginseng-Ejung-tang were composed of Red Ginseng, Atractylodes rhizome white, Zingiberis Rhizoma Siccus, and Glycyrrhizae Radix. White Ginseng-Ejung-tang were composed of White Ginseng, Atractylodes rhizome white, Zingiberis Rhizoma Siccus, and Glycyrrhizae Radix. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide productions were measured by dihydrorhodamine 123 assay with spectrofluorometer (excitation 485 nm; emission 535 nm). For 4, 20, 24, 44, 48, 68, and 72 h incubation, ER significantly increased hydrogen peroxide productions of RAW 264.7 at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, and $200{\mu}g/mL$ (P <0.05). EG for 4, 20, 24, 44, and 48 h incubation significantly increased hydrogen peroxide productions of RAW 264.7 at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, and $200{\mu}g/mL$ (P <0.05). For 68 and 72 h incubation, EG at the concentration of 50, 100, and $200{\mu}g/mL$ significantly increased hydrogen peroxide productions in RAW 264.7 (P <0.05). These results suggest that ER and EG have the immune-enhancing properties related with their increasing effects on the intracellular hydrogen peroxide production of macrophage.

Microstructure and Antioxidative Activity of Red, White and Extruded Ginseng

  • Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to compare the color and microstructure of powder, redness, brownness, and antioxidative activity in extruded ginseng, white ginseng and red ginseng extracts. The colors of extruded dry ginseng powder (moisture content 30%, barrel temperature $110^{\circ}C$, and screw speed 200 rpm) were similar to those of red ginseng. Intact cell wall structure was examined in dried root ginseng at $70^{\circ}C$ (A), white ginseng with skin (D), white ginseng without skin (E), and red ginseng (F) under a scanning electron microscope. The cell wall was not detected in samples B and C (dry ginsengs extruded with 25% and 30% moisture contents, respectively). Intact starch granules were detected in samples A, D, and E under a scanning electron microscope. Melted starch granules were detected in samples B, C, and F. Colors (L, a, b) of 50% EtOH extracts were similar in samples C and F. Browniness and redness of extracts were high in extruded dry ginseng and red ginseng extracts. Extruded dry ginseng (B) showed higher electron donation ability and phenolic content than the other samples.