• Title, Summary, Keyword: white ginseng

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The Effect of Lipid Peroxidation of White Ginseng(WG) and Fermented Ginseng(FG) Extracts on the Liver of Mice by R-ray Irradiation (감마선을 조사한 생쥐 간에서 발효인삼이 지질과산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, In-Ho;Yeo, Jin-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.223-231
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    • 2016
  • The effects of White Ginseng and Fermented Ginseng on liver damage induced by $^{60}Co$ r-ray irradiation were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given in White Ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7days, orally) before 5Gy(1.01Gy/min) dose of $^{60}Co$ r-ray irradiation. To another group were given in Fermented Ginseng (150 mg/kg/day for 7days, orally)before 5Gy(1.01Gy/min)dose of $^{60}Co$ r-ray irradiation was investigated. Radiation irradiation group were given with saline(0.1 ml) and 5Gy. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 ml). The levels of $H_2O_2$, catalase and MDA in liver tissue were measured. In Fermented Ginseng (FG+Rad) group and white Ginseng(WG+Rad) group than irradiation group(Rad), the catalase level were significantly increased, and the catalase levels were appeaWhite at radiation protection. It was significantly decreased to MDA and $H_2O_2$ level to Fermented Ginseng (FG+Rad) group and white Ginseng(WG+Rad) group than irradiation group(Rad). Therefore, Fermented Ginseng and white Ginseng were very excellent protector on radiation of liver in mice.

Effect of Dietary White Ginseng on Larval Growth of Silkworm, Bombyx mori (인공사료의 White Ginseng 첨가가 누에의 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • 문재유;이재와
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.59-62
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    • 1980
  • The effect of dietary white ginseng on growth of silkworm larva was studied with several young and grown silkworm larvae divided into four groups and fed ad basal artificial diet containing different levels of ginseng extract. The four levels of ginseng extract added to basal artificial diet were: 0 (control), 46.6, 139.9 and 279.8 mg per g of dry diet. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The body weight of silkworm larvae fed ad basal artificial diet containing different levels of ginseng extract was increased in 46.6mg ginseng extract level, 139.9mg ginseng extract level and 279.8mg ginseng extract level order. The body weight was greatly increased in 46.6mg ginseng extract level than in control. It is, therefore. considered that a little white ginseng was effective for larval growth in silkworm rearing with artificial diet. 2. The blood sugar content of silkworm larvae fed on an artificial diet containing several levels of ginseng extract was remarkably decreased as compared wilt that of the control silkworm larvae.

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Gas Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Fatty Acids in Ginseng Products (Gas Liquid Chromatography에 의한 인삼(人蔘) 제품(製品) 중의 지방산(脂肪酸) 분석(分析))

  • Yoon, Tai-Heon;Kim, Eul-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.182-187
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    • 1979
  • Six commercial ginseng products, red ginseng, white ginseng I and II, red ginseng extract, white ginseng extract I and II were extracted with ethyl ether. Total fatty acid composition of the extracted free lipids was analyzed by gas liquid chromatography and digital integrator was used to measure the area of each peak. Crude lipid contents of red and white ginsengs were similiar. Those of red ginseng extract, white ginseng extract I and II were 1.10, 1.13 and 0.40%, respectively. It was found that 22 kinds of fatty acids existed in red and white ginsengs. Among them, 16 kinds of even numbered fatty acids were identified. Linoleic acid in red and white ginsengs was the most abundant. The contents of that in red ginseng, white ginseng I and II were 63.33, 45.55 and 41.06%, respectively. The next most abundant acid was palmitic acid, the contents of which were 11.30, 14.4 and 18.10% for red ginseng, white ginseng I and II, respectively. Major fatty acids for red ginseng extract and white ginseng extract I were linoleic and palmitic acids in the same order of magnitude. Linoleic and palmitic acids for red ginseng extract were 15.93 and 15.71 %, respectively, while linoleic and palmitic acids for white ginseng extract I were 21.94 and 19.15%, respectively. However, white ginseng extract II contained only 9.21% of linoleic acid and 16.13% of palmitic acid which was the major fatty acid.

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Determination of Ginseng Yakju Quality using Different Percentages and Application Dates of Ginseng (인삼 첨가 비율 및 첨가 시기에 따른 인삼 약주 품질 특성)

  • Kong, Moon-Hee;Jeong, Seok-Tae;Yeo, Soo-Hwan;Choi, Ji-Ho;Choi, Han-Seok;Han, Gui-Jeong;Jang, Mi-So;Chung, Ill-Min
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2011
  • We investigated the quality characteristics of fermented ginseng Yakju produced using different percentage contents and application dates of ginseng. Although the pH of fermented ginseng Yakju was not significantly different among the various treatment groups, the total acidity was changed depending on the percentage of ginseng content. the application date of ginseng did not influence the total acid content. The amount of volatile acids was higher at a 0.2~0.3% content of white or red ginseng than in other treatment groups. The ginsenoside contents of white and red ginseng used for making ginseng Yakju were 3,555.0 and 4,447.4 ppm, respectively. In ginseng Yakju, total ginsenoside contents were detected at very small amounts of <10 ppm. A total of 15 volatile components were detected in ginseng Yakju. Higher levels of methanol were produced at early application dates. In sensory evaluations, the preference for aroma was higher at white ginseng levels of 0.5% and 1.0% than for other treatment groups, and the taste was judged to be best at a white ginseng content of 0.3%. In the red ginseng treatment group, a red ginseng content of 0.3% was most preferred for both aroma and taste. The taste preference for white ginseng was at 4 days after application, while the taste of the red ginseng treated group was good at the beginning of fermentation.

Comparative Study of White and Steamed Black Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolium, and P. notoginseng on Cholinesterase Inhibitory and Antioxidative Activity

  • Lee, Mi-Ra;Yun, Beom-Sik;Sung, Chang-Keun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2012
  • This study evaluated the anti-cholinesterases (ChEs) and antioxidant activities of white ginseng (WG) and black ginseng (BG) roots of Panax ginseng (PG), P. quinquefolium (PQ), and P. notoginseng (PN). Ginsenosides $Rg_1$, Re, Rf, $Rb_1$, Rc, $Rb_2$, and Rd were found in white PG, whereas Rf was not found in white PQ and Rf, Rc, and $Rb_2$ were not detected in white PN. The major ginsenoside content in steamed BG including $RK_3$, $Rh_4$, and 20(S)/(R)-$Rg_3$ was equivalent to approximately 70% of the total ginsenoside content. The WG and BG inhibited acetylcholinesteras (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in a dose dependent manner. The efficacy of BG roots of PG, PQ, and PN on AChE and BChE inhibition was greater than that of the respective WG roots. The total phenolic contents and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity were increased by heat treatment. Among the three WG and BG, white PG and steamed black PQ have significantly higher contents of phenolic compounds. The best results for the DPPH scavenging activity were obtained with the WG and BG from PG. These results demonstrate that the steamed BG roots of the three studied ginseng species have both high ChEs inhibition capacity and antioxidant activity.

Quality Evaluation of Fresh ginseng by Soft X-ray and iodine Test. (연X선 및 요드반응에 의한 수삼의 품질평가)

  • Park, Hoon;Cho, Byung-Goo;Lee, Mee-Kyung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.167-171
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    • 1984
  • Soft X-ray is useful to identify the quality of fresh ginseng causing the inside cavity or white pan of red ginseng. The portion of low mass density identified by the difference in absorption of soft X-ray showed lower dry matter density and less or no response to iodine test indicating less accumulation or excess consumption of starch. The inside white part of red ginseng absorbed less X-ray than the normal part did. Probability for identification of the inside cavity or white at fresh ginseng was rather high (80-90%) in screen observation than f'3m reading and seemed to be increased further by using the developed screen and with training. The inside white of red ginseng appeared to be due to starch deficiency. Dry matter density appeared to be better than fresh weight density for the quality criterion.

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Comparison of Malonyl Ginsenoside Contents in Parts of Korean Ginseng (고려인삼의 부위별 Malonyl Ginsenoside 함량 비교 분석)

  • Park, Young Sik;Oh, Myeong Hwan;Lee, Hwan;Jung, Jong Tae;Jo, Yun Ho;Pyo, Mi Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.82-87
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    • 2017
  • Malonyl ginsenoside content of the Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is known to account for 35% to 60% of total ginsenosides content. However, its distribution by ginseng part has not been studied. In this study, four kinds of malonyl ginsenosides were compared in Korean white ginseng part using the purified malonyl ginsenoside standards in our laboratory. White ginseng was prepared by the freeze drying ($-70^{\circ}C$, 48 h) or air drying ($50^{\circ}C$, 48 h) methods form 4-year-old ginseng. Malonyl ginsenoside content of main, lateral, and fine root, and of the main root without skin and its skin was compared. Malonyl ginsenosides (m-Rb1, m-Rb2, m-Rc and m-Rd) content (58%, 19.17 mg/g) in total ginsenosides of air dried white ginseng was decreased about 4% compared to its content of freeze dried white ginseng (62%, 20.40 mg/g). Malonyl ginsenoside content was the highest in fine root, compared to the main or lateral root. Malonyl ginsenosides content in skin of main root was 20.08 mg/g, while its content of the main root without skin was 2.58 mg/g. These results are expected to help establishment of quality specification and processing process in Korean white ginseng.

Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

  • Choi, Sang-Yoon;Hong, Hee-Do;Bae, Hye-Min;Choi, Chang-Sun;Kim, Kyung-Tack
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.436-441
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    • 2011
  • The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract.

Cytotoxicity of White and Red Ginseng against Cancer Cells and Their Effects on the Cell Cycle (백삼과 홍삼의 암세포에 대한 세포독성 및 세포주기에 미치는 영향)

  • 정노팔;송선옥;최상운
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 2000
  • The present study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of white and red ginseng extracts against cancer cells in vitro. We also examined the effects of those ginseng extracts on the cell cycle by using flow cytometry. We divided each white and red ginseng into two parts, main body and rhizome, and tested the cytotoxicity of each fraction against various mouse-originated cancer cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. The red ginseng was more cytotoxic to the cancer cells in comparison with white ginseng, and the rhizome fractions were more cytotoxic than the mainbody fractions in the both of white and red ginseng. Among the cells tested, RAW264.7 cancer cells were most sensitive to all the ginseng fractions. In cell cycle analysis, all the fractions of white and red ginseng arrested the cell cycle at G$_2$/M phase.

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Quality Characteristics of Ginseng Coffee Treated by Coating of White Ginseng Extract

  • Kim, Kyung-Tack;Lee, Young-Chul;Cho, Chang-Won;Rhee, Young-Kyoung;Bae, Hye-Min
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • The quality attributes of coffee treated with different concentrations of white ginseng extract were examined. Increased concentration of white ginseng extract was associated with higher color values (Hunter L. a, b scale). The crude saponin contents of untreated roasted coffee beans (control) and those coated with $5^{\circ}$ Brix (WGC-1) and $20^{\circ}$ Brix white ginseng extract (WGC-2) were 8.29%, 8.74%, and 8.93%, respectively. The total ginsenoside contents of WGC-1 and WGC-2 were 0.3 mg/g and 0.6 mg/g, respectively. In the case of major ginsenosides, the contents of ginsenosides $Rg_1,\;Rg_2,\;Rb_1,\;Rb_2,\;Rg_2,\;Rh_1$, and $Rg_3$ increased directly with the concentration of white ginseng extract. Total sugar and acidic polysaccharide contents also increased directly with the concentration of white ginseng extract. The coffee beans coated with ginseng extract scored significantly higher ginseng taste scores than the control (p<0.005) in sensory evaluation. In terms of coffee taste, WGC-2 had significantly lower scores than the commercial coffee bean. In the consumer sensory evaluation, overall preference did not differ significantly among the treatments.