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First Report of Sclerotinia White Rot Caused by Sclerotinia nivalis on Panax ginseng in Korea

  • Cho, Hye Sun;Shin, Jeong-Sup;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Hong, Tae-Kyun;Cho, Dae-Hui;Kang, Je Yong
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2013
  • Sclerotinia white rot disease was observed on 5 and 6-year-old ginseng (Panax ginseng) roots in Hongchun, Cheorwon, and Yanggu, Gangwon Province, Korea from 2006 to 2010. Symptoms included a brownish watery soft rot of the roots, and black sclerotia were often found on the rotten roots. The causal agent of the disease was identified as Sclerotinia nivalis based on cultural characteristics and sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and ${\beta}$-tubulin gene with 100% sequence similarity. Pathogenicity tests were performed on 2-year-old ginseng roots with mycelium plugs without wounds. A watery soft rot of the roots and black sclerotia were observed 10 days after inoculation. These symptoms were identical to those observed on naturally infected roots. The same fungus was re-isolated from the lesions induced by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of sclerotinia white rot caused by S. nivalis on P. ginseng in Korea.

Ultrastructure of Fresh Root Turned into Inside White of Red Ginseng (홍삼 내백부의 수삼 미세구조)

  • Cho, Byung-Goo;Park, Hoon;Lee, Jun-Seong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.187-190
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    • 1994
  • The pith and xylem parts of fresh root that turned into inside-white during processing for red ginseng was investigated under scanning electron microscope in comparison with the sa31e position of fresh root processed into normal reddening. In the inside-white part starch storage cells remain mostly in vacancy or with small number of starch granules and with large hollow by missing cell membranes between cells. Many starch seed granules appeared on the surface of storage cell wall in the inside-white part. Fresh root sample showed better picture than dried powder.

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Studies on Hypotensive Mechanism of Ginseng Components (인삼성분(人蔘成分)의 혈압강하기전(血壓降下機轉)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Nak-Doo;Kim, In-Chull
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 1978
  • Total saponins and ether extracts of red and white ginseng were obtained and their effects on blood pressure in cat and their histamine liberating activities in rabbits were measured. 1) Ether extract of red ginseng showed a transient hypotensive effect and subsequently showed a remarkable and persistent hypotensive effect, whereas other three fractions, such as saponin fractions of red and white ginseng and ether extract of white ginseng showed only a initial transient hypotensive effects. 2) Histamine levels liberated into blood after administration of each fractions measured by the bioassay with guinea pig ileum. Ether extract of red ginseng immediately increased histamine contents in plasma but the histamine levels decreased to normal level within 10min in spite of decreased blood pressure was sustained. Although white ginseng saponin lowered blood pressure immediately when it is administered, histamine release was observed after 10min. The results suggest that hypotensive effects of ginseng seems to have no correlation with the histamine liberating activity. Ginseng appears to show hypotensive effect via some other mechanisms.

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Effect of Shading on the Quality of Raw, Red and White Ginseng and the Contents of Some Minerals in Ginseng Roots (해가림 종류가 수삼, 홍삼 및 백삼의 품질과 무기물 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영호;유연현
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.36-43
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    • 1990
  • The quality of raw, red and white ginseng and the contents of some minerals were examined using 6-year-old ginseng roots produced in different shades, thatch and polyethylene net (P..E.). The yield of first and second grade ginseng roots was higher in the thatch shade than in the P.E. shade. The smaller sizes of ginseng routs were probably due to loss of ginseng yield called by alternaria blight in the third and fourth years, and lower quality was dale to more rusty roots in the P.E. shading. For red ginseng. rates of heaven and earth grades were higher in the P.E. than thatch shade. producing red ginseng with less inside cavity Production of white ginseng was higher in the thatch shade than in the P.E. shade. showing a higher yield, better piece grade, lower inside crack and better quality index in the thatch. The contents of some minerals such as K, Ca, Mg and Mn of fine ginseng roots differed between the two shades, some of which had a significant correlation with the quality indices of white ginseng. Keywords Thatch shade, polyethylene shade, alternaria blight, rulsty root, quality of ginseng.

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Quality Characteristics of Yanggaeng with White, Red and Black Ginseng Powder (백삼, 홍삼, 흑삼 분말을 이용한 양갱 제조 및 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Ae-Jung;Lee, Sun-Hee;Jung, Eun-Kyung
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2013
  • Powders prepared from three different varieties of Korean ginseng (white, red and black) are consumed daily by many Koreans as a functional food material. These variants exert a variety of physiological effects. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng prepared with three different types of ginseng powder. We conducted tests for ginsenosides content, Hunter's color values, mechanical characteristics, and sensory evaluation analysis. The ginsenosides of black ginseng were higher than those of white and red ginseng. The lightness of the black ginseng Yanggaeng was significantly less than the white, red, and control samples (p<0.05). We noted significant differences in Hunter's a and b values. With regard to the mechanical properties of the samples, we noted significant differences in gumminess (p<0.05), but no differences in hardness, springiness, chewiness, and cohesiveness were detected. The results of sensory evaluation showed that there were significant differences in the color, flavor, and overall quality of the samples (p<0.05), but there were no significant differences in taste and texture. Overall, red ginseng Yanggaeng appeared to have the most commercial value for improving the Yanggaeng product.

Chemical Compositions of Korean Ginseng with Special Reference to the Part of Ginseng Plant (고려인삼의 부위별 성분함량)

  • 장진규;이광승
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.84-89
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    • 1987
  • The contents of some chemical constituents in several parts of Panax ginseng were investigated. Each part of ginseng was extracted with 70% ethanol and then water. The yield of extract was the highest in fine root, and relatively low in roughly dried ginseng and white ginseng, On the other hand, the contents of total sugars in white ginseng and seedling ginseng were high, but low in leaf and peel. The contents of crude protein in roughly dried ginseng and white ginseng were high, but those in leaf, rhizome (nod) and peel were low. The content of crude fat was higher in leaf than in other parts of ginseng plants and that was the lowest in fine root. Among free sugars, the content of fructose was high in leaf and rhizome, but that was the lowest in fine root. In the case of glucose content, leaf contained the highest amount, but fine root did the lowest. Sucrose contents in white, roughly dried and lateral roots were high, whereas that in leaf was low.

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The Comparison of Ginseng Saponin Composition and Contents in Dried Ginseng Radices (건삼류 생약의 인삼사포닌 성분 비교)

  • Lee, Jae Bum;Kim, Min Young;Cho, Soon Hyun;Ko, Sung Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.255-259
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to provide basic information on ginseng saponin of dried ginseng radices. In order to achieve the proposed objective ginsenoside compositions of dried ginseng radices extract with 70% ethyl alcohol were examined by HPLC. The total saponin content, the sum of all ginsenosides, showed that Wild simulated ginseng (WSG), White fine ginseng (WFG), Skin White ginseng (SWG), and White ginseng (WG) stood at 2.510%, 1.643%, 0.587, and 0.429%, respectively. WSG in PPD/PPT ratio was highest at 3.190, WFG (1.934), WG (1.600), SWG (1.386) in order. In the content of ginsenoside Rb1, one of the marker compounds of ginseng, WSG (1.095%) showed the highest content, and WFG (0.527%), SWG (0.246%), WG (0.133%) in this order. The content of ginsenoside Rb1 of WSG (1.095%) was 4.5 times higher than SWG (0.246%). WSG (0.230%) showed the highest content in ginsenoside Rg1, a marker compounds of ginseng, followed by WFG (0.180%), SWG (0.141%) and WG (0.086%). The content of ginsenoside Rg1 of WSG (0.230%) was 1.6 times higher than SWG (0.141%).

A comparative study on chemical composition of total saponins extracted from fermented and white ginseng under the effect of macrophage phagocytotic function

  • Xiao, Dan;Xiu, Yang;Yue, Hao;Sun, Xiuli;Zhao, Huanxi;Liu, Shuying
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.379-385
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    • 2017
  • In this study, white ginseng was used as the raw material, which was fermented with Paecilomyces hepiali through solid culture medium, to produce ginsenosides with modified chemical composition. The characteristic chemical markers of the products thus produced were investigated using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-QTOF-MS). Chemical profiling data were obtained, which were then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis for the systematic comparison of active ingredients in white ginseng and fermented ginseng to understand the beneficial properties of ginsenoside metabolites. In addition, the effects of these components on biological activity were investigated to understand the improvements in the phagocytic function of macrophages in zebrafish. According to the established RRLC-QTOF-MS chemical profiling, the contents in ginsenosides of high molecular weight, especially malonylated protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, were slightly reduced due to the fermentation, which were hydrolyzed into rare and minor ginsenosides. Moreover, the facilitation of macrophage phagocytic function in zebrafish following treatment with different ginseng extracts confirmed that the fermented ginseng is superior to white ginseng. Our results prove that there is a profound change in chemical constituents of ginsenosides during the fermentation process, which has a significant effect on the biological activity of these compounds.

Current Status of processing and Research Trends in Ginseng Products (인삼제품의 가공현황과 연구 동향)

  • 양재원
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.501-519
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    • 1996
  • There are two kinds of commercially available ginseng root, red ginseng and white ginseng processed from fresh ginseng root Those ginsengs are primary product from fresh ginseng root and have the characteristic of keeping their original root shape Processed ginseng products are made from either red ginseng or white ginseng by way of complicated process of pulverization. Extraction. Condensation, fettering, sterilization, etc. Among them there are extracts. extract powder, powder, capsules tablets, Candy, drinks, nectar, jelly, gums. chicken soup. tonic. etc. to meet the demand for consumer's pretheronce . The 200 kinds of processed secondary products are approximately produced in the form of 20 kinds of ginseng products by about 60 domestic companies. In spite of about 213.000 million won of domestic market in 1993. it seems like that the ginseng market of the future has not a good prospects The total market sale of white ginseng in Korea has been continuously decreased since 1991 And 963 tons of white ginseng was consumed in domestic market in 1993 The domestic market sales of white ginseng in origina1 root shave. was 90, 000 million won in 1993 and market price of the fine root used as a source of processed products has not been changed in these ten years. The total market sale of red ginseng and its processed products was 58, 000 million won in 1993 9.800 mi11ion won of red ginseng in original root shape and 48.000mi11ion of processed red ginseng product. Ginseng products such as extracts, drinks, teas and tonics etc atre mostly exported to south-east Asia. And the total exports of ginseng pi.oducts (extracts, drinks teas) decreased to 54 million dollars in 1994, compared with 85 million dollars in 1992. Despite of extensive knowledge about ginseng little is still known about the development of new processed ginseng pl.oducts because of "Know-How". Some papars have presented the effects of extracting method(amounts of solvent. time. temperature, equipment. etc.) on the quality and yields of ginseng extr acts. Also. some researchers have carried out a few studies on the poriflcation of the extracts and the amounts of precipitation in the drink at variotas pH during the storage for preventinly drink from precipitation. A fell studies on the preservation of Korean ginseng powder. tea. Extract powder by irradiation and ozone treatment have been reported by some researcher for the improvement hygienic quality of ginseng products There are also some reports about the effects of ginseng components on the acid production by lactic acid bacteria or acetic acid bacteria. and alcohol production by yeast for the development of new ginseng products processed by fermentation. To make ginseng more able to contribute to the health of mankind in the future. consistent and considerable efforts should be focussed on improving the taste of ginseng and developing various new product as a health food or a function food.tion food.

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In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Aged Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

  • Chung, Soo Im;Kang, Mi Young;Lee, Sang Chul
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 2016
  • Fresh ginseng roots were aged in an oven at $80^{\circ}C$ for 14 d. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of this aged ginseng, in comparison with those of the white and red ginsengs, were evaluated. In in vitro antioxidant assays, the ethanolic extracts from aged ginseng showed significantly higher free radical scavenging activity and reducing power than those of the white and red ginsengs. In in vivo antioxidant assays, mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with white, red, or aged ginseng powders. High fat feeding resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a substantial decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals. However, diet supplementation of ginseng powders, particularly aged ginseng, markedly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activities. The results illustrate that the aged ginseng has greater in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity than the white and red ginsengs. The aged ginseng also showed considerably higher total saponin, phenolic, and flavonoid contents, indicating that its antioxidant capacity may have been partly due to its high levels of antioxidant compounds. This new ginseng product may be useful as a functional food with strong antioxidant potential.