• Title, Summary, Keyword: white ginseng

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Comparisons of Acidic Polysaccharide Content in Various Ginseng Species and Parts (인삼 산성다당체의 삼류간 및 부위별 함량비교)

  • 도재호;이형옥
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.145-147
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    • 1993
  • The amounts of ginseng acidic polysaccharide (GAP) in red ginseng (Panax ginseng) were higher than those of wild and cultured Panax quinquefolius, Panax notoginseng as well as white ginseng (Panax ginseng). In white ginseng, there is no difference in the GAP amount among root ages or sizes. Also, the GAP amount of red ginseng body was similar to that of ginseng rhizome, but was higher than that of leaf and epidermis.

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Differences in Free Amino Acids between Korean Ginsengs and Mountain Ginsengs (고려인삼과 장뇌삼의 유리 아미노산 비교)

  • 이호재;유병삼;변상요
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.323-328
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    • 2000
  • Free amino acids were extracted and analyzed from Korean mountain ginsengs. Chinese mountain ginsengs and Korean white ginsengs by HPLC. The highest total free amino acid content was 12.46 mg/g in Korean white ginseg(P) and the lowest total free amino acid content was 6.86 mg/g in Korean mountain ginseng (Kㅡ6) The content of arginine in a Korean white ginseng(Y) was 8.77 mg/g Arginine was 77.80% of total free amino acids in a Korean mountin ginseng (KM2) The amount of histidine and methionine in Korean mountain ginsengs were higher than any other ginsengs. The highest amount of threonine and lysine were observed in Korean white ginseng and Chinese mountain ginseng respectively, The contents of glycine in Korean mountain ginseng and korean white ginseng were higher than Chinses mountain ginseng. There is no significant difference between two mountain ginsengs and Korean white ginseng.

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Preparation of Ginseng Concentrate with High Content of Acidic Polysaccharide from White Tail Ginseng Marc (백삼 알코올 추출박을 이용한 산성다당체 다량 함유 백삼 농축액 제조)

  • 강태화;박경준;강성태
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.736-740
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    • 2004
  • Preparation of ginseng concentrate with high content of acidic polysaccharide from white tail ginseng marc that was obtained after preparation of white tail ginseng extract. As a result of extraction of white tail ginseng under various concentrations of ethanol (0∼90%), both amount of acidic polysaccharide and extraction yield decreased by increasing the ethanol concentration. However, acidic polysaccharide extracted by water from white tail ginseng marc was increased in accordance with the increase of ethanol concentration. The optimal condition for the extraction of acidic polysaccharide from the marc was treatment of $\alpha$-amylase in 390∼650 unit/g residue/15 mL of distilled water for 5 min at 4$0^{\circ}C$. The amount of acidic polysaccharide in water extract of the marc was increased from 8.3% to 10.5% by the treatment of $\alpha$-amylase. A new ginseng extract mixture was manufactured by mixing 50% ethanol extract of white tail ginseng and water extract of alcoholic residue in the ratio of 8:2 (w/w). Crude saponin content and acidic polysaccharide content were 10.5% and 17%, respectively. The mixture had a same crude saponin content and twice acidic polysaccharide content comparing to 50% ethanol extract of white tail ginseng. It suggests that preparation of new ginseng concentrate with high content of acidic polysaccharide from white tail ginseng marc has high potencies in the utilization of waste material.

Ultrastructure of Normal and Inside White Part in Korea Red Ginseng (홍삼의 정상 및 내백부의 미세구조)

  • Park, Hoon;Cho, Byung-Goo;Lee, Seong-Jun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.153-157
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    • 1988
  • Ultrastructure of inside white part was compared with normal part in Korea Red ginseng by scanning electron microscope. The inside white part was in number and smaller inside of starch particle than those in the normal. The large membranous components in the inside white part seemed to be thinner than those in the normal. Thin membranous components may be related to lower protein content as previously reported. Starch particles in red ginseng were flat and amorphous.

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Effect of Water Extract of Korean White and Red Ginseng on Lipolytic Action of Toxohormone-L from Cancerous Ascites Fluid (고려인삼의 수용성 엑기스 성분이 암독소 호르몬-L의 체지방 분해작용에 미치는 영향)

  • 이성동;이광승
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 1992
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of water extracts from 4-, 5- and 6-year old red white ginseng roots on the inhibition of lipolysis in fat cells induced by toxohormone-L which has been known as lipolytic and anorexigenic factors. Toxohormone-L was obtained by partial purification of the ascites fluid from mice which had been inoculated with sarcoma-180. Each water extract of ginseng was effective in vitro against the inhibition of lipolysis induced by the toxohormone-L at the concentrations over 10~100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml. At the concentration of 1,000 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, the inhibition ratio of lipolysis by the water extracts of 4-, 5- and 6-year old white ginseng roots were 56.3, 59.7 and 59.4%, and those of red ginseng roots were 78.6, 79.1 and 82.5%, respectively, indicating that the 6-year old red ginseng was the most effective in the inhibition of the lipolysis. The total inhibitory activity per gram of ginseng sample was higher in the 4-year and 5-year old white ginseng roots at the concentrations of 100 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml and 1,000 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml, respectively, while for the red ginseng it was higher in the 6-year old ginseng than other ages regardless of the reaction concentration. Only once injection of the ginseng extracts(300 mg/ml in saline solution) with 10 ${mu}ell$/g of weight to the mice bearing sarcoma-180 was not effective against the extension of their life spans. On the contrary, the life spans of the mice were rather shortened by the injection of 5-year old white ginseng and 6-year old red ginseng, as compared to that of control.

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Chemopreventive Effects of Ginseng on Rat Carcinogenesis

  • Wanibuchi Hideki;Ichihara Toshio;Morimura Keiichirou;Fukushima Shoji
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.277-287
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    • 2002
  • The chemopreventive effects of ginseng on rat carcinogenesis models were investigated, In the present study, the inhibitory effects of white and red ginseng on tumor development were examined using medium-term liver, initiation and medium-term multi-organ carcinogenicity bioassay systems. No modifying potential of the ginsengs was evident in terms of the numbers or areas of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST -P)-positive foci, which is a marker of preneoplastic lesion in rat livers. However, white ginseng, but not red ginseng was found to decrease the incidences of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine and colon in the medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis model. These results indicate that white ginseng may have inhibitory effects on progression stage of rat intestinal carcinogenesis, but the influence is not strong. Ginseng is unlikely to have promoting or inhibitory effects in other organs under the present type of experimental conditions. Possible application on ginseng for chemoprevention of colon cancer in humans, can be concluded given the lack of obvious adverse effects.

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Comparative Study on the Essential Oil Components of Panax Species (인삼속(Pauax species) 식물의 정유성분 조성 비교)

  • Ko, Sung-Ryong;Choi, Kang-Ju;Kim, Young-Hoi
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to determine the differences of essential oil components among Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng, and Korean white ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Mayer) , American and Canadian ginseng (P. Quinquefolium), and sanchi ginseng (P notoginseng). The steam distilled oils of these ginsengs were analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and 22 sesquiterpenes, 8 sesquiterpene alcohols, 8 monoterpenes, 5 aldehydes, 4 esters, 3 acids, 2 alcohols and 5 miscellaneous components were identified. The major oil components of Korean, Chinese and Japanese red ginseng were $\beta$-panasinsene, $\beta$-caryophyllene, $\alpha$-panasinsene, $\alpha$-neoclovene, selina-4,11-diane, bicyclo-ger-macrene and spathulenol. The contents of $\beta$-panasinsene, $\alpha$-neoclovene, $\alpha$-basabolene and spathulenol were higher in Korean red ginseng than Chinese and Japanese red ginseng. The contents of $\alpha$-cubebene, selina-4,11-diene and ledol were higher in Chinese red ginseng than Korean and Japanese red ginseng, but those of selina-4,11-diene and spathulenol were lower in Japanese red ginseng than Korean or Chinese red ginseng. On the other hand, the GC patterns of the oils from American, Canadian and sanchi ginseng were different from that of Korean white ginseng.

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Anticarcinogenic Effect of Ginseng Extracts Depending on the Types and Ages Using Yun's Anticarcinogenicity Test(II) (벤조피렌으로 유도된 마우스 폐선종에 대한 인삼분말의 연근별 항발암효과(II))

  • Yun, Taik-Koo;Lee, Yun-Sil
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 1994
  • In this study, we investigeated the anticarcinogenicity of various types and ages of ginseng extracts as an extended study using Yun's anticarcinogenicity test. Fresh ginseng at 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years was dried and powdered. And white ginseng was processed in the same way that of fresh ginseng after removal fo the ginseng cortex and fine root. For red ginsneg, fresh ginseng was steamed and dried. Each ginseng powder was extracted and extracts was freeze dried. Newborn N:GP(S) mice were given a single subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mg of benzo(a)pyrene(BP). Various types and ages of ginseng extracts at 2.5mg/ml were orally administered. All the mice were sacrificed at the 9th week. The following results were obtained. In the dried fresh ginseng extract treated group, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by BP was 63.9% and its incidence was reduced to 48.3%, 52.5%, 51.8%, 47.5% and 44.1% after co-treatment with 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-dried fresh ginseng, respectively. The incidence of lung adenoma induced by BP on the white ginseng extract treated group was 41.3% and decreased to 31.0%, 46.0%, 44.0% and 26.5% after co-treatment with 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-white ginseng, respectively. In the red ginseng extract treated group, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by BP was 47.5% and its incidence diminished to 40.7%, 35.0%, 30.1%, 30.0% and 26.3% after co-treatment with 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-red ginseng, respectively. From the above results, we concluded that a statistically significant anticarcinogenic effect was observed in extracts of 6 year-dried fresh ginseng, 6 year-white ginseng, and 4, 5 and 6 year-red ginseng and it is suggested that the anticarcinogenicity of ginseng varies according to the types and ages Key words Ginseng extract, types and ages. anticarcinogenic, newborn mice, lung tumor.

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Histological Characteristics of Normal and Inferior Parts in Korean Red Ginseng (정상홍삼과 불량홍삼의 조직학적 특성)

  • 이종원;김천석;채순용;양재원;도재호
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to investigate a point of difference between normal and inferior Korean red ginseng (Naeback red ginseng = red ginseng with white part of clear boundary in phloem and/or xylem of ginseng body, saengnaeback red ginseng red ginseng with white part of indistinct boundary). White part with clear or indistinct boundary in center of ginseng body was observed in inferior red ginseng (naeback and saengnaeback red ginseng), and the differences in the internal color intensity was also found with naked eye. In hunter color values of normal and inferior parts of red ginseng in accordance with particle size, L value was increased with a diminishment in particle size, while a and b value were decreased. Absorbance at visible spectrum did not differ from water and 70% ethanol extract from normal and inferior parts of red ginseng, but absorbance in UV spectrum of extract from naeback part showed higher than those of normal and saengnaeback part. In comparison of intrastructure by electron microscope, the horizontal and vertical section of cortex and pith layer from normal part showed the very dense state, but small holes were found in naeback part of red ginseng by naked eye and electron microscope. The specific surface area of normal, naeback and saengnaeback part appeared 3.02, 3.33 and 6.55 ㎡/g, respectively. From above results, we consider saengnaeback red ginseng is red ginseng in the intermediate process which normal red ginseng changes to naeback red ginseng.

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Effect of White, Taegeuk, and Red Ginseng Root Extracts on Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake in Muscle Cells and Proliferation of β-cells

  • Cha, Ji-Young;Park, Eun-Young;Kim, Ha-Jung;Park, Sang-Un;Nam, Ki-Yeul;Choi, Jae-Eul;Jun, Hee-Sook
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.192-197
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    • 2010
  • Recent studies have indicated that $\beta$-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance are important factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated the effect of extracts from different parts of white, Taegeuk, and red ginseng root on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle cells and proliferation of $\beta$-cells. Extracts of the fine roots of Taegeuk ginseng significantly enhanced glucose uptake compared with the control. White ginseng lateral root extracts enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake. Proliferation of $\beta$-cells was significantly increased by Taegeuk ginseng main and lateral root extracts and by red ginseng lateral and fine root extracts. In conclusion, different root parts of white, Taegeuk, and red ginseng differentially affect glucose uptake and pancreatic $\beta$-cell proliferation.