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Effects of extrusion cooking on physicochemical properties of white and red ginseng (powder)

  • Gui, Ying;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.146-153
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    • 2014
  • A systematic comparison of the physicochemical properties of white ginseng (WG), extruded white ginseng (EWG), red ginseng (RG), and extruded red ginseng (ERG) was performed. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of the physicochemical properties of ginseng by extrusion cooking. The highest value of the water absorption index (WAI) was 3.64 g/g obtained from EWG, and the highest value of the water solubility index (WSI) was 45.27% obtained from ERG. The ERG had a better dispersibility compared with other samples. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in acidic polysaccharide and total sugar content but resulted in a decrease in crude fat and reducing sugar contents. Enzyme treatment led to a sharp increase in acidic polysaccharide content, especially the cellulose enzyme. Extrusion cooking led to a significant increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and the increases in WG and RG were 13.56% (0.038) and 3.56% (0.026), respectively. The data of this study provide valuable information about the effects of extrusion on quality changes of EWG and ERG.

An Isolation of Crude Saponin from Red-Ginseng Efflux by Diaion HP-20 Resin Adsorption Method (홍삼유출액으로부터 Diaion HP-20 수지 흡착법에 의한 조사포닌의 분리)

  • 곽이성;경종수;김시관;위재준
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to isolate saponin compounds from red-ginseng efflux, which was produced during the industrial processing of red-ginseng from fresh ginseng. We isolated crude saponin from the efflux extract (moisture content 35.0%) by using Diaion HP-20 adsorption method. Non-saponin fraction, which was adsorbed on Diaion HP-20 resin, was removed by eluating with $H_{2}O$ and 25% spirit. Then crude saponin was eluated with 95% spirit, continuously. Saponin in the eluated fractions was confirmed by TLC analysis. Crude saponin isolated from red ginseng efflux extract contained 12.10% of saponin. whereas those of white ginseng and red-ginseng were 3.30 and 3.39%, respectively. Ginsenoside contents showed the highest contents kin crude saponin from red ginseng efflux extract. Expacilly, the ginsenoside-$Rb_{1}$ and Re showed the highest contents in red-ginseng efflux extract when compared with those of white ginseng and red ginseng crude saponins. And the other ginsenosides except ginsenoside-$Rb_{1}$ and -Re also showed the highest contents in red ginseng efflux extract. However, the ratio of PD saponin (Panaxadiol saponin: $Rb_{1}+Rb_{2}$+Rc+Rd) to PT saponin (panaxatriol: $Re+Rg_{1}$) showed almost the same level when compared with those of ginseng saponin fractions. Ratio of PD/PT from red ginseng efflux extract was 1.99. Ratios of PD/PT from white ginseng and red ginseng were 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Saponin purity, which was calculated by ratio percent of total ginsenoside to curde saponin content, was 45.90%. In case of white ginseng and red ginseng, the purities were 35.50 and 36.00%, respectively. However, by PHLC analysis, we confirmed that crude saponin isolated from red ginsengs. It suggested that crude saponin isolated from red ginseng ellux also would be useful component as ginseng saponins.

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Review of Red Ginseng in terms of Mechanisms for Pharmacodynamics and Toxicity (홍삼의 약리와 독성 기전에 대한 고찰)

  • Park, Yeong-Chul;Lim, Jung-Dae;Kim, Jong-Bong;Lee, Sundong
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.200-230
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A., white ginseng, has been used for thousands of years in Traditional Korean Medicine. Red ginseng can be made by a steaming process of white ginseng changing a variety of ginsenosides and ingredients such as dencichine. This article reviews red ginseng for mechanisms for pharmacodynamics and toxicity based on the content of ginseng's active ingredients, ginsenoside changed by steaming. Methods: The following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Science Direct and Chinese Scientific Journals full text database (CQVIP), and KSI (Korean Studies Information) from their respective inceptions to June 2012. Results: Compared with unsteamed ginseng, the content of ginsenosides Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, Rh1, Rh2 and Rk1 called red ginseng-specific ginsenosides increased after the steaming process. Different ginsenosides have shown a wide variety of effects such as lowering or raising blood sugar and blood pressure or stimulating or sedating the nervous system. Especially, the levels of Rg2, Rg3, Rg5, Rh1, Rh2 and Rk1 were increased by the steaming process, showing a variety of pharmacodynamics in biological systems. Also, various processing methods such as puffing and fermentation have been developed in processing crude ginseng or red ginseng, affecting the content of ginseng's ingredients. The safety issue could be the most critical, specifically, on changed ginseng's ingredients such as dencichine. The level of dencichine was significantly reduced in red ginseng by the steaming process. In addition, the possible toxicity for red ginseng was affected by cytochrome P450, a herbal-drug interaction. Conclusions: The variety of pharmacological and toxicological properties should be changed by steaming process of Panax ginseng C. A., white ginseng. Even if it is not sure whether the steaming process of white ginseng would be better pharmacologically, it is sure that steaming reduces the level of dencichine causing a lower toxicity to the nervous system.

Polyamine Constituents of Korea White Ginseng and Fresh Ginseng Root (한국산(韓國産) 백삼(白蔘)과 수삼(水蔘)의 Polyamine 성분에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Choong;Han, Dae-Suk;Cho, Hyun-Soo;Ahn, Sang-Mee;Huh, Hoon;Koo, Hyang-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.39-43
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    • 1983
  • Polyamine constituents of fresh Panax ginseng root and dried white ginseng were extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid, respectively. The isolation of polyamine constituents was conducted by the cation exchange chromatography using $Dowex-50W{\times}8$ resin and the detection was performed with TLC. Identification of the polyamine was carried out by the methods of IR, NMR, MS spectroscopy and GLC. Polyamine constituents of white and fresh ginseng root were identical and composed of five different polyamines. The major polyamine in white and fresh ginseng root was determined as putrescine.

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Inhibitory Effect of White Ginseng Fraction on Skin Pigmentation (피부에서의 백삼 분획물의 멜라닌 색소 저해효과)

  • Jo, Youn-Ock;Kong, Yeon-Hee;Lee, Young-Chul;Kim, Sung-Soo;Choi, Sang-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.192-194
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    • 2008
  • In our previous study, ethylacetate fraction of white ginseng (root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) extract inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity and melanin production in melanocytes. This study examined its effects on the expression of melanin biosynthesis-related enzymes to explore the depigmenting pathway. Moreover, depigmenting effect on animal skin was examined using UV-B induced hyperpigmented skin of brown guinea pigs. The ethylacetate fraction of the white ginseng extract exhibited depigmenting activity in the skin of brown guinea pig without visible edema. In addition, this fraction reduced tyrosinase expression in melanocytes. The results suggested that ethylacetate fraction of white ginseng extract might be used as skin depigmenting material by inhibition of tyrosinase activity and expression.

Comparative study of Various Ginseng Herbal Acupuncture - By measuring the increase of life span of mice and Expression of cytokine mRNA -

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok;Kim, Byung-Woo
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.203-210
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-cancer effects of various ginseng herbal acupuncture in mice and expression of cytokine mRNA. Methods: Anti-cancer effects of various ginseng herbal acupuncture were tested by measuring the increase of life span of mice suffering from peritoneal cancer induced by Sarcoma-180, and expression of mRNA manifestation using RT-PCR. The results are as follows: Results: 1. Increase of life span of mice suffering from peritoneal cancer induced by Sarcoma-180 was measured for anti-cancer effects. As a result, 115% increase was shown in the cultivated wild ginseng group, 11.1% increase in the red ginseng group, and no increase was detected in either white ginseng and fresh ginseng groups. 2. Measuring the expression of cytokine mRNA manifestation, expression of $interferon-{\gamma}$ was slightly increased in the cultivated wild ginseng group compared to the control group, but manifestation of interleukin-10 was slightly decreased. 3. For the red ginseng, white ginseng, and fresh ginseng experiment groups II, IL-2, IL-4, $INF-{\gamma}$, and IL -10 all showed increase suggesting possible error occurring during the test process. Conclusion: From the results obtained in this study, we can reason that the ginseng we use may not match the ginseng cited in the texts of the past. Anti-cancer effects of cultivated wild ginseng can be more potent than those of white and fresh ginseng.

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The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities In various year stored red and white ginsengs (panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) (저장(貯藏) 홍(紅)·백삼중(白蔘中) Phenol계(系) 화합물(化合物)의 함량(含量)과 항산화활성(抗酸化活性))

  • Kim, Young Ho;Yoon, Han Kyo;Chang, Kyu Seob
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.295-302
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    • 1984
  • The contents of phenolic compounds and its antioxidant activities were investigated in various year stored red and white ginsengs (panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) The results obtained were as follow; 1. Total content of phenolic compounds was lower in free phenolic fraction than in esterified phenolic fraction. 2. The content of free phenolic acid in long storage period was lower han that in short period but no significant difference was observed in esterified phenolic fraction. 3. Maltol, which constitute 50 to 80 percent of total phenolic acid in red and white ginseng. was higher in red ginseng than in white ginseng and was higher in long storage period. 4. Red ginseng showed higher antioxidant activity than white ginserg and no difference in varicus storage periods was observed.

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Color Characteristics of White Ginseng Powder As Influenced by Different Conditions of Sterilization and Storage (살균 및 저장조건을 달리한 백삼분말의 색 특성)

  • Kwon, Joong-Ho;Byun, Myung-Woo;Lee, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 1994
  • Color characteristics were investigated for white ginseng powder immediately and during storage following treatments of gamma ray or ethylene oxide (EO) for microbial decontamination. The variation in fatand water-soluble pigments of the sample was negligible immediately after both treatments, however an apparent increase was observed in the samples stored for four months at $25^{\circ}C$ and RH 90%, in the order of nontreated control, EO-fumigated, and 5 key-irradiated samples. Hunter's color a and b values of white ginseng powder increased slightly in proportion to irradiation doses, whereas EO fumigation caused a decrease in L value and an increase in a and b values of the sample, showing overall color difference (${\delta}^E$) of 1.8. Considering the higher ${\delta}^E$ in the higher RH conditions, airtight packaging and sterilization using like gamma ray were considered an effective means for maintaining high quality of color characteristics in stored white ginseng powder.

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Studies on Free Sugars in Various Ginseng Products and Acanthopanax by Gas Liquid Chromatography (Gas Liquid Chromatography에 의한 각종(各種) 인삼(人蔘) 제품(製品) 및 오가피(五加皮)의 유리당(遊離糖) 조성(組成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Sung-Woo;Kozukue, Nobuyuki;Bae, Hyo-Won;Yoon, Tai-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.273-277
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    • 1979
  • Free sugars in various ginseng products, Korean and Russian Acanthopanaxes were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. Ginseng products included Korean red ginseng, white ginseng with skin produced in Korea, Canada, and America, and extracts of red and white ginseng. ${\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-fructoses,\;{\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-glucoses$, galactose, sucrose, and ${\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-maltoses$ were identified in Korean and American white ginsengs with skin, and in Korean red ginseng. However ${\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-maltoses$ were not detected in Canadian white ginseng with skin. Total amount of sugars identified in white ginseng with skin was higher than that in red ginseng. ${\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-fructoses,\;{\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-glucoses$, galactose, sucrose and ${\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-maltoses$ were identified in red and white ginseng extracts. Fructose was a major sugar in red ginseng extract while it was sucrose in white ginseng extract. ${\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-glucoses$, galactose, sucrose and ${\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-maltoses$ were identified in Russian Acanthopanax, and their patterns were similar to that of ginseng, while ${\beta}-fructose,\;{\alpha}-\;and\;{\beta}-glucoses$ and sucrose were identified in Korean Acantopanax and total amount of sugars was only one third of that in Russian Acanthopanax.

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Anticarcinogenic Effect of Ginseng Powders Depending on the Types and Ages using Yun's Anticarcinogenicity Test (I) (벤조피렌으로 유도된 마우스 폐선종에 대한 인삼분말의 연근별 항발암효과)

  • Yun, Taik-Koo;Lee, Yun-Sil
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 1994
  • The authors have already shown that 6 year old red ginseng extract or its powder has remarkable anticarcinogenic effects. In this study, we further investigated whether fresh ginseng or white ginseng has similar anticarcinogenic effects and also if their anticarcinogenic effects are related to the types and ages of ginseng using Yun's anticarcinogenicity test (9 week medium term bioassay model). Dried fresh ginseng and red ginseng at 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years, and while ginseng at 3, 4, 5 and 6 years were used. The following results were obtained: 1) In the dried fresh ginseng treated groups, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by benzo(a)pyrene was 41.39) and its incidence was reduced to 31.2%, 30.0%, 31.3%, 30.7% and 27.8% after co-treatment with 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-dried fresh ginseng, respectively. A significant effect was observed only in 6 Year-dried fresh ginseng. 2) In the white ginseng treated groups, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by benzo(a)pyrene was 45.0% and its incidence decreased to 41.3%, 38.0%, 31.6%, and 25.3% after co-treatment with 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-white ginseng, respectively. Five and 6 year-ginsengs showed significant inhibition of lung adenoma. 3) In the red ginseng treated groups, the incidence of lung adenoma induced by benzo(a) pyrene was 48.6% and its incidence diminished to 37.9%, 41.7%, 31.7%, 28.3% and 25.5% after co-treat-melt with 1.5, 3, 4, 5 and 6 year-red ginseng, respectively. In 4, 5 and 6 year-ginsengs, the anticarcinogenic effect was prominent. From the above results, we concluded that a significant anticarcinogenic effect was observed in 6 year-dried fresh ginseng, 5 and 6 year-white ginsengs, and 4, 5 and 6 year-red ginsengs.

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