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Applying Meta-model Formalization of Part-Whole Relationship to UML: Experiment on Classification of Aggregation and Composition (UML의 부분-전체 관계에 대한 메타모델 형식화 이론의 적용: 집합연관 및 복합연관 판별 실험)

  • Kim, Taekyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.99-118
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    • 2015
  • Object-oriented programming languages have been widely selected for developing modern information systems. The use of concepts relating to object-oriented (OO, in short) programming has reduced efforts of reusing pre-existing codes, and the OO concepts have been proved to be a useful in interpreting system requirements. In line with this, we have witnessed that a modern conceptual modeling approach supports features of object-oriented programming. Unified Modeling Language or UML becomes one of de-facto standards for information system designers since the language provides a set of visual diagrams, comprehensive frameworks and flexible expressions. In a modeling process, UML users need to consider relationships between classes. Based on an explicit and clear representation of classes, the conceptual model from UML garners necessarily attributes and methods for guiding software engineers. Especially, identifying an association between a class of part and a class of whole is included in the standard grammar of UML. The representation of part-whole relationship is natural in a real world domain since many physical objects are perceived as part-whole relationship. In addition, even abstract concepts such as roles are easily identified by part-whole perception. It seems that a representation of part-whole in UML is reasonable and useful. However, it should be admitted that the use of UML is limited due to the lack of practical guidelines on how to identify a part-whole relationship and how to classify it into an aggregate- or a composite-association. Research efforts on developing the procedure knowledge is meaningful and timely in that misleading perception to part-whole relationship is hard to be filtered out in an initial conceptual modeling thus resulting in deterioration of system usability. The current method on identifying and classifying part-whole relationships is mainly counting on linguistic expression. This simple approach is rooted in the idea that a phrase of representing has-a constructs a par-whole perception between objects. If the relationship is strong, the association is classified as a composite association of part-whole relationship. In other cases, the relationship is an aggregate association. Admittedly, linguistic expressions contain clues for part-whole relationships; therefore, the approach is reasonable and cost-effective in general. Nevertheless, it does not cover concerns on accuracy and theoretical legitimacy. Research efforts on developing guidelines for part-whole identification and classification has not been accumulated sufficient achievements to solve this issue. The purpose of this study is to provide step-by-step guidelines for identifying and classifying part-whole relationships in the context of UML use. Based on the theoretical work on Meta-model Formalization, self-check forms that help conceptual modelers work on part-whole classes are developed. To evaluate the performance of suggested idea, an experiment approach was adopted. The findings show that UML users obtain better results with the guidelines based on Meta-model Formalization compared to a natural language classification scheme conventionally recommended by UML theorists. This study contributed to the stream of research effort about part-whole relationships by extending applicability of Meta-model Formalization. Compared to traditional approaches that target to establish criterion for evaluating a result of conceptual modeling, this study expands the scope to a process of modeling. Traditional theories on evaluation of part-whole relationship in the context of conceptual modeling aim to rule out incomplete or wrong representations. It is posed that qualification is still important; but, the lack of consideration on providing a practical alternative may reduce appropriateness of posterior inspection for modelers who want to reduce errors or misperceptions about part-whole identification and classification. The findings of this study can be further developed by introducing more comprehensive variables and real-world settings. In addition, it is highly recommended to replicate and extend the suggested idea of utilizing Meta-model formalization by creating different alternative forms of guidelines including plugins for integrated development environments.

Dispute of Part-Whole Representation in Conceptual Modeling (부분-전체 관계에 관한 개념적 모델링의 논의에 관하여)

  • Kim, Taekyung;Park, Jinsoo;Rho, Sangkyu
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.97-116
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    • 2012
  • Conceptual modeling is an important step for successful system development. It helps system designers and business practitioners share the same view on domain knowledge. If the work is successful, a result of conceptual modeling can be beneficial in increasing productivity and reducing failures. However, the value of conceptual modeling is unlikely to be evaluated uniformly because we are lack of agreement on how to elicit concepts and how to represent those with conceptual modeling constructs. Especially, designing relationships between components, also known as part-whole relationships, have been regarded as complicated work. The recent study, "Representing Part-Whole Relations in Conceptual Modeling : An Empirical Evaluation" (Shanks et al., 2008), published in MIS Quarterly, can be regarded as one of positive efforts. Not only the study is one of few attempts of trying to clarify how to select modeling alternatives in part-whole design, but also it shows results based on an empirical experiment. Shanks et al. argue that there are two modeling alternatives to represent part-whole relationships : an implicit representation and an explicit one. By conducting an experiment, they insist that the explicit representation increases the value of a conceptual model. Moreover, Shanks et al. justify their findings by citing the BWW ontology. Recently, the study from Shanks et al. faces criticism. Allen and March (2012) argue that Shanks et al.'s experiment is lack of validity and reliability since the experimental setting suffers from error-prone and self-defensive design. They point out that the experiment is intentionally fabricated to support the idea, as such that using concrete UML concepts results in positive results in understanding models. Additionally, Allen and March add that the experiment failed to consider boundary conditions; thus reducing credibility. Shanks and Weber (2012) contradict flatly the argument suggested by Allen and March (2012). To defend, they posit the BWW ontology is righteously applied in supporting the research. Moreover, the experiment, they insist, can be fairly acceptable. Therefore, Shanks and Weber argue that Allen and March distort the true value of Shanks et al. by pointing out minor limitations. In this study, we try to investigate the dispute around Shanks et al. in order to answer to the following question : "What is the proper value of the study conducted by Shanks et al.?" More profoundly, we question whether or not using the BWW ontology can be the only viable option of exploring better conceptual modeling methods and procedures. To understand key issues around the dispute, first we reviewed previous studies relating to the BWW ontology. We critically reviewed both of Shanks and Weber and Allen and March. With those findings, we further discuss theories on part-whole (or part-of) relationships that are rarely treated in the dispute. As a result, we found three additional evidences that are not sufficiently covered by the dispute. The main focus of the dispute is on the errors of experimental methods: Shanks et al. did not use Bunge's Ontology properly; the refutation of a paradigm shift is lack of concrete, logical rationale; the conceptualization on part-whole relations should be reformed. Conclusively, Allen and March indicate properly issues that weaken the value of Shanks et al. In general, their criticism is reasonable; however, they do not provide sufficient answers how to anchor future studies on part-whole relationships. We argue that the use of the BWW ontology should be rigorously evaluated by its original philosophical rationales surrounding part-whole existence. Moreover, conceptual modeling on the part-whole phenomena should be investigated with more plentiful lens of alternative theories. The criticism on Shanks et al. should not be regarded as a contradiction on evaluating modeling methods of alternative part-whole representations. To the contrary, it should be viewed as a call for research on usable and useful approaches to increase value of conceptual modeling.

Neuroprotective Effects of Plant Extracts from Baekdu Mountain on Glutamate-induced Cytotoxicity in HT22 cells (글루타메이트로 유발한 HT22세포 독성에 대한 백두산 식물 추출물의 보호 효과)

  • Li, Bin;Jeong, Gil-Saeng;An, Ren-Bo;Lee, Dong-Sung;Byun, Erisa;Yoon, Kwon-Ha;Kim, Youn-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.213-217
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    • 2008
  • Oxidative stress is considered to play an important role in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders of central nervous system. The immortalized mouse hippocampal cell line, HT22, phenotypically resembles neuronal precursor cells but lacks functional ionotropic glutamate receptors, thus excluding excitotoxicity as a cause for glutamate triggered cell death. Therefore, HT22 cells are a useful model for studying oxidative glutamate toxicity. In this study, we examined whether the methanol extracts of some native plants at Mt. Baekdu could protect HT22-immortalized hippocampal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress. Seventy-eight plants sources were collected at Mt. Baekdu, and extracted with methanol. These extracts had been screened the protective effects against glutamate-induced oxidative damage in HT22 cells at the 100 and 300 ${\mu}g/ml$. Of these, thirteen methanolic extracts, Acer mono (leaf), Artemisia stolonifera (aerial part), Carduus crispus (aerial part), Carex mongolica (whole plant), Clematis hexapetala (whole plant), Galeopsis bifida (aerial part), Galium verum (whole plant), Ganoderma lucidum (whole plant), Ixeris chinensis (whole plant), Malva verticillata (aerial part), Polygonum senticosum (whole plant), Rebes mandshricum (branch), and Taraxacum mongolicum (aerial part), showed significant protective effects against glutamate-induced oxidative damage in HT22 cells.

New Korean Traditional Papermaking from Paper Mulberry(III)-Properties of the Hanjis Mixed with Bast Part and Whole Stalk Pulps- (닥나무를 이용한 새로운 한지의 제조(제3보)-인피부 및 전간부 펄프 혼합초지 한지의 특성-)

  • 최태호;조남석
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.85-95
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    • 1998
  • Traditionally, Hanji had been made only with the bast fiber of paper mulberry (Broussonetia kazinoki). Nowadays, Hanji has been made mainly in the mixed forms of paper mulberry bast fiber and waste paper, and consequently it has raised many problems using them. This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of Hanji mixed with paper mulberry bast part and whole stalk pulps. Hanjis made from the solfomethylated pulp were shown higher brightness and sheet strengths than those from alkali and alkali-hydrogen peroxide pulps. The brightness of solfomethylated pulp was found to be high enough not to need additional bleaching. The sheet formations were improved as the increase of whole stalk pulp contents, while the sheet strengths were decreased. In the physical properties of the Hanji mixed with bast part and whole stalk pulps, the handsheet strengths were decreased as the increase of the whole stalk pulp contents. The tensile strength and folding endurance of the Hanji containing 40∼60% of whole stalk pulps were higher as compared to the others.

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A Study on the Application of the FRBR Model to Newspaper (신문의 FRBR 모형 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Inho
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.333-349
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    • 2015
  • This study examined the application of the FRBR model to newspapers and news articles. In order to meet the purpose that was mentioned above, we analyzed data items based on the level of newspapers and articles and discussed how the FRBR model may be applied. In terms of the level of a newspaper, each of newspapers, morning/evening paper, issue and edition are regarded as an individual work, and the relationship among them are considered to be the 'whole-part relationship'. Each article on the level of article basis was considered to be a work and was in a relationship of 'whole-part relationship' with the edition of each level of newspapers. Newspaper articles can be represented as texts, photographs, graphics, and tables, etc., and regarded as an individual work. Each work can be a part of the article on a newspaper or can be an independent article itself. Moreover, a uniform heading of each boxed article and running story is included in the work of each article and is forming a 'whole-part relationship'. Because of the changes of the newspaper name, the uniform title of each name regarded as a single binding. It is called the superwork and it is forming 'whole-part relationship' with each name.

Valuation of Nonmarketed Goods: WTP and Part-Whole Bias in CV Studies (비시장재의 가치평가 : WTP의 추정과 부분-전체 편의의 검토)

  • 박용치
    • Survey Research
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2002
  • Part-whole bias in contingent-valuation studies is a possible explanation for non-use contingent-valuation estimates that are insensitive to marginal changes in environmental commodities. To increase the quality of river water, it is tested how much WTP is paid and is tested whether there is a part-whole bias in this contingent studies. An empirical test of the component sensitivity is provided. This test rejects the hypothesis that respondents are insensitive to the scope of the good being valued. WTP estimated in this paper is 5,435.69 won for Hangang model, and 7,182.68 won for 4-river model. And it might be concluded that part-whole bias exists and it is mainly attributed to substitution and net-benefit effects.

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A Study on the Evaluation of Structural Properties of Wind Turbine Blade-Part2 (풍력터빈의 구조특성 평가에 관한 연구-Part2)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Soo;Huque, Ziaul;Kommalapati, Raghava;Han, Sang-Eul
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2015
  • This paper presents the structural model verification process of whole wind turbine blade including blade model which proposed in Part1 paper. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI wind turbine which the wind tunnel and structural test data has publicly available is used for the study. In the Part1 of this paper, the processes of structural model development and verification process of blade only are introduced. The whole wind turbine composed by blade, rotor, nacelle and tower. Even though NREL has reported the measured values, the material properties of blade and machinery parts are not clear but should be tested. Compared with the other parts, the tower which made by steel pipe is rather simple. Since it does not need any considerations. By the help of simple eigen-value analysis, the accuracy of structural stiffness and mass value of whole wind turbine system was verified by comparing with NREL's reported value. NREL has reported the natural frequency of blade, whole turbine, turbine without blade and tower only models. According to the comparative studies, the proposed material and mass properties are within acceptable range, but need to be discussing in future studies, because our material properties of blade does not match with NREL's measured values.

An Analysis of Third Graders' Understanding on the Part-Whole Fraction Concept (3학년 학생들의 전체-부분으로서의 분수에 대한 이해 분석)

  • Kim, Yu-Kyung;Pang, Jeong-Suk
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.311-329
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    • 2012
  • This study analyzed third graders' understanding on the part-whole fraction concept in both the continuous and the discrete contexts. A set of problems were developed as an equivalent form to compare and contrast students' understanding of fraction in the two contexts. Unexpectedly, the results of this study showed that students' performance in the continuous contexts was slightly lower than their performance in the discrete contexts. Students tended to use different strategies depending on the contexts and they had difficulties in applying what they knew in the new contexts. On the basis of the detailed analyses about students' difficulties and their sources, this paper provides information on how to construct curricular materials and how to teach the basic concepts related to the part-whole fraction.

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Comparative Study of the Mechanical Property of Shaping and WholeGarment Knit Wear - Focused on Armhole Part in Knit Pullover - (봉제형과 무봉제형 니트웨어 제품의 역학적 특성 비교 연구 - 니트 풀오버의 암홀부분을 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Wonjung;Lee, Yoojin
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.179-196
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    • 2013
  • This research is about the mechanical properties of knit pullover of Shaping and WholeGarment according to structured patterns and form of the armhole. For the study 12 samples are prepared under different conditions and through comparative analysis of each sample's armhole around armpit in basic properties, tensile strength & elongation and residual elongation after repeated extensions, the conclusion is as follows. As a result of comparing basic properties of structured pattern of Shaping and WholeGarment samples, in all structured patterns Shaping samples weighed more. According to the comparative analysis of tensile strength & elongation of Shaping and WholeGarment samples, Machi on both sides of WholeGarment samples showed the highest strength. By comparing outcome of residual elongation by structured pattern of Shaping and WholeGarment samples, both types were observed to have the residual elongation increase in the order of Plain

Development of Spatial Geometry Cognition in 3-, 4-, and 5-Year-Old (3, 4, 5세 유아의 공간기하 인지 발달)

  • Kim, Bokyung;Yi, Soon Hyung
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.125-140
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    • 2017
  • This study composed spatial cognition tasks within the system of geometric area to study children's spatial cognition development systematically. It surveyed children's execution of direction, rotation, symmetry, conjugation, and part/whole cognition tasks. A spatial geometry cognition task set (consisting of total 27 sub-tasks) was presented to 60 children (20 each in groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old) in order to confirm how children's execution of spatial geometry cognition changed depending on children's age and sex as well as if the execution of the spatial geometry cognition showed a difference after each task area. As a result, the execution of the whole direction task and the part/whole task gradually increased between age 3 and age 5. The execution of the whole rotation task, whole symmetry task, and whole conjugation task rapidly increased between age 3 and age 4. Significant sexual difference did not appear in the execution of spatial geometry cognition tasks. The execution of the conjugation and part/whole task was high in each task area, and the execution of the direction, rotation, and symmetry task was relatively low. In addition, the difference of task execution appeared in the sub-tasks of direction, symmetry, and conjugation areas. This result suggests the theoretical discussion possibility of children's spatial geometry cognition development. In addition, the empirical results of this study can be applied to child education plans and activity compositions appropriate for child development.