• Title, Summary, Keyword: wild Avena fatua

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Effects of different densities of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and nitrogen rates on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) yield

  • Kazemeini, Seyed Abdolreza;Naderi, Ruhollah;Aliabadi, Hadis Karimi
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2013
  • A Two-year field experiment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the effects of different densities of wild oat and nitrogen (N) rates on oilseed rape yield and yield components. Experimental design was split plot with three replications. Increased nitrogen rates up to 150 kg N/ha caused an increase in oilseed rape grain yield in weed-free plots (4.26 t/ha; 1t = $10^3kg$), while even at the lowest density of wild oat (15 $plants/m^2$), increasing N fertilizer only up to 50 kg/ha led to a significant increase in grain yield. Wild oat growth was favored by high levels of N. Intraspecific competition reduced biomass, 100-seed weight and number of tillers of wild oat. Both lower N rate and intraspecific competition had negative effect on wild oat growth but the weed was still able to produce a considerable number of tillers and vigorous seeds. It showed that wild oat possess a notable adaptive plasticity and can allocate a greater proportion of its resource toward reproductive organs even under resource shortage conditions and, thus, it may increase the competitive ability of the weed over the crop.Our results suggest that effective weed management should be done to prevent wild oat seed production in crops preceding oilseed rape as well as to control the weed at early season in oilseed rape fields.

Effect of mixtures of gibberellic acid and several herbicides on the herbicidal activity against wild oat (Avena fatua L.) (Gibberellic acid와 여러 가지 제초제와의 혼합처리가 메귀리에 대한 제초활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Seog;Choi, Jung-Sup;Hong, Kyung-Sik;Cho, Kwang-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 1998
  • Based on the differential growth response to exogenous gibberellic acid ($GA_{3}$) between semi-dwarf wheat(Triticum aestivum) and wild oat(Avena fatua), we examined the possibility of improving the selective performance of several herbicides by $GA_{3}$ application and the physiological background of $GA_{3}$-induced increase in herbicidal activity. Growth of wild oat was 4 to 5 times higher than that of wheat by $GA_{3}$ treatment. Pretreatment of wild oat seed with 300 ppm $GA_{3}$ increased the herbicidal activities of trifluralin and isoproturon by soil-surface application, but not of alachor and metsulfuron-methyl. $GA_{3}$ applied simultaneously with post-emergence herbicides resulted in a significant or moderate improvement of the efficacy of such herbicides as tralkoxydim, fenoxaprop-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, metribuzine and isoproturon, but not in the mixtures of oxyfluorfen or paraquat with $GA_{3}$. In the sequencial treatment of tralkoxydim and $GA_{3}$ at interval of one-day, $GA_{3}$ applied prior to tralkoxydim significantly increased a chlorosis and desiccation of leaf without affecting the growth inhibition by tralkoxydim. Tralkoxydim followed by $GA_{3}$ application had lower herbicidal activity than that of $GA_{3}$ followed by tralkoxydim treatment. Electrolyte leakage response of $GA_{3}$-pretreated or $GA_{3}$-untreated wild oat leaf against several compounds inducing membrane. peroxidation was compared. Differencial responses were observed in oxyfluorfen and isoproturon treatments with an increased electrolyte leakage in $GA_{3}$-pretreated tissue, but not in paraquat and rose bengal treatments. These results suggest that $GA_{3}$-induced increase in herbicidal activity is likely to be dependent on a herbicide type and may be due to activation of a metabolic ability related with herbicidal reponse as well as an increase in the herbicide absorbtion and translocation, rather than due to membrane and cell wall extention induced by $GA_{3}$, which in turn makes the herbicides easily enter.

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Phytosociological Study on the Vegetation of Sand Dune in Shindoori Seashore (신두리 해안 사구지 식생의 식물사회학적 연구)

  • Ahn, Young-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2003
  • Shindoori dune, about 2,000,000$m^2$ in area, is located in the west of the middle area in Korea. Around the sand dune, many diagnostic plants and animals are populated, so it is considered a very important ecosystematic area. This study was carried out to establish for conservation and restoration in Shindoori dune. Our surveys have been accomplished from October, 2002 to September, 2003. Plant communities formed around the sand dune in Shindoori were divided into several patterns and analysed. They have been divided into 9 communities. Community A : Carex pumila community, B : Carex kobomugi community, C : Elymus moWs community, D : Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii community, E: Rosa rugosa community, F: Ischaemum anthephoroides community, G: Vitex rotundifolia community, H : Lathyrus japonica community, I : Oenothera biennis community. The flora surveyed in these communities was constituted of 19 families, 44 genera, 8 varieties, and 40 species. Wild plants such as Calystegia soldanella, Artemisia capillaris, Avena fatua, Mertensia asiatica, Glehnia littoralis and Zoysia sinica were mostly light loving plants and higher resistant plants against the salty wind. Our result from the ranking all surveyed areas by the Bray-Curtis ordination method was very similar to the results from phytosocialogical table work.

Collection, Conservation and Characteristics Investigation of Pasture Plant Genetic Resources (목초자원(牧草資源)의 수집(蒐集) 보존(保存) 및 특성조사(特性調査))

  • Lee, Byung Hyun;Jo, Jin Ki
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.8
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 1990
  • Wild plants which have potential availability as pasture plants were collected from around Kyungpook province. Plants collected were cultivated in the university farm and their characteristics were investigated and recorded. Seeds of pasture plant resources collected were selected, weighed for 1,000 grains, packaged and stored at $4^{\circ}C$. Species of collected were as follows. Gramineous plants are Cymbopogon totilis var, goeringii Hand Mazz, Pennisetum akioecyriudes L., Dactylis glomerata L., Agropyron tsukushience var transiens Ohwi, Arundinella hirta Tanaka, Themeda triandra var., japonica Makino, Miscanthus sinensis Anderss, Setaria virides L., Digitaria sanguinalis L., Imperata cylindrica var. Koenigii Retz, Cynodon dactylon Pers, Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea Wight, and Avena fatua L., and leguminous plants are Vicia angustrifolia var. segetilis Koch, Kummerowia stipulacea Makino, Kummerowia striata Schindl, Trifolium repens L., Melilotus officinalish L., and Astragalus sinicus L..

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