• Title, Summary, Keyword: withdrawal period

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Effects of Changes of Climate, Groundwater Withdrawal, and Landuse on Total Flow During Dry Period (기후, 지하수 취수 및 토지이용 변화의 건기 총유출량에 대한 영향)

  • Lee, Kil-Seong;Chung, Eun-Sung;Shin, Mun-Ju
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.923-934
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    • 2006
  • In this study, the effects of variability in climate, groundwater withdrawal, and landuse on dry-weather streamflows were investigated by input sensitivity analysis using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Since only dry-period precipitation and daily average solar radiation among climate variables have high correlation coefficients to total flow (TF), sensitivity analyses of those were conducted. Furthermore, an equation was derived from simulation results for 30 years by multiple regression analysis. It may be used to estimate effects of various climatic variations (precipitation during the dry period, precipitation during the previous wet period, solar radiation, and maximum temperature). If daily average maximum temperatures increase, TFs during the dry period will decrease. Sensitivities of groundwater withdrawal and landuse were also conducted. Similarly, groundwater withdrawals strongly affect streamflow during the dry period. However, landuse changes (increasing urbanization) within the forested watershed do not appear to significantly affect TF during the dry period. Finally, a combined equation was derived that describes the relationship between the total runoff during the dry period and the climate, groundwater withdrawal and urban area proportion. The proposed equation will be useful to predict the water availability during the dry period in the future since it is dependent upon changes of temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, urban area ratio, and groundwater withdrawal.

Metastatic papillary thyroid cancers with malignant pleural effusion aggravated during thyroid hormone withdrawal for radioiodine therapy

  • Seo, Ji Hye;Je, Ji Hye;Lee, Hyun Jung;Na, Young Ju;Jeong, Il Woo;An, Jee Hyun;Kim, Sin Gon;Choi, Dong Seop;Kim, Nam Hoon
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.138-142
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    • 2015
  • L-thyroxine (LT4) withdrawal prior to radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy is a commonly used method for successful treatment of patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, a prolonged period of hypothyroidism induced by LT4 withdrawal is sometimes associated with impaired quality of life and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in PTC patients. Furthermore, LT4 withdrawal may have a trophic effect on residual cancer by means of increased thyrotropin. We report on 2 cases of metastatic PTC patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) whose disease showed rapid worsening after LT4 withdrawal and RAI therapy. The first case is a 65-year-old woman who had PTC with multiple distant metastases and MPE. During LT4 withdrawal for RAI therapy, MPE showed rapid worsening, and the patient required repetitive therapeutic thoracentesis. The second case is a 49-year-old woman with PTC who underwent 3 additional operations for cancer recurrence in the neck lymph nodes and 6 times of RAI treatments. While preparing for the $7^{th}$ RAI treatment by withdrawing LT4, she developed MPE which became progressively aggravated after RAI therapy. Both patients experienced increased pleural effusion during the LT4 withdrawal period and a rise in the thyroglobulin level was observed after RAI therapy. MPE was not controlled with therapeutic thoracentesis and pleurodesis. Eventually, both patients died of rapid disease progression after RAI therapy. In summary, LT4 withdrawal may have an adverse effect on metastatic PTC patients, particularly those with MPE.

The Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effects of Saffron Extract and Crocin on Ethanol Withdrawal Syndrome in Mice

  • Shoja, Maryam;Mehri, Soghra;Amin, Bahareh;Askari, Vahid Reza;Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.277-283
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Ethanol withdrawal following its chronic use is a serious outcome and challenging to treatment. The chronic use of ethanol induces a progressive neuroplasticity in different reigns of brain. In this study we evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and its active compound, crocin, on the withdrawal behavior induced after repeated administration of ethanol, in two regimens of prophylactic (administration of drugs concomitant with the induction of dependence) and treatment (administration of drugs during the period of ethanol withdrawal) in mice which received ethanol. Methods: Ethanol dependence was induced by oral administration of 10% v/v ethanol (2 g/kg) for 7 days. The aqueous extracts of saffron (40, 80 and 160) and crocin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) were administered to mice in two regimens of prophylactic (along with ethanol) and treatment (during withdrawal period). Diazepam (1 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Six hours after discontinuation of the ethanol, seizure was evaluated by the sub-convulsive dose of pentyleneltetrazole (PTZ) (30 mg/kg). The open field test and Rota rod test were used for evaluation of locomotor activity and motor incoordination, respectively. Results: Both extracts and crocin increased the number of crossed lined in the open field test. PTZ kindling seizure was inhibited in animals received extract (80 and 160 mg/kg) in both regimens. Motor incoordination was only improved following administration of crocin. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of saffron and crocin can be considered as safe agents and reliable alternative to diazepam in management of ethanol withdrawal syndrome.

Effects of Dietary Arsenical Inclusion on Lipid Metabolism and Liver Function in Mule Ducks

  • Chen, Kuo-Lung;Chiou, Peter W.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.412-417
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    • 2006
  • This study evaluated the effectiveness of different arsenical sources on inducing fatty liver, on changes in lipid metabolism and on liver function in mule ducks. Sixty twelve-week-old mule ducks were selected and randomly divided into five treatments, including the control group and four different arsenical sources; Roxarsone (300 mg/kg), arsanilic acid, $As_2O_5$ or $As_2O_3$, containing 85.2 mg/kg arsenic were included in the basal diet. The ducks were fed the medicated basal diet for 3 weeks followed by a one-week drug withdrawal. The results showed Roxarsone treatment decreased body weight, feed intake, liver weight and abdominal fat weight (p<0.05), while it increased the relative liver weight (p<0.05) during medication period ($3^{rd}$ week). The $As_2O_5$ treatment decreased abdominal fat weight and relative abdominal fat weight when compared to the control (p<0.05). Only Roxarsone among the treatment groups increased feed intake, liver weight and relative liver weight, while the $As_2O_3$ group showed the lightest liver weight and relative liver weight among treatment groups during the withdrawal period ($4^{th}$ week). The Roxarsone group decreased (p<0.05) NADP-malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activities and increased (p<0.05) cholesterol concentration during the medication period, and elevated the MDH and ACC activities during the withdrawal period. All four arsenical treatment groups showed lymphocytic infiltration in liver tissue, while the Roxarsone and $As_2O_3$ treatments showed an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities (p<0.05). During the withdrawal period, arsenical treatments resulted in liver vacuoles. However, the arsenicals differed in effectiveness and mechanisms of inducing fat vacuoles.

Effect of the Length of Feed Withdrawal on Weight Loss, Yield and Meat Color of Broiler

  • Kim, D.H.;Yoo, Y.M.;Kim, S.H.;Jang, B.G.;Park, B.Y.;Cho, S.H.;Seong, P.N.;Hah, K.H.;Lee, J.M.;Kim, Y.K.;Hwang, I.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 2007
  • The current study was conducted to determine the optimum length of feed withdrawal for pre-harvest broilers. A total of three hundred broilers were sampled from an industrial population, and 30 chicks for each weight group (e.g., 1.5 and 2.5 kg) were randomly assigned to feed withdrawal treatments for 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Weight loss, yield, muscle pH, objective meat color and weights of gastro intestinal contents, crop, gizzard, provenriculus, small intestine, caecum, and rectum were determined. Live weight loss was significantly (p<0.05) increased as length of feed withdrawal extended. A significant (p<0.05) carcass yield for both 1.5 and 2.5 kg groups coincided after 9 and 6 h feed withdrawal, respectively. Net weights of intestinal contents for crop and gizzard were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 6 h, and the reduction for proventriculus and small intestine occurred from 3 h. A noticeable effect of feed withdrawal on pH for breast muscle at 3 h postmortem occurred only when chicks were fasted for 3 h of which pH (6.05) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that for other groups including the control (5.74). There was a linear tendency of higher lightness (Hunter L* value) numerically for chicks fasted for longer periods. The highest coefficient of determinations of regression models to estimate weight loss as a function of fasting period and body weights were achieved, when the models included both linear and quadratic terms for fasting period, and linear term for both 1.5 ($R^2=0.76$) and 2.5 kg ($R^2=0.78$) body weight groups. Given the practical aspect, approximately 1.5 kg of body weight is dominant, weight loss could be predicted by the following function; live weight $loss=26.6-0.28{\times}(fasting period)^2+12.34{\times}pasting\;period-0.012{\times}body\;weight$, $R^2=0.76$. Current data implied that the optimum fasting time for pre-slaughter chicks varied depending on slaughter weight; 6 and 9-h fasting were recommendable for 2.5 and 1.5 kg chicks, with little effect on objective meat color.

A Study on Voice Analysis by Withdrawal Symptoms Identification of Smartphone Addiction : 20 Male College Students (스마트폰 중독의 금단 현상에 따른 음성 분석 연구 : 20대 남성 대학생을 대상으로)

  • Kim, Bong-Hyun;Ka, Min-Kyoung;Cho, Dong-Uk
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.38C no.3
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, voice analysis is performed to propose a quantitative indication of withdrawal symptoms of smartphone addiction, applied to 20 males in their 20s. For this, their smartphones were confiscated during a certain period, and we collected samples of voice signals from them before and after that period. The pitch variation and intensity magnitude of the voice samples were used in the experiment to investigate their anxiety resulted from withdrawal symptoms. The experimental results showed an increase in pitch variation from 90% of samples, and a decrease in intensity magnitude from 95% of them. Finally, we carried out a study to find a statistical significance from the extracted experimental results through statistical analysis.

A study on the drug residues in the raw milk collected over the withdrawal period after mastitis treatment using TTC-II test and delvotest SP (유방염 치료후 휴약기간이 지난 원유내 잔류약제에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Jeong-hun;Kim, Jin-suk;Lee, Won-chang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.609-615
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    • 1999
  • From July of 1997 to June of 1998, total 279 raw milk samples over withdrawal period after mastitis treatment from dairy farms located in the provinces of Kyonggi and Choongchung were collected to test drug residues. Each sample was tested by TTC- II test and Delvotest SP. Among the total 152 raw milk samples of cow treated by ${\beta}$-lactams, 32 samples(21.2%) were positive on the Delvotest and 15 samples(9.9%) showed positive on the TTC-II test. Also, from the total 37 samples treated by sulfonamides, 5 samples(13.5%) were positive on the Delvotest and 3 samples(8.1%) showed positive on the TTC-II test. For the total 55 raw milk samples of cow treated by tetracyclines, 9 samples(16.4%) were positive on the Delvotest and 5 samples(9.1%) showed positive on the TTC-II test. In addition, from the total 35 samples treated by aminoglycosides, 7 samples(20.0%) were positive on the Delvotest and 5 samples(14.3%) showed positive on the TTC-II test. Our study shows that it is possible that drugs are to be detected by the drug residues test of an individual raw milk even over the withdrawal period after mastitis treatment and the raw milk of bulk tank.

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Phosphorus Cycle in Three Herb Plant Populations in the Basin of Mt. Geumoh (금오산 분지의 삼종 초본식물개체군의 인의 순경)

  • 류승원
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.299-309
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    • 1987
  • The seasonal pattern and the annual magnitude of the internal (or biochemical) and plant-soil cycles of phophorus in adjacent three different herb plant populations-Helianthus tuberosus L., Artemisia princeps Pampan and Phalaris anundinacea L.-in an old field of the basin in the Mt. Geumoh were investigated. A lot of the phosphorus demand for the three populations was supplied by the withdrawal from below-ground organ in early growing period, by the absorption from soil in mid-growing period and by the withdrawal from stem in later growing period. But in the A. princeps and P. arundianacea populations, a great deal of phosphorus seemed to be absorbed prior to the first withdrawal. The annual amount of the phosphorus flowing throughthe internal cycle was about 59% of the total hosphorus flow on theorgan level in the H. tuberosus population, 41% in the A. princeps population and 32% in the P. arundinacea population, indicating that the tuber plant had the most developed internal cycle system. The annual amount of phosphorus which took part in the plant-soil cycle in the stand of the three populations was in the range of 4.49-5.65 gPm-2, corresponding to only 3-8% of the extractable phosphorus contained in the soil of 0-20 cm depth. The fact that the H. tuberosus population is higher in the extent fo internal cycle but smaller in the magnitude of plant-soil cycle and lower in the turnover rate of phsophorus than the other two populations suggests that the growth of H. tuberosus population may be less dependent on soil phosphorus availability than those of the other two populations.

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Application of ELISA for the Detection of Penicillin Antibiotic Residues in Live Animal

  • Lee, H.J.;Lee, M.H.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1604-1608
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    • 2000
  • Penicillin antibiotics such as penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin have been widely used in the pig industry to control salmonellosis, bacterial pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Extensive use of antibiotics in veterinary clinics has resulted in tissue residues and bacterial resistance. To prevent unwanted drug residues entering the human food chain, extensive control measures have been established by both government authorities and industries. The demands for reliable, simple, sensitive, rapid and low-cost methods for residue analysis of foods are increasing. In this study, we established a rapid prediction test for the detection of pigs with unacceptable tissue residues of penicillins. The recommended therapeutic doses of three penicillins, penillin G (withdrawal time, 7 days), ampicillin (withdrawal time, 7 days) and amoxicillin (withdrawal time, 14 days), were administered to three groups of 20 pigs each. Blood was sampled before drug administration and during the withdrawal period. The concentration of penicillins in plasma, determined by a semi-quantitative ELISA, were compared to that of internal standard, 4 ppb, which corresponded to the Maximum Residue Limit in milk. The absorbance ratio of internal standard to sample (B/Bs) was employed as an index to determine whether drug residues in pig tissues were negative or positive. That is, a B/Bs ratio less than 1 was considered residue positive, and larger than 1 negative. All 60 plasma samples from pigs were negative to three penicillins at pretreatment. Penicillin G could be detected in the plasma of the treated pigs until day 4 post-treatment and ampicillin until day 2, whereas amoxicillin could be detected until day 10 of its withdrawal period. The present study showed that the semi-quantitative ELISA could be easily adapted to detect residues of penicillin antibiotics (penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin) in live pigs.

Withdrawal Time of Enrofloxacin in Oliver Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) after Oral Administration (양식 넙치 (Paralichthys olivaceus)의 Enrofloxacin 휴약기간)

  • Kim Poong-Ho;Lee Hee-Jung;Jo Mi-Ra;Lee Tae-Seek;Ha Jin-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.72-77
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    • 2006
  • Enrofloxacin (ENRO) is one of the most commonly used fluoroquinolones for treating bacterial disease in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) farming, but its withdrawal time for industrial-scale farming has not been well established. Withdrawal times of ENRO following oral administration were evaluated in olive flounder under field conditions. Fish were held in an inland fish tank and fed a commercial mediated diet containing 5 mg/kg of ENRO for 9 days. Seven fish per sampling point were examined during and after treatment. ENRO and its major metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIP), were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The concentration of ENRO and CIP in muscle increased during the medication period, and then decreased rapidly The sum of ENRO and CIP concentration in olive flounder peaked on day 6, with a maximal concentration in muscle of 4.30 mg/kg. ENRO residues were eliminated rapidly; at 10 days post treatment, the level in muscle was 0.10 mg/kg, but it took about 50 days to be reduced to below 0.1 mg/kg. After 60 days, the residual concentration was below 0.1 mg/kg in all samples. The level of ENRO accumulation at the beginning of oral administration was variable, according to the farming conditions, but the overall exhaustion time was almost the same. We concluded that an adequate withdrawal period of enrofloxacin is 60 days in the case of oral administration.