This paper describes why maternity nursing need to be extended and expanded to women's health nursing. Women's health nursing was developed and influenced by philosophical reasoning such as existentialism, feminism, and postmodernism. Also social changes accelerated to progress the maternity nursing to women's health nursing. Reproductive health is the core concept of women's health nursing as well as maternity nursing. The major content of women's health nursing includes maternity nursing area. Thus those researchers who study women's health nursing should take initiative role in multidisciplinary researches to solve health problem and improve the quality of women's life.
Purpose: To explore trends of women's health in nursing research by analyzing articles on women aged 13 years or older that were published in Korean Journal for Women Health Nursing from 2010 to 2015. Methods: Seven focus areas were identified and modified to reflect integrative conceptual models of women's health: maternity care, menstrual concerns, health problems in women, gender influences on health risks, social influences on women's health, women and health care policy, and sexual health and violence against women. A total of 383 studies were analyzed according to these seven focus areas. Results: Health problems in women, maternity care, and societal influences on women's health were the most widely studied topics in Korean women's health. There was increased attention to societal influences on women's health and gender influences on health risk. However, these areas are still limited in nursing research. Only 1% of these studies were in area of women's health policy. Conclusion: More studies in area of sexual health and violence against women are needed. Studies in area of women and health care policy are also needed to improve women's health in Korea.
There has recently been an increased interest in women's health from, various disciplines, with different perspectives presented according to each profession's academic background. This has led to many instances of incorrectly defining, or misinterpretation, of the issues even among professionals. Nurse scholars as well as practitioners who work in women's health care need to have a clear conceptual understanding of women's health in order to build a body of knowledge, delineate curricular activities, and set directions for professional nursing interventions. In addition, a conceptual model that may be directly utilized in practice is needed to maintain and promote women's health issues. The purpose of this study was to apply a Hybrid model, analyzing conceptual definitions and discussions related to women's health gathered from review of the literature. Further to compare analyticals the concepts and properties observed from field work, so as to present a final definition of women's health and, build a conceptual framework for a united comprehensive perspective on the concept as well as on nursing practice. Data collection and analysis consisted of a theoretical stage, field work stage, and final analysis. A heterogeneous group of professionals and lay persons, 39 in all, participated in the field work. Study findings Include several subconcepts under the concept of women's health : a woman's whole life, holistic health, quality of life, awareness of being a woman, individual nursing, self care ability, reproductive health, and family health. Thus, a comprehensive definition was built, 1. e., "Women's health care be defined as improvement in the quality of life of women through attainment of holistic health throughout the life span. With reproductive health at the core, the concept is directly related to family and national health, and includes taking care of one's own health based on awareness of being a woman and utilizing self care activities. Women's health care issues are unique and allow various responses, therefore women's health professionals need to apply individual approaches to reach solutions in attaining holistic health and improving quality of life." The constructual factors of women's health were found to be reproductive functions, diseases more common in woman, self actualization, mental health, women's health policies, sexuality, midlife changes, and marital relations, with each factor having more than three properties. Positive factors affecting women's health were found to be a normal childbearing process, a healthy lifestyle, active health management, health information, support, and resources, and interpersonal relationships. Negative factors were found to be overwhelming role stress, cultural oppression, gender inequality, distorted sexual identity, economic difficulties, misuse and/or abuse of substances, and stress. The model of women's health may be visualized as a balance scale set upon a woman's life, supporting 4 concentric circles. The innermost circle and second circle incorporate conceptual definitions of women's health, and the outer two circles represent the constructional factors and properties of women's health. Each circle has its own color that symbolizes the conceptual meaning. Positive and negative factors are represented as weights at either end of the scale, and are affected by nursing intervention, i. e., health and wellness increase when positive factors are stronger, whereas disease and illness increase when negative factors are stronger. This model is only a preliminary effort and requires much discussion and testing to be further developed. Continuous research is also required.
The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
The goal of women's health education can be defined as improvement of the quality of their life during entire life cycle. In Korean society, women's well-being is very important to themselves as well as their families, communities. and country. Thus it is important to systematize information on women's health education. These systematized information can be used in preparation of coming 21st century called information era. Unfortunately there have been few studies in women's health education research in Korea especially distance education for women's health related with korean socio-cultural background, etc. Distance education has been internationally used in a variety of settings as a means of providing health education information. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate a multimedia videoconferencing on women's health distance teaching-learning process. In this study I'd like to design multimedia digital educational material used in the distance teaching-learning process for women's health, and to practice a multimedia videoconferencing on women's health distance teaching-learning processs. The procedures of this study were summarized as follows ; 1. Analysis of subjects' characteristics and education contents and for women's health. 2. Design of a multimedia videoconferencing on women's health distance teaching-learning process. 3. Development of women's health distance teaching-1earning process. 4. Evaluation of developed digital multimedia and distance teaching-learning process related with women's health These results will be used in development of the distance-learning education program for improving Korean women's health. Findings su99est that the advanced methodologies for designing and evaluating the women's health distance teaching-learning programs be obtained through the collaboration with other field's staffs.
It is known that the role of informal support for elderly women is critical to their physical and mental health, adjustment in old age, and their overall life satisfaction. Elderly women's situation such as social losses, widowhood, living alone, and geographic relocation etc. may result in a need for more informal supports for elderly women's health than ever before. Particularly, women's same-sex friendships were rated higher for overall quality, intimacy, enjoyment, and nurturance. Unlike a generally accepted notion that later life for women is a time of isolation and loneliness, elderly women tend to maintain and reestablish their friendship regardless their marital status and living situation. Although studies on informal support for elderly women were inconclusive in many ways, elderly women's friendship tends to be stable despite of changing health status and life events. The relative importance between daughters and friends was also controversial. This study suggests that more research with reliable measurements is necessary for the practical prevention and intervention program of elderly women's health on this issue.
The purpose of this study was to discover the effects on women's health education for college women on their health promotion behaviors and the health related knowledge. The content of women's health education consisted of sex education, smoking, alcohol, exercise, nutrition, diet and stress management. “A Women and Heath” course was provided as an optional full term subject in the years of 2002 and 2003 at C University in G City. Out of 210 students who had chosen this course, 134 had agreed to participate in the research and had answered the same questionnaire which was given before the education and 14 weeks after the course at the last class. The findings are as follows： 1. It was found that the subjects have obtained knowledge mainly from television, radio, the Internet, women's magazines in order before the education. 2. Knowledge related to women"s health origionally scored low(average 1.92 out of 5). However, having completed a course on women and their health, they showed a significant increase of knowledge statistically(t＝26.945, p＝ .001) with average score of 3.48. 3. Health promotion behaviors who had completed the course has statistically significantly increased (t＝6.464, p＝ .001) compared to before the education. The results of this study are that by providing a women's health related course for college women on a regular basis, they could broaden their health related knowledge and become more active in practicing health promotion behaviors. This shows us the need to broaden the curriculum on women's health at the college level so that women have good knowledge and practice the knowledge for the sake of their health throughout their life.
This study attempted to develop fundamental data of nursing intervention for Women's health improvement through literature review related to women's health. Women's health problems are focused in nursing because the quality of women's health influences on public health directly and indirectly. Especially women experience more stressors and mental disorders than men. This paper reviewed rationale of mental problems to understand Women's mental problems through various research paper analysis. As a result, it was found that women's mental problems as well as the health were affected by various factors and were connected with social, cultural elements closely. This result means that women are affected by social, economical, psychological states from gender unequality in this society. So to solve the women's mental problems, women have to be considered as human beings, women, mothers with multiple roles. And like Hwabyung, one of the women's mental problems related to Korean traditional culture, nursing needs to be done to solve the problem through cultural approach. To do this, nursing has to research negative effect as well as positive effect on women's mental health by modern culture which includes "Han" and traditional family culture. The multidisplinary, interdisplinary communication is important to develop nursing intervention and nursing must build a pertinent Korean women's mental health research system to improve a sociopolitical environment.
Women's health is directly related to economic and developmental level of their nations, and it is very much effected by socio-cultural factors which are related to gender discrimination. women's health needs have been oppressed and neglected in male-dominated society. For maintenance and promotion in women's health and improve of quality of life, the common idea of gender discrimination in our society and preference of having son rather than daughter from its certain from must be banished. Though the common idea of gender discrimination was a basic ideology in liberation of women, recently the aspect of difference rather than discrimination is an important matter and unique characteristics of women are strongly pointed and additionally harmonic living with men is getting to be a man idea in women's health. The social idea in gender discrimination was from christian culture in the western society and confucianism related the social norms of "Namzonyobe" (means men are honorable and women are low), "Samzongzido" (means women ought to obey certain three rules for the family), "Chilgeziak" (means seven wickedness of housewife) in this country, korea. Those ideas deprived women's ability in health management and in the decision making process for their health. Because of those cultural influences, still many pregnant women are experiencing artificial abortion when they know the fetus is a girl through ultrasound and amniocentesis. Nowadays there are many health problems of women in korea. The reasons are that Korea culture has complicatedly mixing with confucianism and western culture. Under the these cultural influences, change in value of beauty and trend of liberation in sexuality have brought out health problems, alcohol, smoking, and drug abuse in young women. In order to solve the women's health problem, first of all women have to come out of the passive manner of dependency on man. Also they should have the insight and the management and/or intervention ability of caring their health. It can be obtained through the family-society-nation wide approach as well as the approach for women themselves.
The purpose of this study was to identify the research contents and designs of nursing papers on women's health. 1010 articles published in 9 Korean nursing journals and 2070 matser's theses and doctoral dissertations in nursing science for 10 years from 1988 through 1997 were reviewed. The percent of nursing papers on women's health was 12.7%(390) out of a total of 3080 papers. Major findings of 390 nursing papers analyzed were as following : 1. The contents of nursing papers on women's health were classified by 8 categories such as childbirth(19.5%), women's health state and behavior(18.5%), motherhood(14.9%), cultural and social issues(12.8%), menstruation(8.7%), mental health(8.2%), caring activities(8.2%), and surgery(7.7%). 2. The principal designs used in nursing papers on women's health were descriptive and correlational survey(70.8%), experimental design(14.4%), and qualitative research design(14.1%).
Promoting women's health lifestyles are important due to their connection to family health. The purpose of this study was to analyse women's health lifestyles(HPL) and their effects on women's life-cycle, so in order to develop a program in a women's health care center. The subjects included were 1080 women over 18 years old living in Wonju city, and were selected by stratified and purposive sampling. The data were collected through a questionnaire and interview. The Cronbach $\alpha$, %, mean, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and regression in SPSS PC Win. package was used to analyze the data. The sample was sepernted into three groups premarital group 20.2%(premarital women between 18 and 40 years old), delivery and children rearing group 49.9%(marital women between 18 and 40 years old), over middle agedelderly group 29.9%(women over 41 years old). Significant difference were found in the HPL according to group. Also, relating variables, such as self-efficacy, family functions, health locus of control and gender role perception that were considered relating variables to HPL significantly differed among the three groups. HPL significantly correlated with self-efficacy, family functions, HLOC and gender role perception in all participants and at all groups. The regression analysis of HPL was interpreted 40.6% with relating variables, self-efficacy, health attention, family functions, and internal locus of control, health perception, power other locus of control and chance locus of control in all participant. Self-efficacy, family functions, health attention were considered important variables in premarital group, self-efficacy, family functions, internal locus of control, health attention, health perception and power of control were important in delivery-rearing group. Self-efficacy, health attention, internal locus of control, family functions and health perception were important in middle aged-elderly group. As a result, we found the differences HPL scores and relating variables according to life-cycle groups. Therefore, we should prepare health promoting education programs for women according to women's life cycles. Also we suggest that women's health care centers based on communities was needed for proper management of women's health.
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