• Title, Summary, Keyword: zebrafish toxicity

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Embryonic Zebrafish Model - A Well-Established Method for Rapidly Assessing the Toxicity of Homeopathic Drugs - Toxicity Evaluation of Homeopathic Drugs Using Zebrafish Embryo Model -

  • Gupta, Himanshu R;Patil, Yogesh;Singh, Dipty;Thakur, Mansee
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.319-328
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Advancements in nanotechnology have led to nanoparticle (NP) use in various fields of medicine. Although the potential of NPs is promising, the lack of documented evidence on the toxicological effects of NPs is concerning. A few studies have documented that homeopathy uses NPs. Unfortunately, very few sound scientific studies have explored the toxic effects of homeopathic drugs. Citing this lack of high-quality scientific evidence, regulatory agencies have been reluctant to endorse homeopathic treatment as an alternative or adjunct treatment. This study aimed to enhance our insight into the impact of commercially-available homeopathic drugs, to study the presence of NPs in those drugs and any deleterious effects they might have, and to determine the distribution pattern of NPs in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Methods: Homeopathic dilutions were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction (SAED). For the toxicity assessment on Zebrafish, embryos were exposed to a test solution from 4 - 6 hours post-fertilization, and embryos/larvae were assessed up to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf ) for viability and morphology. Toxicity was recorded in terms of mortality, hatching delay, phenotypic defects and metal accumulation. Around 5 dpf was found to be the optimum developmental stage for evaluation. Results: The present study aimed to conclusively prove the presence of NPs in all high dilutions of homeopathic drugs. Embryonic zebrafish were exposed to three homeopathic drugs with two potencies (30CH, 200CH) during early embryogenesis. The resulting morphological and cellular responses were observed. Exposure to these potencies produced no visibly significant malformations, pericardial edema, and mortality and no necrotic and apoptotic cellular death. Conclusion: Our findings clearly demonstrate that no toxic effects were observed for these three homeopathic drugs at the potencies and exposure times used in this study. The embryonic zebrafish model is recommended as a well-established method for rapidly assessing the toxicity of homeopathic drugs.

Developmental toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of the soft coral Dendronephthya gigantea collected from Jeju Island in zebrafish model

  • Lee, Seung-Hong
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.32.1-32.7
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    • 2017
  • Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that extract of soft coral Dendronephthya gigantea (SCDE) had strong anti-inflammatory activities. However, the direct effects of SCDE on anti-inflammatory activities in vivo model remained to be determined. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of SCDE using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated zebrafish model. We also investigated whether SCDE has toxic effects in zebrafish model. The survival, heart beat rate, and developmental abnormalities were no significant change in the zebrafish embryos exposed to at a concentration below $100{\mu}g/ml$ of SCDE. However, lethal toxicity was caused after exposure to 200 and $400{\mu}g/ml$ of SCDE. Treating zebrafish model with LPS treatment significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation. However, SCDE inhibited this LPS-stimulated ROS and NO generation in a dose-dependent manner. These results show that SCDE alleviated inflammation by inhibiting the ROS and NO generation induced by LPS treatment. In addition, SCDE has a protective effect against the cell damage induced by LPS exposure in zebrafish embryos. This outcome could explain the profound anti-inflammatory effect of SCDE both in vitro as well as in vivo, suggesting that the SCDE might be a strong anti-inflammatory agent.

Acute Toxicity Assessment in Zebrafish Danio rerio of Arsenic-rich Extracts from Three Species of Seaweeds (제브라피쉬(Danio rerio)를 이용한 비소 고함류 3종 해조류 추출물의 급성 독성평가)

  • Yang, Hye-Won;Kim, Eun-A;Kim, Seo-Young;Jeon, You-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2018
  • Seaweeds are composed of a variety of bioactive substances, including polysaccharides, pigments, minerals, peptides, and polyphenols. Among these substances, the arsenic content of seaweeds has been a significant cause for concern. The present study evaluated the toxicity of arsenic from three species of seaweed using a zebrafish Danio rerio model. The arsenic-rich extracts were obtained from Ecklonia cava (ECAE), Undaria pinnatifida (UPAE) and Hizikia fusiformis (HFAE) using a solvent of 50% methanol and 1% $HNO_3$. We investigated the toxicity of the arsenic-rich extracts in zebrafish embryos through survival rate, heart rate, yolk sac edema size, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The hepatotoxicity of arsenic-rich extracts was assessed in the liver of adult zebrafish through real-time PCR and histopathology. The survival rates of embryos and adult zebrafish showed no significant changes at any concentration. At 100 ppm, embryos did not exhibit significant differences in heart rate, yolk sac edema size, cell death or ROS production. In addition, apoptosis-related genes in larvae and liver tissue were unaffected by treatment with arsenic-rich extracts. These data will help clarify that developmental changes, hepatic oxidative stress, and apoptosis are not associated with toxicity from arsenic-rich seaweed extracts in a zebrafish model.

Bio-toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nano Particles (P-25) in Zebrafish Development Stage (Zebrafish 발생기에서 $TiO_2(P-25)$ 나노 입자의 생물 독성)

  • Yeo, Min-Kyeong;Jo, Yoon-Hee
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 2007
  • [ $TiO_2$ ] is widely used because it is non-toxic. Recently, however, nanometer size $TiO_2$ particles (P-25) have been produced and used to increase the photo catalysis efficiency. Nanometer-sized $TiO_2$ is efficient, but due to its small size ($20{\sim}30\;nm$), it can flow into ecosystems and into cells. Thus, it may affect human health. Additionally, $TiO_2$ can produce a second contaminant, OH-radical, which is a health risk for all living organisms during photo degradation reaction. Hence, when nanometer-sized $TiO_2$ flows into natural streams and attaches to living organisms, it will create health risks. We investigated the biological toxicity of this condition in zebrafish embryos. We observed abnormal morphology, hatching rate, and measured the catalase activity to determine anti-oxidation at 100 post fertilization hours. Zebrafish were somewhat affected by $TiO_2$ nanometer sized particles under UV-A (a condition similar to sunlight). Powdered $TiO_2$ is toxic to the zebrafish fly. Even without light, $TiO_2$ particles attached to embryos and flies, having an effect on both.

Effects of Nanometer Sized Silver Materials on Biological Toxicity During Zebrafish Embryogenesis

  • Yeo, Min-Kyeong;Kang, Mi-Sook
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1179-1184
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    • 2008
  • Commercial nanometer sized silver is widely used for its antibacterial effect; however, nanoparticles may also have ecotoxicological effects after being discharged into water. Nanometer sized silver can flow into aquatic environments, where it can exert a variety of physiologically effects in living organisms, including fish. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of nanometer sized silver on the development of zebrafish embryos, analyze the properties of commercial nanometer sized silver and define the toxicity relationship between embryogenesis and hatched flies. The commercial nanometer sized silver was analyzed in the $Ag^+$ ion form. The hatch rate decreased in the nano-silver exposed groups (10 and 20 ppt); furthermore, the hatched flies had an abnormal notochord, weak heart beat, damaged eyes and curved tail. The expression of the Sel N1 gene decreased in the nano-silver exposed groups, and the catalase activities of the exposed groups increased relative to those in the control group. Therefore, the $Ag^+$ ions in commercial nanometer sized silver could accumulate in aquatic environments and seriously damage the development of zebrafish embryos.

A study on the inflammatory response induced by LPS of the Arthrospira platensis ethanol extract

  • Zhang, Shi Jie;Yang, Jae-Chan;Kim, Bo-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.966-974
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    • 2019
  • Arthrospira platensis has been reported to contain a variety of substances such as phycocyanin, ${\beta}$-carotene, vitamin E and other carotenoids. In this study, zebrafish were treated with indoor cultivation spirulina ethanol extracts(ICAE) to determine toxicity(coagulation rate, hatching rate, heart rate). We used the DCFH-DA staining method to detect the effect of reactive oxygen species(ROS) generation on lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced zebrafish embryos ROS various concentrations(0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5mg/ml) of ICAE. Cell toxicity was measured by WST-1 assay on RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. Also, measured the inhibitory effect of nitric oxide(NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) production in RAW264.7 macrophages induced by LPS at various concentrations of ICAE. The results of embryo coagulation rate, hatching rate, heart rate of zebrafish at various(0.01, 0.05, 0.1mg/ml) of ICAE was no toxicity. The ICAE treated group had an inhibitory effect on NO and $PGE_2$ production compared and decreased with concentration. The results of this study ethanol extract of Arthrospira platensis has an anti-inflammatory effect and suggest that is worthy of use cosmetics for skin protection.

Effects of TiO$_2$ Photodegradation on Leaching from Epoxy Resin Chemical in Water and Biological Toxicity (수용액에 용출된 에폭시수지 화합물의 TiO$_2$ 광분해효과와 생물독성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yeo Min Kyeong;Cho Eun Joung
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 2004
  • Epoxy resins are mostly used as a molding material for drinking water tank. Bisphenol A is used at a constituent material for epoxy resins and is widely suspected to act as an endocrine disrupter. In this study, we investigated embryo hatching in zebrafish reared in water undergone leaching process of expoxy resin, and found a decreased survival rate. Bisphenol A eluted from epoxy resin in drinking water tank was completely degraded by TiO$_2$ photocatalysis. We detected 7.8 ng/ml of bisphenol A in epoxy resin tank, and observed that the concentration was undetectable after 48h photocatalysis over TiO$_2$. There was no toxicity in hatching rates in zebrafish and morphogenesis after photocatalysis. The effect of TiO$_2$ photocatalytic reactions on the catalase activities in the f]y stage of zebrafish was also examined. At 1 week post hatching, cataiase activities were higher both in the group of epoxy resin with 48 h TiO$_2$ photocatalysis and in the TiO$_2$ photocatalysis for 48 hours were higher than control group. However catalase activities of the treatment group of epoxy resin by TiO$_2$ photocatalysis for 48 hours were similar to control in 5 weeks post hatching fries. In conclusion, the toxicity of TiO$_2$ photocatalysis was not observed in this zebrafish.

The difference of metabolic profile between male and female zebrafish

  • Yoon, Dahye;Choi, Jin;Choi, Hyeonsoo;Kim, Suhkmann
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.13-16
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    • 2016
  • Various experiments using zebrafish have been highlighted recently in the scientific community. Because it is possible to conduct practical experiment from various neurological research to area of genetic study or toxicity experiment. However, gender difference effects are nearly not considered. If the gender differences of zebrafish are considered it is possible to obtain more accurate data. In this study, zebrafish which have different genders were compared each other with NMR-based metabolomics. The extracts of male and female zebrafish were measured by 600 MHz NMR spectrometer. Statistical analysis and target profiling were conducted. As a result, muscle related metabolites were observed in male zebrafish and nerve related metabolites were observed in female zebrafish.

The Evaluation on the Effectiveness as a Cosmetic Material of Ascidian shell Extract Using Zebrafish model

  • Park, Sin-Ho;Kim, Bo-Ae;Yang, Jae-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.258-268
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    • 2019
  • The extracts of AS contain in alloxanthin, halocynthiaxanthin, astaxanthin and 13 kinds of carotenoids. The aim of the study was to assess the anti-oxidant activity and cell viability of AS. The anti-oxidant activity was determined by using DPPH radical inhibition activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. The results of cell viability assay showed that the extracts from AS were cytotoxic at concentrations above $5.0mg/m{\ell}$. This study was designed to examine inflammation induced by LPS, protection effect by UVB and the toxicity of Ascidian shell extract(ASE) as a functional cosmetic ingredient. Evaluation of embryo toxicity resulted in embryo coagulation and mortality when treated at 5.0, 10.0, $20.0mg/m{\ell}$. At the lowest concentration of $1.0mg/m{\ell}$, hatchability resulted in 100.0 % rate. The results of arrhythmia measurement in larvae showed similarity to the evaluation of embryo toxicity. This result demonstrated that toxicity is present at concentrations greater than $5.0mg/m{\ell}$. The protective effect of ASE on LPS and UVB-induced in the zebrafish was investigated. Intracellular reactive oxygen species(ROS) generated by the exposure of zebrafish to LPS, UVB-radiation were significantly decreased after treatment with ASE at $0.1mg/m{\ell}$. As a result, ASE similarly reduced UVB-induced ROS generation and cell death in live zebrafsih. Therefore, it is suggested that ASE has anti-Inflammatory effects and can possibly be used as a functional substance for skin protection in the future.

The Effect of Nano-scale Zn-$TiO_2$ and Pure $TiO_2$ Particles were Prepared using a Hydrothermal Method on Zebrafish Embryogenesis (수열합성법으로 제조된 Zn-$TiO_2$ 나노입자와 $TiO_2$ 나노입자가 zebrafish 배발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Yeo, Min-Kyeong;Kim, Hyo-Eun
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we investigated the biological toxicity of nano-scale Zn (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mol%)-doped $TiO_2$ and pure $TiO_2$ nanoparticles using zebrafish embryogenesis as our model organism. Zn-doped $TiO_2$ nanoparticles were prepared using a conventional hydrothermal method for the insertion of zinc into the $TiO_2$ framework. The characters of Zn-doped $TiO_2$ (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%Zn) and pure $TiO_2$ were about 7~8 nm. These sizes were smaller than 100~200 nm of $TiO_2$ was prepared using the sol-gel method. Particularly, in this study, we found no significant biological toxicity in the hatching rate and abnormal rate under expose pure $TiO_2$ and Zn-doped $TiO_2$ nanoparticles were prepared using a conventional hydrothermal method of zebrafish. It was different from the biological damage under $TiO_2$ nanoparticles were prepared using sol-gel method. We assessed that the damage was not linked to the particle's nanometer size, but rather due to the prepare method. Moreover, $TiO_2$ nanoparticles were prepared using a hydrothermal method were not shown to cause cytotoxic effects, like apoptosis and necrosis, that are the major markers of toxicity in organisms exposed to nanomaterials. Therefore, there is some relationship with biological toxicity of nanoparticles and the prepare method of nanometer size particles.