• Title, Summary, Keyword: zinc oxide nanoparticles

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In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Cultured Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea Cells

  • Lee, Handule;Park, Kwangsik
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.287-294
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    • 2019
  • The possibility of eye exposure for workers participating in manufacturing of nanoparticles or consumers using products containing nanoparticles has been reported, but toxicity studies on the eye are scarce. In this study, cytotoxicity of five nanoparticles including silver, ceria, silica, titanium and zinc were tested using Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells. When cells were treated with nanoparticles with concentrations of $1-100{\mu}g/mL$ for 24 hr, zinc oxide nanoparticles showed higher toxicity to cornea cells. $LC_{50}$ of zinc oxide nanoparticles was less than $25{\mu}g/mL$ but those of other nanoparticles could not be calculated in this test, which means more than $100{\mu}g/mL$. Generation of reactive oxygen species was observed, and expression of apoptosis related biomarkers including Bax and Bcl-2 were changed after treatment of zinc oxide nanoparticles, while no other significant toxicity-related changes were observed in cornea cells treated with Ag, $CeO_2$, $SiO_2$ and $TiO_2$ nanoparticles.

Antibacterial properties of composite resins incorporating silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus

  • Kasraei, Shahin;Sami, Lida;Hendi, Sareh;AliKhani, Mohammad-Yousef;Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman;Khamverdi, Zahra
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.109-114
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Recurrent caries was partly ascribed to lack of antibacterial properties in composite resin. Silver and zinc nanoparticles are considered to be broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of composite resins containing 1% silver and zinc-oxide nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods: Ninety discoid tablets containing 0%, 1% nano-silver and 1% nano zinc-oxide particles were prepared from flowable composite resin (n = 30). The antibacterial properties of composite resin discs were evaluated by direct contact test. Diluted solutions of Streptococcus mutans (PTCC 1683) and Lactobacillus (PTCC 1643) were prepared. 0.01 mL of each bacterial species was separately placed on the discs. The discs were transferred to liquid culture media and were incubated at $37^{\circ}C$ for 8 hr. 0.01 mL of each solution was cultured on blood agar and the colonies were counted. Data was analyzed with Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Composites containing nano zinc-oxide particles or silver nanoparticles exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The effect of zinc-oxide on Streptococcus mutans was significantly higher than that of silver (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus between composites containing silver nanoparticles and those containing zinc-oxide nanoparticles. Conclusions: Composite resins containing silver or zinc-oxide nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus.

Physical and nuclear shielding properties of newly synthesized magnesium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles

  • Rashad, M.;Tekin, H.O.;Zakaly, Hesham MH.;Pyshkina, Mariia;Issa, Shams A.M.;Susoy, G.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.2078-2084
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    • 2020
  • Magnesium oxide (MgO) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully synthesized by solid-solid reaction method. The structural properties of ZnO and MgO NPs were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results indicated a formation of pure MgO and ZnO NPs. The mean diameter values of the agglomerated particles were around to be 70 and 50 nm for MgO and ZnO NPs, respectively using SEM analysis. Further, a wide-range of nuclear radiation shielding investigation for gamma-ray and fast neutrons have been studied for Magnesium oxide (MgO) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) samples. FLUKA and Microshield codes have been employed for the determination of mass attenuation coefficients (μm) and transmission factors (TF) of Magnesium oxide (MgO) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) samples. The calculated values for mass attenuation coefficients (μm) were utilized to determine other vital shielding properties against gamma-ray radiation. Moreover, the results showed that Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with the lowest diameter value as 50 nm had a satisfactory capacity in nuclear radiation shielding.

Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity under UV light

  • Nam, Sang-Hun;Kim, Myeong-Hwa;Bu, Jin-Hyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.423-423
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    • 2011
  • Zinc oxide is metal oxide semiconductor with the 3.37 eV bandgap energy. Zinc oxide is very attractive materials for many application fields. Zinc Oxide has many advantages such as high conductivity and good transmittance in visible region. Also it is cheaper than other semiconductor materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO). Therefore, ZnO is alternative material for ITO. ZnO is attracting attention for its application to transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, surface acoustic wave (SAW), films bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), piezoelectric materials, gas-sensing, solar cells and photocatalyst. In this study, we synthesized ZnO nanoparticles and defined their physical and chemical properties. Also we studied about the application of ZnO nanoparticles as a photocatalyst and try to find a enhancement photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorticles.. We synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using spray-pyrolysis method and defined the physical and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles in experiment I. When the ZnO are exposed to UV light, reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reaction will occur on the ZnO surface and generate O2- and OH radicals. These powerful oxidizing agents are proven to be effective in decomposition of the harmful organic materials and convert them into CO2 and H2O. Therefore, we investigated that the photocatalytic activity was increased through the surface modification of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. In experiment II, we studied on the stability of ZnO nanoparticles in water. It is well known that ZnO is unstable in water in comparison with TiO2. Zn(OH)2 was formed at the ZnO surface and ZnO become inactive as a photocatalyst when ZnO is present in the solution. Therefore, we prepared synthesized ZnO nanoparticles that were immersed in the water and dried in the oven. After that, we measured photocatalytic activities of prepared samples and find the cause of their photocatalytic activity changes.

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Synthesis of functional ZnO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic properties

  • Nam, Sang-Hun;Kim, Myoung-Hwa;Lee, Sang-Duck;Kim, Min-Hee;Boo, Jin-Hyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.54-54
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    • 2010
  • Zinc oxide is metal oxide semiconductor with the 3.37 eV bandgap energy. Zinc oxide is very attractive materials for many application fields. Zinc Oxide has many advantages such as high conductivity and good transmittance in visible region. Also it is cheaper than other semiconductor materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO). Therefore, ZnO is alternative material for ITO. ZnO is attracting attention for its application to transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films, surface acoustic wave (SAW), films bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR), piezoelectric materials, gas-sensing, solar cells and photocatalyst. In this study, we synthesized ZnO nanoparticles and defined their physical and chemical properties. Also we studied about the application of ZnO nanoparticles as a photocatalyst and try to find a enhancement photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorticles.. We synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using spray-pyrolysis method and defined the physical and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles in experiment I. When the ZnO are exposed to UV light, reduction and oxidation(REDOX) reaction will occur on the ZnO surface and generate ${O_2}^-$ and OH radicals. These powerful oxidizing agents are proven to be effective in decomposition of the harmful organic materials and convert them into $CO_2$ and $H_2O$. Therefore, we investigated that the photocatalytic activity was increased through the surface modification of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. In experiment II, we studied on the stability of ZnO nanoparticles in water. It is well known that ZnO is unstable in water in comparison with $TiO_2$. $Zn(OH)_2$ was formed at the ZnO surface and ZnO become inactive as a photocatalyst when ZnO is present in the solution. Therefore, we prepared synthesized ZnO nanoparticles that were immersed in the water and dried in the oven. After that, we measured photocatalytic activities of prepared samples and find the cause of their photocatalytic activity changes.

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Skin corrosion and irritation test of sunscreen nanoparticles using reconstructed 3D human skin model

  • Choi, Jonghye;Kim, Hyejin;Choi, Jinhee;Oh, Seung Min;Park, Jeonggue;Park, Kwangsik
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.29
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    • pp.4.1-4.10
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    • 2014
  • Objectives Effects of nanoparticles including zinc oxide nanoparticles, titanium oxide nanoparticles, and their mixtures on skin corrosion and irritation were investigated by using in vitro 3D human skin models ($KeraSkin^{TM}$) and the results were compared to those of an in vivo animal test. Methods Skin models were incubated with nanoparticles for a definite time period and cell viability was measured by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Skin corrosion and irritation were identified by the decreased viability based on the pre-determined threshold. Results Cell viability after exposure to nanomaterial was not decreased to the pre-determined threshold level, which was 15% after 60 minutes exposure in corrosion test and 50% after 45 minutes exposure in the irritation test. IL-$1{\alpha}$ release and histopathological findings support the results of cell viability test. In vivo test using rabbits also showed non-corrosive and non-irritant results. Conclusions The findings provide the evidence that zinc oxide nanoparticles, titanium oxide nanoparticles and their mixture are 'non corrosive' and 'non-irritant' to the human skin by a globally harmonized classification system. In vivo test using animals can be replaced by an alternative in vitro test.

Efficiency evaluation of the photocatalytic degradation of zinc oxide nanoparticles immobilized on modified zeolites in the removal of styrene vapor from air

  • Rangkooy, Hossein Ali;Pour, Mojtaba Nakhaei;Dehaghi, Behzad Fouladi
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.12
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    • pp.3142-3149
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    • 2017
  • Styrene monomer is a volatile organic compound that has many applications in plastics, rubber, and paint manufacturing industries. Exposure to styrene vapor has certain effects, including suppression of the central nervous system, loss of concentration, weakness and fatigue, and nausea and there is a possibility of carcinogenesis in long-term exposure. Therefore, it is necessary to control and eliminate this vapor. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of zinc oxide nanoparticles on modified natural zeolites in removing styrene vapor from the air. Natural zeolites of clinoptilolite were modified using hydrochloric acid and diphenyldichlorosilane. Next, zinc oxide nanoparticles with different ratios of 3, 5, and 10 wt% were stabilized on the zeolites. To determine their characteristics, samples were used from BET, SEM and XRD analyses. The input styrene concentration and the ratio of nanoparticles stabilized on zeolites were studied as effective functional parameters on the removal process. The efficiency results of natural zeolites (Ze) and modified zeolites (Mze) in styrene adsorption from the air show that the styrene breakthrough in the bed of MZe compared to that of Ze increases approximately two times. Also, the results showed that the removal by the process of UV/MZe-ZnO 3%, UV/MZe-ZnO 5%, and UV/MZe-ZnO 10%, was 36.5%, 40%, and 26%, respectively. From the results it can be concluded that MZe can increase the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation. Clinoptilolites of Iran can be used as an adsorbent to remove polluted air in industries that have low concentrations and flow rates.

Experimental study for ZnO nanofibers effect on the smart and mechanical properties of concrete

  • Arbabi, Amir;Kolahchi, Reza;Bidgoli, Mahmood Rabani
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2020
  • Due to the superior properties of nanoparticles, using them has been increased in concrete production technology. In this study, the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the mechanical and smart properties of concrete was studied. At the first, the ZnO nanoparticles are dispersed in water using shaker, magnetic stirrer and ultrasonic devices. The nanoparticles with 3.5, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 volume percent are added to the concrete mixture and replaced by the appropriate amount of cement to compare with the control sample without any additives. In order to study the mechanical and smart properties of the concrete, the cubic samples for determining the compressive strength and cylindrical samples for determining tensile strength with different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles are produced and tested. The most important finding of this paper is about the smartness of the concrete due to the piezoelectric properties of the ZnO nanoparticles. In other words, the concrete in this study can produce the voltage when subjected to mechanical load and vice versa it can induce the mechanical displacement when subjected to external voltage. The experimental results show that the best volume percent for ZnO nanoparticles in 28-day samples is 0.5%. In other words, adding 0.5% ZnO nanoparticles to the concrete instead of cement leads to increases of 18.70% and 3.77% in the compressive and tensile strengths, respectively. In addition, it shows the best direct and reverse piezoelectric properties. It is also worth to mention that adding 3.5% zinc oxide nanoparticles, the setting of cement is stopped in the concrete mixture.

Antimicrobial efficacy and safety analysis of zinc oxide nanoparticles against water borne pathogens

  • Supraja, Nookala;Avinash, B.;Prasad, T.N.V.K.V.
    • Advances in nano research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.127-140
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    • 2017
  • Metal nanoparticles have been intensively studied within the past decade. Nano-sized materials have been an important subject in basic and applied sciences. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have received considerable attention due to their unique antibacterial, antifungal, and UV filtering properties, high catalytic and photochemical activity. In this study, microbiological aspects of scale formation in PVC pipelines bacteria and fungi were isolated. In the emerging issue of increased multi-resistant properties in water borne pathogens, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle are being used increasingly as antimicrobial agents. Thus, the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungal concentration of ZnO nanoparticles towards pathogens microbe were examined in this study. The results obtained suggested that ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a good anti fungal activity than bactericidal effect towards all pathogens tested in in-vitro disc diffusion method (170 ppm, 100 ppm and 30 ppm). ZnO nanoparticles can be a potential antimicrobial agent due to its low cost of production and high effectiveness in antimicrobial properties, which may find wide applications in various industries to address safety issues. Stable ZnO nanoparticles were prepared and their shape and size distribution characterized by Dynamic light scattering (35.7 nm) and transmission electron microscopic TEM study for morphology identification (20 nm), UV-visible spectroscopy (230 nm), X-ray diffraction (FWHM of more intense peak corresponding to 101 planes located at $36.33^{\circ}$ using Scherrer's formula), FT-IR (Amines, Alcohols, Carbonyl and Nitrate ions), Zeta potential (-28.8). The antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles was investigated against Bacteria and Fungi present in drinking water PVC pipelines biofilm. In these tests, Muller Hinton agar plates were used and ZnO nanoparticles of various concentrations were supplemented in solid medium.

Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dyes with Nanomaterials (나노소재를 이용한 유기염료 광촉매 분해 반응)

  • Hong, Sung-Kyu;Yu, Gu-Yong;Lim, Chung-Sun;Ko, Weon-Bae
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.206-211
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    • 2010
  • Zinc oxide(ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting an aqueous-alcoholic zinc nitrate solution to sodium hydroxide under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature. The fullerene($C_{60}$) and ZnO nanoparticles were heated individually in an electric furnace for two hours at $700^{\circ}C$. The morphology and optical properties of the $C_{60}$ and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and ultraviolet/visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the heated and unheated the $C_{60}$ and ZnO nanoparticles for the decomposition of methylene blue(MB), methyl orange(MO) and rhodamine B(RhB) was examined using UV-vis spectroscopy.