• Title, Summary, Keyword: zirconium alloy

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Osteoblastic behavior to zirconium coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy

  • Lee, Bo-Ah;Kim, Hae-Jin;Xuan, Yun-Ze;Park, Yeong-Joon;Chung, Hyun-Ju;Kim, Young-Joon
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.512-520
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    • 2014
  • PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to assess the surface characteristics and the biocompatibility of zirconium (Zr) coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The zirconium films were developed on Ti-6Al-4V discs using RF magnetron sputtering method. Surface profile, surface composition, surface roughness and surface energy were evaluated. Electrochemical test was performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expression of mineralized matrix markers were measured. RESULTS. SEM and EDS analysis showed that zirconium deposition was performed successfully on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate. Ti-6Al-4V group and Zr-coating group showed no significant difference in surface roughness (P>.05). Surface energy was significantly higher in Zr-coating group than in Ti-6Al-4V group (P<.05). No difference in cell morphology was observed between Ti-6Al-4V group and Zr-coating group. Cell proliferation was higher in Zr-coating group than Ti-6Al-4V group at 1, 3 and 5 days (P<.05). Zr-coating group showed higher ALP activity level than Ti-6Al-4V group (P<.05). The mRNA expressions of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN) on Zr-coating group increased approximately 1.2-fold and 2.1-fold respectively, compared to that of Ti-6Al-4V group. CONCLUSION. These results suggest that zirconium coating on Ti-6Al-4V alloy could enhance the early osteoblast responses. This property could make non-toxic metal coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy suitable for orthopedic and dental implants.

HIGH BURNUP FUEL ISSUES

  • Rudling, Peter;Adamson, Ron;Cox, Brian;Garzatolli, Friedrich;Strasser, Alfred
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2008
  • One of the major current challenges to nuclear energy lies in its competitiveness. To stay competitive the industry needs to reduce maintenance and fuel cycle costs, while enhancing safety features. Extended burnup is one of the methods applied to meet these objectives However, there are a number of potential fuel failure causes related to increased burnup, as follows: l) Corrosion of zirconium alloy cladding and the water chemistry parameters that enhance corrosion; 2) Dimensional changes of zirconium alloy components, 3) Stresses that challenge zirconium alloy ductility and the effect of hydrogen (H) pickup and redistribution as it affects ductility, 4) Fuel rod internal pressure, 5) Pellet-cladding interactions (PCI) and 6) pellet-cladding mechanical interactions (PCMI). This paper discusses current and potential failure mechanisms of these failure mechanisms.

INFLUENCE OF ALLOY COMPOSITION ON WORK HARDENING BEHAVIOR OF ZIRCONIUM-BASED ALLOYS

  • Kim, Hyun-Gil;Kim, Il-Hyun;Park, Jeong-Yong;Koo, Yang-Hyun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.505-512
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    • 2013
  • Three types of zirconium base alloy were evaluated to study how their work hardening behavior is affected by alloy composition. Repeated-tensile tests (5% elongation at each test) were performed at room temperature at a strain rate of $1.7{\times}10^{-3}s^{-1}$ for the alloys, which were initially controlled for their microstructure and texture. After considering the yield strength and work hardening exponent (n) variations, it was found that the work hardening behavior of the zirconium base alloys was affected more by the Nb content than the Sn content. The facture mode during the repeated tensile test was followed by the slip deformation of the zirconium structure from the texture and microstructural analysis.

Analysis of Zirconium and Nickel Based Alloys and Zirconium Oxides by Relative and Internal Monostandard Neutron Activation Analysis Methods

  • Shinde, Amol D.;Acharya, Raghunath;Reddy, Annareddy V.R.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.562-568
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    • 2017
  • Background: The chemical characterization of metallic alloys and oxides is conventionally carried out by wet chemical analytical methods and/or instrumental methods. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is capable of analyzing samples nondestructively. As a part of a chemical quality control exercise, Zircaloys 2 and 4, nimonic alloy, and zirconium oxide samples were analyzed by two INAA methods. The samples of alloys and oxides were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and direct current Arc OES methods, respectively, for quality assurance purposes. The samples are important in various fields including nuclear technology. Methods: Samples were neutron irradiated using nuclear reactors, and the radioactive assay was carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Major to trace mass fractions were determined using both relative and internal monostandard (IM) NAA methods as well as OES methods. Results: In the case of alloys, compositional analyses as well as concentrations of some trace elements were determined, whereas in the case of zirconium oxides, six trace elements were determined. For method validation, British Chemical Standard (BCS)-certified reference material 310/1 (a nimonic alloy) was analyzed using both relative INAA and IM-NAA methods. Conclusion: The results showed that IM-NAA and relative INAA methods can be used for nondestructive chemical quality control of alloys and oxide samples.

High-temperature interaction of oxygen-preloaded Zr1Nb alloy with nitrogen

  • Steinbruck, Martin;Prestel, Stefen;Gerhards, Uta
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 2018
  • Potential air ingress scenarios during accidents in nuclear reactors or spent fuel pools have raised the question of the influence of air, especially of nitrogen, on the oxidation of zirconium alloys, which are used as fuel cladding tubes and other structure materials. In this context, the reaction of zirconium with nitrogen-containing atmospheres and the formation of zirconium nitride play an important role in understanding the oxidation mechanism. This article presents the results of analysis of the interaction of the oxygen-preloaded niobium-bearing alloy $M5^{(R)}$ with nitrogen over a wide range of temperatures ($800-1400^{\circ}C$) and oxygen contents in the metal alloy (1-7 wt.%). A strongly increasing nitriding rate with rising oxygen content in the metal was found. The highest reaction rates were measured for the saturated ${\alpha}-Zr(O)$, as it exists at the metal-oxide interface, at $1300^{\circ}C$. The temperature maximum of the reaction rate was approximately 100 K higher than for Zircaloy-4, already investigated in a previous study. The article presents results of thermogravimetric experiments as well as posttest examinations by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microprobe elemental analyses. Furthermore, a comparison with results obtained with Zircaloy-4 will be made.