• Title, Summary, Keyword: zymography

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The effect of L-carnitine in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases by human dermal fibroblasts

  • Yoon, Eun-Jeong;Lee, Kyoung-Eun;Sim, Kwan-Sup;Lee, Bum-Chun;Pyo, Hyeong-Bae;Choe, Tae-boo
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • pp.12-25
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    • 2003
  • L-camitine ($\beta$ -hydroxy-${\gamma}$ -trimethyl-ammoniumbutyric acid) is a small water-soluble molecule important in mammalian fat metabolism. It is essential for the normal oxidation of fatty acids by the mitochondria, and is involved in the trans-esterification and excretion of acyl-CoA esters. In this paper, to investigate the relationship between aging and L-camitine, we investigated the effects of in vitro MMP inhibition and activity and expression of UVA-induced MMP 1 in human skin fibroblasts. Fluorometric assays of the proteolytic activities of MMP-l were performed using fluorescent collagen substrates. ELISA (enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay), gelatin-substrate zymography, and RT-PCR ELISA techniques were used for the effects of L-camitine on MMP expression and activity, MMP mRNA expression in UVA irradiated fibroblast. L-camitine inhibited the activities of MMP-l in a dose-dependent manner and the $IC_{50}$/ values calculated from semi-log plots were 2.45mM, and L-carnitine showed strong inhibition on MMP-2 (gelatinase) activity in UVA irradiated fibroblast by zymography. Also, UVA induced MMP expression was reduced 40% by treated with L-carnitine, and MMP-l mRNA expression was reduced dose-dependent manner. Therefore L-carnitine was able to significantly inhibition the MMP activity, regulation of MMP expression in protein and mRNA level. All these results suggest that L-carnitine may be useful as new anti-aging cofactor for protection against UVA induced MMP expression and activity.

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The effect of plant extracts on the activity and the expression of MMPs (matrix metalloprotease) induced by UVA

  • Lee, Dong-hwan;Lee, Bum-chun;Yoon, Eun-jeong;Lee, Kyung-eun;Park, Sung-min;Pyo, Hyeong-bae;Choe, Tae-boo
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • pp.32-43
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    • 2003
  • UV irradiation on a skin brings about the qualitative and quantitative alterations of the extracellular matrix. Repeated-UV irradiation suppressed the synthesis of collagen and activated the expression of the matrix metalloprotease (MMP). In this paper, on the purpose of development of novel anti-aging agents from natural sources, effects of several natural products on in vitro MMP-1 activity and UVA induced MMP-1 synthesis in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) culture were studied. We measured MMP-1 activities by fluorescence assay using gelatin as substrates. As a result, the extract of Dicentra spectabilis, and flower buds of Tussilago farfara showed strong inhibitory effect. Among them, the extract of flower buds of Tussilago fartara and Dicentra spectabilis inhibited MMP-1 activity by 92% and 87% at 0.05% (w/v). And UVA induced MMP-1 expression were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gelatin-based zymography in HDF culture. The extract of flower buds of Tussilago farfara and Dicentra spectabilis suppressed the UVA induced expression of MMP-1 by similar level of Vitamin C 200$\mu$M at 0.1% (w/v). These results suggest that the extract of Dicentra spectabilis, and flower buds of Tussilago farfara effectively prevent skin from the UV-induced photoaging. So the extracts are thought to have potential as effective raw materials for anti-aging cosmetics.

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Inhibitory Effect of Methanol Extract of Magnolia officinalis on Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

  • Lee, Dong-Yup;Kim, Cheorl-Ho;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.191-197
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    • 2006
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a key enzyme involved in tumor invasiveness. The plant of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. is often included as an ingredient in various herbal remedies recommended for cancer theraphies in Korea. Various extracts prepared from stems of M. officinalis were tested for cytotoxic activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, SK-Hep cells using the XTT assay method. Then, the inhibitory effect was examined on MMP-2 activity using gelatin zymography. Methanol (MeOH) extract of M. officinalis caused the strongest inhibition of the MMP-2 activity, as measured by gelatin zymography method for enzyme activity. $IC_{50}$ values of fractions on MMP-2 activity were in a range of $4.9{\sim}11.3\;{\mu}g/mL$. Among each fraction, butanol and ethylacetate (EtOAc) fractions showed the strong inhibitory activities ($IC_{50}=10.7\;and\;4.9\;{\mu}g/mL$, respectively). When the M. officinalis's constituents such as magnolol, honokiol, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and ovovatol were examined for inhibitory effects on MMP-2 activity, EGCG showed strong inhibitory activity. However, MeOH extract of M. officinalis was dose-dependently inhibited to MMP-2 activity. The MeOH extract, hexane and EtOAc fractions $(IC_{50}\;of\;>200\;{\mu}g/mL)$ exhibited weak cytotoxicity activity, while butanol $(IC_{50}=80\;{\mu}g/mL)$ and chloroform fractions $(IC_{50}=90\;{\mu}g/mL)$ exhibited relatively strong cytotoxic activity. From these results, M. officinalis could be suitable for cancer treatment and chemopreventive drugs.

Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases-9 after Photothrombotic Spinal Cord Injury Model in Rats

  • Jang, Jae-Won;Lee, Jung-Kil;Kim, Soo-Han
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.288-292
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    • 2011
  • Objective : Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been known to play an important role in secondary inflammatory reaction after spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to determine their relationship with disruption of endothelial blood-barrier after photochemically induced SCI in rats. Methods : Female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing between 250 and 300 g (aged 8 weeks) received focal spinal cord ischemia by photothrombosis using Rose Bengal. Expressions and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assessed by Western blot and gelatin zymography at various times from 6 h to 7 days. Endothelial blood-barrier integrity was assessed indirectly using spinal cord water content. Results : Zymography and Western blot analysis demonstrated rapid up-regulation of MMP-9 protein levels in spinal cord after ischemic onset. Expressions and activities of MMP-9 showed a significant increased at 6 h after the photothrombotic ischemic event, and reached a maximum level at 24 h after the insult. By contrast, activated MMP-2 was not detected at any time point in either the experimental or the control groups. When compared with the control group, a significant increase in spinal cord water content was detected in rats at 24 h after photothrombotic SCI. Conclusion : Early up-regulation of MMP-9 might be correlated with increased water content in the spinal cord at 24 h after SCI in rats. Results of this study suggest that MMP-9 is the key factor involved in disruption of the endothelial blood-barrier of the spinal cord and subsequent secondary damage after photothrombotic SCI in rats.

Effect of Allergen Removed Rhus Verniciflua Extract on Inhibition of Tumor Metastasis (알러젠 제거 옻나무 추출물이 종양 전이 억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jae-Hyun;Moon, Goo
    • Journal of Korean Traditional Oncology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.47-61
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    • 2010
  • Objective : The aim of this present study is to evaluate the inhibitory effect of allergen removed Rhus verniciflua (ARV) on Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) which is considered to have a clinically important role in tumor metastasis. Methods : The inhibitory effects of standardized extract of ARV on the MMP-2, MMP-9 were investigated by spectrofluorometer while the inhibitory effects on the active MMP-2, pro MMP-2, pro MMP-9 were investigated by zymography. Antimetastatic effect of standardized extract of ARV was investigated in vitro on human fibrosarcoma cell (HT1080)'s invasion through Matrigel. Results : The standardized extract of ARV showed inhibitory effects on the active MMP-2 (IC50, $1.01{\mu}g$/ml), active MMP-9 (IC50, $2.5{\mu}g$/ml) depending on concentrations which was determined by spectrofluorometer. The standardized extract of ARV showed inhibitory effects on the active MMP-2, pro MMP-2, pro MMP-9 depending on concentrations which was determined by zymography. However its inhibitory effect on pro MMP-9 was relatively weaker rather than active MMP-2, pro MMP-2. The standardized extract of ARV showed inhibitory effects in vitro on human fibrosarcoma cell (HT1080)'s invasion through Matrigel according to concentration. Conclusions : These results indicate that standardized extract of ARV has antimetastatic effect through inhibit again MMP-2, MMP-9. Also its inhibitory effect is more powerful on active MMP-2, pro MMP-2 than on active MMP-9, pro MMP-9. It is necessary to conduct further studies on other MMP families, TIMP, and each component of standardized extract of ARV.

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Possible Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Osteolytic Intracranial Meningiomas

  • Moon, Hyung-Sik;Jung, Shin;Jung, Tae-Young;Cao, Van Thang;Moon, Kyung-Sub;Kim, In-Young
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2010
  • Objective: Abnormalities of the bone are frequently encountered in patients with meningioma, and hyperostosis and endostosis are common bone alterations in these tumors. Extensive bony destruction is very unusual in patients with meningioma. We report six cases of intracranial meningioma associated with an osteolytic lesion of the skull and discuss the underlying mechanisms that may be responsible for bone destruction in patients with meningioma. Methods: Six patients were classified into three groups, severe, moderate and mild, according to the degree of osteolytic bony destruction. The tumor was classified as intracranial or extracranial, depending on its location. We investigated the potential role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in meningioma-associated osteolysis. The levels of MMP expression were determined by gelatin zymography, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Complete surgical removal of the lesion was performed in each patient. Histological examination revealed benign meningioma in four cases, and two cases of atypical meningioma. Patients did not have a poor prognosis except one case of recurred atypical meningioma. Gelatin zymography and RT-PCR detected high levels of MMP-2 in almost all extracranial masses in comparison with the intracranial masses and MMP9 in two. There was no difference in the severity of bone destruction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed MMP-2 expression in the vicinity of the bone destruction, and a few MMP-9-positive stainings were observed. Conclusion: Osteolysis of the skull in patients with meningiomas might not be indicative of malignant pathological features and poor prognosis. Invasion to the extracranial portion and osteolysis might be associated with MMP-2 expression in meningioma.

Effect of Saponin with Antioxidant Activity on Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (항산화 효능을 가진 사포닌이 사람섬유아세포에서 기질 금속 단백질 분해효소에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hye-Jung;Kim, Moon-Moo;Lee, Dong-Hwan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.1266-1273
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    • 2011
  • Saponin is a main component of ginseng widely known as an oriental traditional medicinal ingredient. A variety of biological effects of saponin has been reported, but its action related to skin regeneration has remained unclear so far. In this study, the effect of saponin on matrix metalloproteinase as well as its antioxidant effect in cell free system was examined in human dermal fibroblasts. First of all, as a result of investigating the effect of saponin on cell viability using MTT assay, it was shown to increase cell viability below 10 ${\mu}g$/ml, but it also showed cytotoxicity above 25 ${\mu}g$/ml. The antioxidant effect of saponin was exerted by inhibition of $H_2O_2$ in addition to reducing power above 1 ${\mu}g$/ml. In particular, saponin showed a protective effect on DNA oxidation. Furthermore, it was observed that saponin activates MMP-2 and increases MMP-1 activity in gelatin and casein zymography analyses, respectively, indicating that saponin could have potential a therapeutic agent for anti-aging and skin regeneration.

Curcumin Inhibits TGF-β1-Induced MMP-9 and Invasion through ERK and Smad Signaling in Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells

  • Mo, Na;Li, Zheng-Qian;Li, Jing;Cao, You-De
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5709-5714
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To evaluate the effects of curcumin on matrixmetalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and invasion ability induced by transforming growth factor-${\beta}1$ (TGF-${\beta}1$) in MDA-MB-231 cells and potential mechanisms. Methods: Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were used with the CCK-8 assay to measure the cytotoxicity of curcumin. After treatment with 10 ng/ml TGF-${\beta}1$, with or without curcumin (${\leq}10{\mu}M$), cell invasion was checked by transwell chamber. The effects of curcumin on TGF-${\beta}1$-stimulated MMP-9 and phosphorylation of Smad2, extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) were examined by Western blotting. Supernatant liquid were collected to analyze the activity of MMP-9 via zymography. Following treatment with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK, and SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, Western blotting and zymography were employed to examine MMP-9 expression and activity, respectively. Results: Low dose curcumin (${\leq}10{\mu}M$) did not show any obvious toxicity to the cells, while $0{\sim}10{\mu}mol/L$ caused a concentration-dependent reduction in cell invasion provoked by TGF-${\beta}1$. Curcumin also markedly inhibited TGF-${\beta}1$-regulated MMP-9 and activation of Smad2, ERK1/2 and p38 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, PD98059, but not SB203580, showed a similar pattern of inhibition of MMP-9 expression. Conclusion: Curcumin inhibited TGF-${\beta}1$-stimulated MMP-9 and the invasive phenotype in MDA-MB-231 cells, possibly associated with TGF-${\beta}$/Smad and TGF-${\beta}$/ERK signaling.

Isolation of Fibrinolytic Enzyme Producing Strains from Kimchi (김치에서 혈전용해효소 생산균주의 분리)

  • Noh, Kyoung-A;Kim, Dong-Ho;Choi, Nack-Shick;Kim, Seung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.219-223
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    • 1999
  • Various bacterial strains that secret extracellular fibrinolytic enzyme were screened from kimchi, a traditional vegetable fermented food in Korea. Three microbes of them were identified to be Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus brevis and Micrococcus luteus strains according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. It was found that B. amyloliquefaciens, B. brevis and M. luteus produced 2.58, 1.48 and 2.03 plasmin unit/mL of fibrinolytic enzyme, respectively. All extracellular proteases showing the fibrinolytic activity were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and fibrin zymography assay and we propose that some of the fibrinolytic enzymes from this work are novel enzymes.

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Development of Evaluating Ways for the Efficacy of Anti-VEGF Biopharmaceuticals (VEGF 제어의약품의 효능 평가법 개발)

  • Nam, Eun-Hee;Jeon, Seong-Hyun;Lee, Wha-Jung;Seo, Dong-Wan;Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.203-208
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    • 2007
  • Background: Angiogenesis mediated by VEGF constitutes a new target for anti-cancer therapy which has explored through different ways of intervention aiming at the blocking of the tumoral angiogenesis. In the present study, we developed the assays by which efficacies of anti-VEGF inhibitor candidates are evaluated at the various levels. Methods & Results: First, we developed two sandwich ELISAs using coated anti-VEGF Ab and soluble Flt-1 receptor fusion protein (sFlt-1/Fc). As low as 200 pg/ml of hVEGF diluted in human sera was detectable by these assays. In addition, we found that VEGF inhibitors ($2{\mu}g/ml$ of either anti-VEGF Ab or sFlt-1/Fc) completely block 5 ng/ml VEGF in these ELISAs. Subsequently, two bioassays, wound healing and HUVEC tube formation assays, revealed that anti-VEGF Ab $(1{\mu}g/ml)$ & sFlt-1/Fc Ab $(1{\mu}g/ml)$, or SU5416 (VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, $1{\mu}M$) prevents the activity of VEGF $(1{\sim}10ng/ml)$. Finally, secretion of MMP-9 by VEGF-stimulated macrophages was abolished by treatment of anti-VEGF Ab $(1{\mu}g/ml)$ in gelatin zymography. Conclusion: ELISAs together with bioassays developed in this study are appropriate for evaluation of the efficacy of inhibitors of VEGF.