• Title, Summary, Keyword: zymography

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The Characterization of L. plantarum-fermented Opuntia humifusa (천년초의 융합발효를 통한 특성 연구)

  • Jung, Young-Mi;Lee, Dong Sub;Kwon, Kisang
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2017
  • To increase the bioavailability of Opuntia humifusa, O. humifusa was fermented using L. plantarum, and the characteristics of the fermented extract were confirmed. The characteristics of fermented extracts were investigated through viscosity, total polyphenol content, amino acid, antibacterial activity, cytokine analysis and zymography. The viscosity decreased by half and vitamin C remained almost unchanged during fermentation. Total polyphenols, most amino acids, total amino acids and major minerals were increased by fermentation. There was no cytotoxicity, and the activity of cytokines and MMP-9 in inflammation was inhibited. The inhibitory effect on inflammation and tissue destruction was found to be inhibited in L. plantarum fermentation extracts compared to hot water extracts. These results are expected to be the basis for the development of materials that enhance the functionality of L. plantarum-fermented O. humifusa extract.

Suppression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression of Flavonoids from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (낙우송(Metasequoia glyptostroboides)으로부터 분리한 flavonoid의 금속단백분해효소-9 발현 억제 활성)

  • Yang Jae-Young;Lee Ho-Jae;Kho Yung-Hee;Kwon Byoung-Mok;Chun Hyo Kon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.231-235
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    • 2005
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of structurally and functionally related zinc-dependent enzymes responsible for proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix components such as base membrane or interstitial stroma. MMPs play an important role in a variety of physiological and pathological tissue remodeling processes, including wound healing, embryo implantation, tumor invasion and metastasis. Since MMP-9 (gelatinase B) has unique ability to cleave type IV collagen, gene expression of MMP-9 has been focused on as a pharmacological target. Flavonoids are a class of compounds that are widely spread in plants. In the coures of screening for the suppressors of MMP-9 gene expression from natural products, Metasequoia glyptostroboides was selected. Six flavonoids, sciadopitysin, isoginkgetin, bilobetin, 2,3-dihydrohinokiflavone, luteolin and apigenin were purified as suppressors of MMP-9 gene expression from M. glyptostroboides. The suppressing activity of the isolated flavinoids on the MMP-9 gene expression was measured by gelatin zymography and Nothern blot analysis.

An Experimental Study on the Thrombolytic Activities of Holotrichia Extracts (제조 추출물의 혈전 용해 활성에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kang, Min-Seok;Kim, Shin;Cho, Jae-Seung;Kim, Hyo-Soo;Kim, Il-Hwan;Park, Hye-Sun;Seo, Eun-Hee;Yim, Chi-Hye
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.160-170
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    • 2007
  • 1. Objectives This study was performed to find the activities and characteristics of purified thrombolytic enzymes from Holotrichia extracts. 2. Methods In the first time, a coarse enzyme fluid was made by using the freedried Holotrichia extracts. After manufacturing total soluble proteins and purifing enzymes, it was evauluated the activities and characteristics of this enzyme's dissolving capability to fibrin and thrombus. This study was taken using azocasein assay, fibrin-plate method, native-PAGE and fibrin zymography. 3. Results A soluble proteins were efficiently extracted form freezedried Holotrichia extracts. And, this purified enzyme had a ten times fibrinolytic capability compare with ustulation Holotrichia sample. In native PAGE and fibrin zymography, Holotrichia extracts showed the respectable fibrinolytic activity. Also, It had higher thrombolytic activities compared with general thrombolytic enzyme 'plasmin'. In experiment of various protease inhibitors of the purified enzyme from Holotrichia extracts on the azocaseinolytic activity, the enzyme was strongly inhibited by EDTA ${\cdot}$ EGTA, and weakly by APMSF ${\cdot}$ PMSF ${\cdot}$ TPCK. 4. Conclusion Holotrichia extracts has the thrombolytic activities, and it will operate directly th fibrin-clot and thrombus.

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Experimental Studies on the Inhibitory Effects of Yukmijiwhang-tang on Photoaging Skin Induced by UVB Irradiation (UVB 조사에 의한 육미지황탕의 광노화 피부 억제에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Jeon, Hye Sook;Lee, Chang Hyun;Ahn, Hong Seok
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.520-529
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effects of Yukmijiwhang-tang(YM) water extracts against the UVB irradiation on the human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. We observed the effects of YM on the oxidative stress, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-$1{\beta}$, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. On the effects of oxidative stress and antioxidant function on the treatment with YM, The activity of xanthine oxidase(XO) was significantly decreased by treatment of YM in all the concentrations(p<0.01). The activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) was significantly increased by treatment of YM in a dose dependent manner(p<0.05 and p<0.01). DPPH radical was erased by treatment of YM under dose of $500{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ concentration. Treatment of HaCaT cells with YM had also significantly reduced intracellular ROS produced by UVB irradiation in a dose dependent manner(p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Gelatin zymography assay showed that YM downregulated the MMP-9 activity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed that YM suppressed the expression of IL-$1{\beta}$ and MMP-9 however, it has no effects on the expression of TNF-${\alpha}$ and MMP-3. Our study suggests that Yukmijiwhang-tang exert protective actions on the UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells largely by anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory processes.

Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Nuruk on Oxidative Stress, Melanogenesis, and Photo-Aging

  • Lee, Sang-Jin;Cho, Sung-Won;Kwon, Yi-Young;Kwon, Hee-Suk;Shin, Woo-Chang
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 2012
  • Nuruk contributes to the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic beverages. In this study, the effects of nuruk extracts (NE) on anti-oxidant characters, melanogenesis, and anti-photoaging activity were investigated. NEs were obtained from the 70% ethanol extracts of six types of nuruk, which have been used in brewing of fermented alcohol beverages in Korea. First, various antioxidant characteristics were identified in terms of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression, and inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. NE#4 exhibited potent ABTS radical scavenging activity ($IC_{50}$ = 19.51 ${\mu}g$/mL). Compared with NE#4, relatively lower levels of activity were observed for NE#3 and NE#6, with $IC_{50}$ values of 90.99 and 76.88 ${\mu}g$/mL, respectively. According to results of western blot analysis for determination of SOD expression in $H_2O_2$-treated HepG2 cells, NE#5 and NE#6 induced a dramatic increase in the expression ratio of SOD, compared to the group treated with $H_2O_2$ only. Activity of xanthine oxidase, which converts xanthine into uric acid, generating superoxide ions, was inhibited by NE#4 and NE#6 in a dose-dependent manner. NE#4 induced significant inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity. A reduction in cellular melanin contents of 80% was observed in B16F1 melanocytes treated with NE#5 and NE#6; these effects were similar to those of arbutin at 100 ${\mu}M$. In addition, gelatin zymography and reverse transcription-PCR analysis were performed for assessment of anti-photoaging activity of Nuruk. Treatment with NE#6 resulted in dramatically inhibited activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/-9, suppressed expression of MMP-1, and increased expression of type-1 procollagen. Results of gelatin zymography for NE#4 and NE#5 were similar, to a slightly lesser degree. These results suggest the potential of NE#4 and NE#6 as natural ingredients for use in functional foods and cosmetics.

Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Enzymatic Characterization of Elastase-like Serine Protease from the Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) (넙치로부터의 Serine Protease의 분자생물학적 클로닝, 발현, 특성분석)

  • Han, Jin-Wook;Seo, Jung-Soo;Ahn, Sang-Jung;Lee, Jin-Young;Park, Ju-Hyeon;Kim, Na-Young;Kim, Moo-Sang;Hwang, Jee-Youn;Chung, Joon-Ki;Lee, Hyung-Ho
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.808-822
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    • 2014
  • 넙치 (Paralichthys olivaceus)로부터 elastase-like serine protease (PoElSp)를 암호화하는 cDNA를 클로닝하여 그 서열을 분석한 결과, PoElSp 유전자는 269 아미노산을 암호화하는 978염기쌍으로 구성되었다. PoElSp 유전자의 조직 특이적 발현 양상을 RT-PCR법으로 조사한 결과, 간, 비장 및 소장에서 그 발현이 크게 나타났다. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)로 인위적 세균감염을 유도한 후, 1시간째에 콩팥에서, 3시간째에는 근육에서, PoElSp 유전자의 발현이 크게 증가하였다. 또한, 이 유전자의 발현은 비장에서 LPS 주입 후 1-24시간동안 점차로 증가하였다. pro-mature PoElSp (proPoElSp)에 해당하는 cDNA를 pET32a 벡터 시스템을 이용하여 대장균에서 발현시켰다. 이 재조합 proPoElSp 단백질의 활성은 gelatin zymography 방법과 합성형광 Z-Phe-Arg-AMC의 분해법을 이용하여 측정하였다. 단백질 분해효소 활성을 위한 최적 pH는 7.5였다. 실험결과들을 종합하면, PoElSp 단백질은 면역 반응에서 중추적 역할을 하리라 판단된다.

Identification of ANXA1 as a Lymphatic Metastasis and Poor Prognostic Factor in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

  • Liu, Qing-Hua;Shi, Mei-Lin;Bai, Jin;Zheng, Jun-Nian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.2719-2724
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    • 2015
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of annexin a1 (ANXA1) and provide molecular evidence to support that decreased ANXA1 expression could enhance cancer migration and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry of a tissue microarray with 162 surgically resected PDAC specimens was performed to examine the expression of ANXA1. We also investigated the relationship between ANXA1 expression and clinicopathological factors and prognosis of PDAC patients. We further studied the role of ANXA1 in PDAC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by cell proliferation assay, migration assay and matrigel invasion assay with reduced ANXA1 expression by RNAi. Western blotting was used to detect matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression. We also detected MMP-9 enzyme activity by gelatin zymography. Results: Decreased expression of ANXA1 was significantly associated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage of PDAC patients (p<0.05). Moreover, decreased expression of ANXA1 was correlated with poor survival (p<0.05). Furthermore, we found that ANXA1 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest, increased PDAC cell migration and invasion capacity compared with controls. In addition, Western blotting showed that ANXA1 knockdown increased the MMP-9 protein level and decreased TIMP-1 expression. Gelatin zymography showed that MMP-9 enzyme activity was also elevated. Conclusions: Negative ANXA1 expression is a most unfavorable prognostic factor for PDAC patients. ANXA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase cell cycle arrest and increases migration and invasion of PDAC cells through up-regulating MMP-9 expression and activity, implying that ANXA1 may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for PDAC.

Anticancer Effects of Cisplatin in Combination with Paeonia Japonica in YD-10B Cells (YD-10B에서 Cisplatin과 백작약의 병용처리에 의한 항암 효과)

  • Kim, Eun-Jung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.124-130
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    • 2020
  • The present study investigated the anti-proliferate and anti-invasive of Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-9 activities of combined treatment with cisplatin and ethyl acetate fractions of Paeonia japonica. Cell Proliferation was detected by the MTS assay and the activity and mRNA expression of MMP-2/-9 were examined by zymography and RT-PCR. As results, cisplatin or p. japonica treatment of YD-10B cells resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Also, the viability of YD-10B cells treated with combination of 200 μM cisplatin and 50 ㎍/ml p. japonica was inhibited to 50% in compared with the cisplatin alone. In PMA-treated YD-10B cells, co-treatment of 200 μM cisplatin with 50 ㎍/ml p. japonica significantly inhibited mRNA expression and protein activation of MMP-2/-9. Therefore, This study suggest that the combination treatment of cisplatin and p. japonica potentiates a promising anti-invasive agent and has more potential anti-cancer drug for oral cancer therapy than cisplatin alone.

Suppression of CD81 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion through increased matrix metalloproteinase expression via extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation

  • Park, Hyun Sik;Lee, Suhyuk;Lee, Jisu;Shin, Hyun Bin;Yoo, Seung-Min;Lee, Myung-Shin;Park, Jinsung
    • Investigative and Clinical Urology
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    • v.60 no.5
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    • pp.396-404
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: CD81 is a prognostic biomarker for high-grade bladder cancer (BC). In this study, we aimed to determine the functional mechanisms underlying the role of CD81 in BC progression. Materials and Methods: In two invasive BC cell lines (T24, J82), CD81 expression was suppressed by the transfection of lentiviral vectors including CD81-specific shRNAs, and then the migration and invasion of BC cells was analyzed. Enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was also analyzed by collagen-zymography. The expression of MMPs was confirmed by western blotting using culture supernatants from each cell line. Signaling pathways related to MMPs were investigated using various antibodies. Results: CD81 was successfully knocked down by shRNAs in T24 and J82 cell lines. While the migration of BC cells was not affected after the knockdown of CD81, the invasive activity was significantly increased in both cell lines. Zymography produced distinct bands using supernatants from CD81-knockdown cells, whereas only faint bands were observed with empty vector-transfected cells. We also observed an increased expression of MMPs, specifically MMP2 and 9, in the conditioned media from CD81-knockdown cells by western blotting. Mechanistically, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was associated with the invasive activity of BC cells, while U0126 (an ERK inhibitor) reduced the invasive activity of CD81-knockdown BC cells. Conclusions: Taken together, CD81 suppression promotes the invasive property of BC cells through MMP signaling via ERK phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the regulation of CD81 expression may have some therapeutic potential in BC.

The Effect of Progesterone on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Human Choriodecidual Membranes

  • Choi, Seong Jin;Sohn, Joon Hyung;Han, Kyoung-Hee;Park, Eun Young;Kang, Jieun;Chung, In-Bai
    • Perinatology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.170-174
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Progesterone is used to prevent recurrent preterm delivery, however the molecular mechanisms of its effect are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of progesterone on tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in human choriodecidual (CD) membranes. Methods: We collected CD membranes from women with uncomplicated term pregnancies who were scheduled for elective cesarean delivery (n=10). CD membranes ($1{\times}1cm$) were incubated in tissue culture media at $37^{\circ}C$. We pre-treated the CD membranes with progesterone (P4), $17{\alpha}$-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P), promegestone (R5020), or vehicle (ethanol) for 24 hours. The CD membranes were subsequently treated with $TNF-{\alpha}$ (with continued progesterone treatment) for 48 hours, then media was harvested for measuring MMP-9 activity by zymography and total protein was isolated from CD membrane tissues for MMP-9 expression by western blot analysis. Results: P4, 17P, and R5020 significantly reduced $TNF-{\alpha}$-induced MMP-9 activity in fetal membrane tissue samples (P=0.0078, P=0.0156, and P=0.0391, respectively) by zymography. Western blot analysis also showed decreased expression of MMP-9 in progesterone pretreated groups (P=0.0313). Conclusion: Progesterone reduces $TNF-{\alpha}$-induced MMP-9 activity in human CD membranes. These findings may provide further support for the role of progesterone in preventing preterm birth.