The role of fatigue on the surface damage of 5% chrome cold milling work roll is evaluated. Uniaxial and torsional fatigue tests are carried out, and the baseline data for fatigue life evaluation are established. An appropriate multiaxial fatigue parameter is developed from the fatigue data. Fatigue tests are also performed under compressive mean stresses, and a mean stress model is formulated. A computer program is developed to assess the interaction of fatigue and grinding of the roll. The fatigue damage is computed for selected servicing conditions. It is found that the fatigue damage can be an important issue when the effect of mean stress is ignored, however the fatigue damage is negligibly small when the effect of mean stress including the residual stresses currently used is fully accounted. The result indicates that spalling due to the growth of thermal shock cracks is more important than fatigue damage in roll surface failure.