Structure of Export Competition between Asian NIEs and Japan in the U.S. Import Market and Exchange Rate Effects

한국(韓國)의 아시아신흥공업국(新興工業國) 및 일본(日本)과의 대미수출경쟁(對美輸出競爭) : 환율효과(換率效果)를 중심(中心)으로

  • Published : 1990.06.29


This paper analyzes U.S. demand for imports from Asian NIEs and Japan, utilizing the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) developed by Deaton and Muellbauer, with an emphasis on the effect of changes in the exchange rate. The empirical model assumes a two-stage budgeting process in which the first stage represents the allocation of total U.S. demand among three groups: the Asian NIEs and Japan, six Western developed countries, and the U.S. domestic non-tradables and import competing sector. The second stage represents the allocation of total U.S. imports from the Asian NIEs and Japan among them, by country. According to the AIDS model, the share equation for the Asia NIEs and Japan in U.S. nominal GNP is estimated as a single equation for the first stage. The share equations for those five countries in total U.S. imports are estimated as a system with the general demand restrictions of homogeneity, symmetry and adding-up, together with polynomially distributed lag restrictions. The negativity condition is also satisfied for all cases. The overall results of these complicated estimations, using quarterly data from the first quarter of 1972 to the fourth quarter of 1989, are quite promising in terms of the significance of individual estimators and other statistics. The conclusions drawn from the estimation results and the derived demand elasticities can be summarized as follows: First, the exports of each Asian NIE to the U.S. are competitive with (substitutes for) Japan's exports, while complementary to the exports of fellow NIEs, with the exception of the competitive relation between Hong Kong and Singapore. Second, the exports of each Asian NIE and of Japan to the U.S. are competitive with those of Western developed countries' to the U.S, while they are complementary to the U.S.' non-tradables and import-competing sector. Third, as far as both the first and second stages of budgeting are coneidered, the imports from each Asian NIE and Japan are luxuries in total U.S. consumption. However, when only the second budgeting stage is considered, the imports from Japan and Singapore are luxuries in U.S. imports from the NIEs and Japan, while those of Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong are necessities. Fourth, the above results may be evidenced more concretely in their implied exchange rate effects. It appears that, in general, a change in the yen-dollar exchange rate will have at least as great an impact, on an NIE's share and volume of exports to the U.S. though in the opposite direction, as a change in the exchange rate of the NIE's own currency $vis-{\grave{a}}-vis$ the dollar. Asian NIEs, therefore, should counteract yen-dollar movements in order to stabilize their exports to the U.S.. More specifically, Korea should depreciate the value of the won relative to the dollar by approximately the same proportion as the depreciation rate of the yen $vis-{\grave{a}}-vis$ the dollar, in order to maintain the volume of Korean exports to the U.S.. In the worst case scenario, Korea should devalue the won by three times the maguitude of the yen's depreciation rate, in order to keep market share in the aforementioned five countries' total exports to the U.S.. Finally, this study provides additional information which may support empirical findings on the competitive relations among the Asian NIEs and Japan. The correlation matrices among the strutures of those five countries' exports to the U.S.. during the 1970s and 1980s were estimated, with the export structure constructed as the shares of each of the 29 industrial sectors' exports as defined by the 3 digit KSIC in total exports to the U.S. from each individual country. In general, the correlation between each of the four Asian NIEs and Japan, and that between Hong Kong and Singapore, are all far below .5, while the ones among the Asian NIEs themselves (except for the one between Hong Kong and Singapore) all greatly exceed .5. If there exists a tendency on the part of the U.S. to import goods in each specific sector from different countries in a relatively constant proportion, the export structures of those countries will probably exhibit a high correlation. To take this hypothesis to the extreme, if the U.S. maintained an absolutely fixed ratio between its imports from any two countries for each of the 29 sectors, the correlation between the export structures of these two countries would be perfect. Therefore, since any two goods purchased in a fixed proportion could be classified as close complements, a high correlation between export structures will imply a complementary relationship between them. Conversely, low correlation would imply a competitive relationship. According to this interpretation, the pattern formed by the correlation coefficients among the five countries' export structures to the U.S. are consistent with the empirical findings of the regression analysis.

본고(本稿)는 AIDS(Almost Ideal Demand System) 수요모형(需要模型)을 이용하여 한국(韓國) 등 아시아 신흥공업국(新興工業國)과 일본(日本)을 포함하는 아시아 5국(國)으로부터의 미국(美國)의 수입수요(輸入需要)를 분석함으로써 이들간의 대미수출경쟁관계(對美輸出競爭關係)를 분석하고 있는데, 특히 환율변동(換率變動)이 이들 5개국(個國)의 대미수출(對美輸出)에 미치는 효과를 중점적으로 분석하고 있다. 분석결과에 의하면, 아시아신흥공업 4국(國)은 일본(日本)과는 경쟁적인 반면 서로간에는, 홍콩과 싱가포르간의 경쟁적인 관계를 제외하면, 보완적인 관계를 유지하고 있다. 그리고 이들 아시아 5국(國)은 모두가 서구선진국그룹에 대해서는 경쟁적인 반면 미국(美國)의 국내재(國內財)와는 보완적인 관계를 보이는 것으로 관찰되었다. 한편 이러한 결과에 따라 환율효과(換率效果)를 분석해 보면, 한국(韓國)의 경우 엔화(貨)의 대미(對美)달러환율(換率)이 1% 인상되면 대미수출물량(對美輸出物量)을 일정 수준에 유지하고자 할 경우는 원화(貨)의 대미(對美)달러환율(換率)도 약 1% 정도는 인상되어야 하지만, 대미수출점유율(對美輸出占有率)을 일정 수준에 유지하려면 원화(貨)의 대미(對美)달러환율(換率)은 최악의 경우 약 3%까지도 인상되어야 하는 것으로 나타났다. 이와 같이 한국(韓國)은 대미수출시장점유율(對美輸出市場占有率)이나 수출물량(輸出物量)의 유지를 위해서, 원화(貨)의 대미(對美)달러환율(換率)이 여타 NICS통화환율(通貨換率)의 움직임보다도 오히려 엔화(貨)의 대미(對美)달러환율(換率)의 움직임을 보다 잘 반영할 수 있도록 함으로써 엔화(貨)의 대미(對美)달러환율인상(換率引上)에 따른 수출저상효과(輸出沮喪效果)를 상쇄시켜 나가야 할 것이라는 시사를 얻게 되었다.