Modeling of Welding Heat Input for Residual Stress Analysis

용접 잔류응력 해석을 위한 Heat Input Model 개발

  • Published : 1993.09.01

Abstract

Finite element models were developed for thermal and residual stress analysis for the specific welding problems. They were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the various welding heat input models, such as ramp heat input function and lumped pass models. Through the parametric studies, thermal-mechanical modeling sensitivity to the ramp function and lumping techniques was determined by comparing the predicted results with experimental data. The kinetics for residual stress formation during welding can be developed by iteration of various proposed mechanisms in the parametric study. A ramp heat input function was developed to gradually apply the heat flux with variable amplitude to the model. This model was used to avoid numerical convergence problems due to an instantaneous increase in temperature near the fusion zone. Additionally, it enables the model to include the effect of a moving arc in a two-dimensional plane. The ramp function takes into account the variation in the out of plane energy flow in a 2-D model as the arc approaches, travels across, and departs from each plane under investigation. A lumped pass model was developed to reduce the computation cost in the analysis of multipass welds. Several weld passes were assumed as one lumped pass in this model. Recommendations were provided about ramp lumping techniques and the optimum number of weld passes that can be combined into a single thermal input.

용접에서 발생하는 열응력 및 잔류응력을 해석하기 위한 유한요소용 모델을 개발하였다. 여러 가 지 변수의 연구를 통하여 Ramp heat input function과 Lumped모델을 제시하였다. 용접부에 열입 력을 점차적으로 주기 위하여 Ramp heat input을 이용하였으며 Ramp input을 통하여 이차원 모 델에서의 이동열원의 영향을 고려하였고 실험치와 비교에서 최적 ramp시간을 결정하였다. 다층용 접에서는 용접 pass 에 비례하여 계산시간이 증가한다. 따라서 후판용접의 잔류응력계산에는 막 대한 계산시간이 필요하며 이를 줄이기 위하여 Lumped 모델을 개발하였다. 이 Lumped모델에서 는 각 용접층에 들어있는 용접 pass들을 하나의 lumped pass으로 이용하였으며 각 pass를 따로 계산한 모델 및 시험치와의 비교를 통하여 최적 lumped technique을 제시하였다. *****Finite element models were developed for thermal and residual stress analysis for the specific welding problems. They were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the various welding heat input models, such as ramp heat input function and lumped pass models. Through the parametric studies, thermal-mechanical modeling sensitivity to the ramp function and lumping techniques was determined by comparing the predicted results with experimental data. The kinetics for residual stress formation during welding can be developed by iteration of various proposed mechanisms in the parametric study. A ramp heat input function was developed to gradually apply the heat flux with variable amplitude to the model. This model was used to avoid numerical convergence problems due to an instantaneous increase in temperature near the fusion zone. Additionally, it enables the model to include the effect of a moving arc in a two-dimensional plane. The ramp function takes into account the variation in the out of plane energy flow in a 2-D model as the arc approaches, travels across, and departs from each plane under investigation. A lumped pass model was developed to reduce the computation cost in the analysis of multipass welds. Several weld passes were assumed as one lumped pass in this model. Recommendations were provided about ramp lumping techniques and the optimum number of weld passes that can be combined into a single thermal input.