Radiation Therapy for Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

구인두암의 방사선치료

  • Park, In-Kyu (Department of Radiation Oncology, School of medicine, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Jae-Choel (Department of Radiation Oncology, School of medicine, Kyungpook National University)
  • 박인규 (경북대학교 의과대학 치료방사선과학교실) ;
  • 김재철 (경북대학교 의과대학 치료방사선과학교실)
  • Published : 1996.06.01

Abstract

Purpose : A retrospective analysis for patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma who were treated with radiation was performed to assess the results of treatment and patterns of failure, and to identify the factors that might influence survival. materials and methods : From March 1985 through June 1993, 53 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma were treated with either radiation therapy alone or combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University Hospital. Patients' ages ranged from 31 to 73 years with a median age of 54 years. There were 47 men and 6 women, Forty-two Patients ($79.2\%$) had squamous cell carcinoma, 10 patients ($18.9\%$) had undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 patient ($19\%$) had adenoid cystic carcinoma. There were 2 patients with stage I, 12 patients with stage II, 12 Patients with stage III and 27 patients with stage IV. According to the TNM classification, patients were distributed as follows: T1 7, T2 28, T3 10, T4 7, TX 1, and N0 17, Nl 13, N2 21, N3 2. The primary tumor sites were tonsillar region in 36 patients ($67.9\%$), base of the tongue in 12 patients ($22.6\%$), and soft palate in 5 patients ($9.4\%$). Twenty-five patients were treated with radiation therapy alone and twenty-eight Patients were treated with one to three courses of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. Chemotherapeutic regimens used were either CF (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) or CVB (cisplatin, vincristine and bleomycin). Radiation therapy was delivered 180-200 cGy daily, five times a week using 6 MV X-ray with or without 8-10 MeV electron beams A tumor dose ranged from 4500 cGy to 7740 cGy with a median dose of 7100 cGy. The follow-up time ranged from 4 months to 99 months with a median of 21 months. Results : Thirty-seven patients ($69.8\%$) achieved a CR (complete response) and PR (partial response) in 16 patients ($30.2\%$) after radiation therapy. The overall survival rates were $47\%$ at 2 years and $42\%$ at 3 years, respectively. The median survival time was 23 months. Overall stage (p=0.02) and response to radiation therapy (p=0.004) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. The 2-year disease-free survival rate was $45.5\%$. T-stage (p=0.03), N-stage (p=0.04) and overall stage (P=0.04) were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival. Age, sex, histology, primary site of the tumor, radiation dose, combination of chemotherapy were not significantly associated with disease-free survival. Among evaluable 32 Patients with CR to radiation therapy, 12 patients were considered to have failed Among these, 8 patients failed locoregionally and 4 Patients failed distantly. Conclusion : T-stage, N-stage and overall stage were significant prognostic factors for disease-free survival in the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer Since locoregional failure was the predominant pattern of relapse, potential methods to improve locoregional control with radiation therapy should be attempted. More controlled clinical, trials should be completed before acceptance of chemotherapy as a part of treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma.

목적 : 구인두암으로 방사선치료를 받은 환자들을 대상으로 후향적 분석을 시행하여 생존율, 치료 실패 양상 및 생존율에 미치는 요인 등을 알아보고자 하였다. 방법 : 1985년 3월부터 1993년 6월까지 경북대학교병원 치료방사선과에서 구인두암으로 방사선치료를 시행한 53예의 환자를 대상으로 후향적 분석을 시행하였다. 환자의 연령은 31세에서 73세로 중간값은 54세였으며 남자 47예 여자 6예였다. 조직학적으로 편평세포암종이 42예, 미분화암종 이 10예, 선양 낭성암종이 1예였다. 병기별 분포는 I기 2예, II기 12예, III기 12예, IV기 27예이었다. T1 7예, T2 28예, t3 10예, T4 7예, T병기가 불명확한 경우가 1예이었고, N0 17예, Nl 13예, N2 21예, N3 2예였다. 원발병소는 편도 36예, 설기저부 12예, 그리고 연구개 5예였다. 방사선 단독치료가 25예, 유도화학요법 및 방사선치료 병용요법이 28예였다. 유도화학요법은 CF (cisplatln, 5-fluorouracil) 또는 CVB (cisplatin, vincristine, bleomycin) 약제로 1-3회 시행하였다 방사선치료는 6MV X선 및 8-10MeV 전자선을 이용하였고 방사선 치료선량은 일일 180-200 cGy씩 총 4500-7740 cGy로 중간값은 7100 cGy였다. 환자의 추적기간은 4개월에서 99개월로 중간추적기간이 21개월이었다. 결과 : 방사선치료 후 37예 ($69.8\%$)에서 완전관해를 보였고 16예 ($30.2\%$) 에서 부분관해를 보였다. 전체 환자에서 2년생존율은 $47\%$, 3년생존율은 $42\%$였고 중앙생존기간은 23개월이었다. 치료에 대한 반응 (p=0.004) 및 전체병기가 (p=0.02) 통계적으로 의미있게 생존율에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 2년 무병생존율은 $45.5\%$였고 T 병기 (p=0.03), N 병기 (p=0.04) 및 전체병기가 (p=0.04) 의미있게 무병생존을에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 환자의 나이, 성별, 조직학적 소견, 원발병소, 방사선량 및 화학요법과의 병합치료는 무병생존율에 영향을 주지 않았다. 방사선치료 후 완전관해를 보인 36예 중 추적조사가 가능했던 32예에서의 치료 실패양상은 국소재발이 8예, 원격전이가 4예로 주된 치료 실패 원인은 국소재발이었다. 결론 : 본 연구에서는 N 병기, 7 병기 및 전체병기가 무병 생존율에 영향을 미치는 인자로 나타났으며, 국소재발이 주된 실패 요인이 되고 있어 국소완치를 위한 노력이 절실히 요구된다. 현재까지 구인두암의 치료는 방사선 단독치료가 가장 효과적인 치료방법으로 여겨지며 화학요법은 좀더 많은 비교 대조군 연구를 통해서만 역할을 평가할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.