Spatial Changes in the Business Organization of Retailing in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

首都圈地域 小賣業 經營의 空間的 變容

  • Han, Ju-Seong (Dept. of Geography Education, Chungbuk National Univ.)
  • 한주성 (충북대학교 지리교육과)
  • Published : 1996.03.01

Abstract

This paper aims at examining the regional difference of changes in the business organization of retailing in the Seoul metropolitan areas, as an attempt to understand regional structure of retailing within metropolitan areas showing the trend of suburbanization. On the national level, retail sales have concentrated on the large metropolitan areas, especially on the Seoul metropolitan area, with the concentration of population and income. Within metropolitan areas, the suburbanization of retailing has made the larger structure of retail and multi-store retail appeared. In order to confirm such phenomenon, this paper is to analyze and to compare the industrial composition of retailing using industry data of 1979 and 1991. And this paper is to analyze the regional changes in the characteristics of business organization of retailing, with the index including the percentages of establishments with less than under four employees, juridical establishments, employees of ordinary times, and the annual sales per establishment of detailing. The characteristics of business organization of retailing in analyzed by principal components analysis, and the types with component in each district (city, county, ward) is analyzed by cluster analysis(Ward method). The data of 1979 were obtained from the statistics in the Census of Wholesale and Retail Trade published by the National Bureau of Statistics of Economic Planning Board, and that of 1991 were obtained from the statistics in the Report on Establishment Census (Vol.3 Wholesale and Retail Trade) published by the National Statistics Office. The following are resultant findings. 1. In Seoul metropolitan area, changes in the industrial composition of retailing with annual sales from, 1979 to 1991 show very higher composition rates of 'general merchandise stores' and 'retailing of personal transport equipment and gasoline service stations', but comparatively lower composition rates of 'retailing of food, beverages and tobacco', 'retailing of textiles, clothing, footwear and apparel accessaries', 'general retail trade, n.e.c.',and 'retailing of household fuel'. 2. The characteristics of business organization of retailing in Seoul metropolitan area presents the prevailence of small, personal business organization and especially larger employees of ordinary times. 3. Business components of retailing by principal components analysis in Seoul metropolitan area are follows: 1 All retaining industries are larger business scale. 2. Larger business take the 'retailing of taxtiles, clothing, footwear and apparel accessories', 'retailing of furniture, home furnishing and equipment', and 'retailing of jewellery and watches' is main characteristic legal organization and employees of ordinary times. 4. Types changes in business organization of retailing in Seoul metropolitan area represent legal organization and employees of ordinary times taking the 'retailing of textiles, clothing, footwear and apparel accessories', 'retailing of furniture, home furnishing and equipment',and 'retailing of jewellery and equipment', and 'retailing of jewellery and watches', and legal organization taking 'general retail trade, n.e.c.' in 1979. All retailing industries are changed into larger business scale, in 1991. These phenomena of business changes appeared southeastern regions in Kyunggi-do(province). And larger business scale taking the 'retailing of textiles, clothing, footwear and apparel accessories', 'retailing of jewellery and watches', and 'general retail trade, n.e.c.; are appeared in the legal organization in 1979. 'Retailing of personal transport equipment and gasoline service stations' are appeared in employees of ordinary times in 1991. These phenomena of business changes in appeared in eastern and northern regions in Kyunggi-do. 5. Changes in the business organization of retailing in Seoul metropolitan area is appeared in legal organization and employees of ordinary times for some industries in 1979, larger business scale of retailing and employees of ordinary times in 'retailing of personal transport equipment and gasoline service stations' are the characteristics in 1991.

대도시권내 소매업의 지역구조 변화를 이해하기 위하여 우리나라에서 소매업의 규모가 가장 큰 수도권지역 소매업 경영의 지역적 변화형태를 고찰한 결과 다음과 같은 점이 밝혀졌다. 1979~1991년 사이에 연간판매액에 의한 소매업의 업종구성 변화는 <종합 소매업>과 <개인 운수장비 소매업 및 주유소 운영업>의 구성비가 매우 높아졌다. 그리고 소매업의 경영상의 변화는 개인 경영조직이 탁월해지고, 종사자의 常傭化가 많이 나타났다. 주성분 분석에 의한 수도권지역 소매업의 주된 경영성분은 1. 소매업의 대규모화와, 2. <섬유, 의복, 신발 및 의복 악세사리 소매업>, <가구, 철물 및 가정용품 소매업(가전제품 포함)>, <장신구 및 시계 소매업>의 법인 조직화와 상용 조사자의 고용화이다. 소매업 경영의 유형변화를 보면, 1979년에는 섬유, 의복, 신박 및 의복 악세사리 소매업, 가구, 철물 및 가정용품 소매업(가전제품 포함), 장신구 및 시계 소매업의 법인 조직화와 상용 종사자의 고용화, 달리 분류되지 않은 일반 소매업의 대규모 소매업의 법인 조직화가 다소 이루어졌으나, 1991년에는 소매업의 대규모화가 이루어진 것이다. 이러한 경영변화를 나타내는 지구는 서울시와 그 위성도시 및 경기도의 남동부지역이다. 또 1979년에 섬유, 의복, 신발 및 의복 악세사리 소매업, 장신구 및 시계 소매업, 달리 분류되지 않은 일반 소매업의 대규모 소매업의 법인 조직화가 다소 이루어진 것에서, 1991년에는 개인 운수장비 소매업 및 주유소 운영업의 상용 종사자의 고용화가 이루어졌다. 이러한 변화를 나타내는 지구는 경기도의 동부와 북부지역이다. 따라서 우리나라 수도권지역 소매업 경영의 변화형태는 1979년에 일부 소매업이 법인 조직화와 상용 종사자의 고용화가, 1991년에는 소매업의 대규모화와 개인 운수장비 소매업과 주유소 운영업의 종사자 고용화가 나타난 점이다.