The Comparative Study of Oriental Medicine in Korea, Japan and China

한국(韓國)과 일본(日本) 및 중국(中國)의 동양의학(東洋醫學)에 대한 비교연구(比較硏究)

  • Cho, Ki-Ho (Department of Circulatory Internal medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University)
  • 조기호 (경희대학교 한의과대학 심계내과학교실)
  • Published : 1998.04.30

Abstract

During these days of new understanding, western medicine has developed remarkably and a revaluation of traditional medicine has been achieved. This appears to have resulted from the sound criticisms of what western medicine has achieved up to now; excessive subdivisions of clinical medicine, severe toxicity of chemical drugs, lack of understanding about patients complaints which cannot be understood objectively, and etc. It is thought that the role of traditional medicine will be more important in the future than it is now. Someone said that the research methods of traditional medicine depends on the way of experimental science too much. That there was no consideration of a system for traditional medicine and the critic also went so far as to assert that in some cases the characteristics of eastern ideas is to permit irrationalism itself. In view of this thinking, the term traditional medicine seems to have been used somewhat too vaguely. However, traditional medicine is a medical treatment which has existed since before the appearance of modern medicine and it was formed from a traditional culture with a long history. One form of traditional medicine, oriental medicine based upon ancient Chinese medicine, was received in such countries as Korea, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Tibet, and Mongolia. Oriental medicine then developed in accordance with its own environment, race, national characteristics, and history. Although there are some simultaneous differences between them, three nations in Eastern Asia; Korea, Japan, and China, have especially similar features in their clinical prescriptions and medical literature. These three nations are trying to understand each others unique traditional medicines through numerous exchanges. Even though many differences in their ways of studying have developed over history exist, recent academic discussions have been made to explore new ways into oriental medicine. Therefore a comparative study of oriental medicine has gradually been thought to be more important. In Korea the formation of a new future-oriented paradigm for oriental medicine is being demanded. The purpose of the new paradigm is to create a new recognition of traditional culture which creates an understanding of oriental medicine to replace the diminished understanding of oriental medicine that was brought about by the self-denial of traditional culture in modem history and cultural collisions between oriental and occidental points of view. Therefore, to make a new paradigm for oriental medicine which is suitable for these days, and fortifies the merit of oriental medicine while compensating its defects, the author has compared the characteristics of oriental medicines in Korea, Japan, and China. The conclusions of this research are as follows: 1. The fundamental differences of the traditional medicines of these three nations are caused by the differences in the systems of Naekyung and Sanghannon. 2. The pattern-identification of illnesses is generally divided into two categories; the pattern identification of Zang-Fu and the pattern identification of prescription. 3. There are many differences in the definition of terms, such as Yin and Yang, Deficiency and Excess, and etc. 4. Chinese traditional medicine has some new concepts about pattern identification and epidemic febrile disease. 5. Japanese traditional medicine has some characteristics about pattern identification of the whole bodys condition and signs of abdominal palpation. 6. In terms of the effects of herbal drugs, Chinese traditional medicine attaches great importance to the experiential efficacy of the herb, and Japanese traditional medicine is taking a serious view of the effects of experimental medical actions.

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