Gradient Optimized Gradient-Echo Gradient Moment Nulling Sequences for Flow Compensation of Brain Images

  • Jahng, Geon-Ho (Medical Physics in Nuclear Engineering Programs) ;
  • Stephen Pickup (Department of Radiology University of Missouri-Columbia)
  • 발행 : 2000.06.01


Gradient moment nulling techniques require the introduction of an additional gradient on each axis for each order of motion correction to be applied. The additional gradients introduce new constraints on the sequence design and increase the demands on the gradient system. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate techniques for optimization of gradient echo gradient moment nulling sequences within the constraints of the gradient hardware. Flow compensated pulse sequences were designed and implemented on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The design of the gradient moment nulling sequences requires the solution of a linear system of equations. A Mathematica package was developed that interactively solves the gradient moment nulling problem. The package allows the physicist to specify the desired order of motion compensation and the duration of the gradients in the sequence with different gradient envelopes. The gradient echo sequences with first, second, and third order motion compensation were implemented with minimum echo time. The sequences were optimized to take full advantage of the capabilities of the gradient hardware. The sequences were used to generate images of phantoms and human brains. The optimized sequences were found to have better motion compensation than comparable standard sequences.