Theory of NMR Spectoscopy and Its Application in Geoenvironmental Sciences

NMR 분광법의 원리와 지구환경과학에의 응용

  • Published : 2001.12.01


With the advent of super-conducting magnet, NMR spectroscopy becomes a very important tool in geology as well as in chemistry. $^{29}Si$ and $^{27}Al$ which are the main components of minerals and contain structural informations, are useful major targets for the NMR study in geology, but some other elements including alkali cations such as $^{23}Na$ are also one of them. NMR can be applied to many different fields. For example, it can be applied to study smaller range of structure (in molecular level) than XRD and TEM. NMR provides us with structural informations such as order-disorder in Al and Si distribution, oxygen coordination number, and distribution of other cations. Another important information that we can obtain from NMR is not only the static structural informations, but also the molecular dynamics. This dynamic informations of molecules also enable us to figure out the frequency of molecular motion and activation energy. Structure of amorphous minerals and chemistry and structure of natural organic materials are also studied by NMR.

NMR분광법은 현재 화학에서 빼 놓을 수 없는 아주 중요한 연구방법의 하나지만 또한 지질학의 연구에 있어서도 초전도 자석의 발달과 함께 그 중요성이 부각되고 있다. 지질학에 있어서 NMR의 연구 대상 원소로는 광물의 주 구성 성분이며 여러 가지 구조적 정보를 갖고 있는 $^{29}Si$, $^{27}Al$ 등이 유용하게 사용되며 이들은 각각 다른 여러 정보들을 제공한다. 이 밖에도 $^{23}Na$와 같은 알칼리금속과 더불어 다양한 핵종들이 지질학에서 NMR로 연구되고 있다. NMR을 이용하여 다양한 방면의 연구들이 가능한데 NMR은 XRD, TEM보다도 더욱 작은 미시적인 (분자적 관점에서의) 구조 연구에 사용될 수 있다. 이러한 연구를 통해 Al, Si 질서-무질서, 산소원자와의 배위수, 인근의 다른 양이온의 분포 등을 포함한 구조적 정보를 알 수 있다. 또한 NMR의 또 다른 장점은 정적인 미시 구조뿐만 아니라 분자들의 움직임(dynamics)에 대한 정보도 알 수 있다는 것이다. 이러한 동적인 정보는 기존의 어느 방법으로도 알기 어려웠던 부분이고 NMR을 통하여 분자들의 상호 교환 속도와 활성화 에너지 등에 대한 폭 넓은 이해가 가능할 수 있다. 이 밖에 NMR을 이용하여 비정질 물질에 대한 구조와 더불어 지표면에서 산출되는 유기물에 대한 성분 및 구조도 아주 중요하게 연구될 수 있는 분야이다.



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