Characteristics of Sophorolipid as an Antimicrobial Agent

  • KIM, KAPJUNG (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University) ;
  • DALSOO YOO (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University) ;
  • YOUNGBUM KIM (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University) ;
  • BAEKSEOK LEE (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University) ;
  • DOONHOON SHIN (Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • EUN-KI KIM (Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University)
  • Published : 2002.04.01

Abstract

Sophorolipid, a biosurfactant produced from Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptococcus mutans, and Propionibacterium acne at 4, 1, 1, 0.5 ppm, respectively. Also, 100 ppm of sophorolipid inhibited $50\%$ of cell growth of plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cineria. However, sophorolipid showed no effect on Escherichia coli, indicating that its selective antimicrobial activity depended on the cell wall structure. Treatment of B. subtilis with sophorolipid increased leakage of intracellular enzyme, malate dehydrogenase, indicating a possible interaction of sophorolipid with a cellular membrane. Comparing lactone-type and acid-type sophorolipids, the former showed a higher antimicrobial activity. Supplementing other surfactants showed no significant effects on the antimicrobial activity. Animal study showed that 5 g of sophorolipid per kg body weight by oral administration caused no toxicity, and sophorolipid induced no irritation on the skin. These results show potential use of sophorolipid as an active ingredient in healthcare products.

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